Volume 3, Issue 1 Offcial Publication of the Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines-Iloilo Chapter (MTAP-IC), Inc.

November 2011- October 2012
Praeter Limites Eundum Est Going Beyond the Limits
www.mtapiloilo.blogspot.com MTAP-Iloilo Chapter mtapiloilo@yahoo.com

Themed “Coping with the
Demands of the K-12 Curriculum,”
the 4
th
Regional Convention
of the Mathematics Teachers
Association of the Philippines-
Iloilo Chapter (MTAP-IC), Inc. has
invited national experts to handle
dialogues and discussions about
the latest updates and trends that
will equip teachers with the right
tools for the new academic policy.
K-12, to note, is a fagship
policy of the government that
aims, among others, to have a
Liking MI (mathematical
investigation) to the sharpening of
a saw, Oquendo said, “we must
not just routinely execute our
task as teachers by just doing
what is averagely required, but
more importantly continue to
look for better ways to make
our strategies more pointed and
sharper… and MI is one of the
ways to do it.”
Teachers confab to zero in on K-12’s math curriculum
ISSN: 2244-3290
K-12
Quo vadis?
By Engr. Herman M. Lagon, PhD
MATHEMATICS TEACHERS and educators from all
over Western Visayas will fock in Amigo Terrace
Hotel on October 19-21, 2012 to talk about the new
curriculum under the K-12 program of the P-Noy
administration.
universal kindergarten and to add
two more years in high school,
apparently making students more
skilled, competitive, and ready to
face the challenges in the outside
world.
Dr. Harold Cartagena, lead
organizer of the event, said: “We
will be focusing more on how
should the teacher cope with the
exigencies of the K-12 program.
We will try to give our participants
Math investigation ‘every
math teacher’s best tool’
NO LESS THAN the DepEd Regional Supervisor for High School Mathematics Jerry Oquendo
appealed in the strongest possible way to the 86 Ilonggo participants of the MTAP-IC 2nd
Regional Mathematical Investigation Seminar-Workshop to hone their skills “like a sharp knife”
in mathematical investigation for it is “every mathematics teacher’s best tool in the classroom.”
“We need to be open and
ready enough to master MI in order
for us to use this in our classroom—
so that students will see further how
elegant and exciting high school
mathematics is. Hence, I congratulate
you all, most especially the
MTAP-IC (Mathematics Teachers
Association of the Philippines-
Iloilo Chapter) organizers, for
this very successful seminar-
workshop initiative to charge
forward and face the educational
frontier which is MI.”
Mathematical Investigation
is an exploration of an open-ended
mathematical situation. Through
MI, students are free to choose
an area of a situation for an in
depth mathematical analysis. The
claims or conjectures made are
justifed through a proof in written
or oral form.
The three-day mathematical
investigation seminar-workshop,
held April 12, 13, and 21, 2012
at the Center for Teaching
Infnity, offcially
registered at last
ISSN 2244-3290
For life, this is the
International Standard Serial
Number (ISSN) of the offcial
publication of the Mathematics
Teachers Association of the
Philippines-Iloilo Chapter
(MTAP-IC), Inc.—The Infnity.
To note, a single ISSN
uniquely identifes a title of
a publication regardless
of language or country
in which published,
without burden of a
complex bibliographic
description. As far as
the National Library of
the Philippines (NLP) is
concerned, The Infnity
is offcially recognized
and benchmarked among the
formal papers in the country.
The Infnity editor in chief
Dr. Herman Lagon said: “We
are happy that this was realized.
From now on, scholars,
researchers, and librarians
alike can now accurately cite
our offcial serial number, an
integral component of the
journal article citation used
in investigations and even in
regulating postal and copyright
systems.”
to page 16
to page 16
to page 16
6 8 9
THINKING OUTSIDE THE BOX. Doing Mathematical Investigation is like maximizing all possible higher order
thinking skills that a learner possesses—even thinking out of the box—in order to arrive at the most elegant proof
of a conjecture. This sought-after MI expertise was not just learned, but earned by the participants in the 2nd
Regional Mathematical Investigation Seminar-Workshop of MTAP-IC, Inc. held April 12-13, and 21, 2012 at the
Center for Teaching Excellence building at West Visayas State University, La Paz, Iloilo City./The Infnity fle photo
EARS-ON, EYES-ON, HANDS-ON. Participants in the MI seminar-
workshop focus on the order of the day. Such kind of laser-like concentration
is necessary in order to deliver what is expected from them—an excellent
mathematical investigation masterpiece.
4
Investigating
cracks on table Math revolution
m
th
section of a
line segment
Billiard ball
triangles
Educational
reform!?
Math for life!
7 2
20
What makes an
international
math competitor?
Dancing in
the rhythm of
mathematics
5 9
Learning
from the
experts
13
Math
teachers
in MI action
The Infnity fle photos
Triangles within a triangle
3
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NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
2
CHRISTMAS OUTREACH. 30
teenagers in confict with the
law were given food, and school
supplies last December 27, 2011
as part of the MTAP-IC, Inc.
Christmas outreach program. The
outgoing and incoming offcers of
the association distributed the
said basic essentials personally
to the benefciaries of Balay
Dalayunan at Zone II, Brgy. Bo.
Obrero, Lapuz, Iloilo City. They
also donated to the institution
some water containers for their
hygiene and sanitation concerns.
∞∞∞
K-12 CONSULTATION. Last
December 7, 2011, Dr. Herman
Lagon, as deputized by the
MTAP-IC, Inc. Board of Directors,
participated in the K-12 Pre-
Summit Conference in the
Department of Education Training
Center in Lahug, Cebu City.
Representing the association,
Lagon was able to cite in the said
consultation concerns regarding
mathmatics curriculum, most
especially in the area of
“progressive spiraling” syllabus
of the new educational system.
The said high-end dialogue was
also participated in by school
presidents, policy makers,
deans, cabinet secretaries and
other stakeholders coming
from the Visayas Area and the
Zamboanga Peninsula.
∞∞∞
CAMP POSTPONED. Due to
time constraints, the planned
MTAP-IC, Inc. Math Camp for
secondary teachers originally
set August 18-19, 2012 in Iloilo
National High School was
shelved. Themed, “There’s more
fun for mathematicians!” the
supposed two-day, overnight
affair is hoped to materialize next
year.
∞∞∞
NEW ACCOUNT. The organization
has unanimously passed
Resolution #7, series of 2012.
Sponsored by Ms. Rosemarie
Galvez and seconded by Prof.
Alex Balsomo, the resolution
changed the MTAP-IC, Inc.
bank signatories—that is, the
president (Dr. Alona M. Belarga)
or the vice president (Dr. Herman
Lagon), and the treasurer (Mrs.
Rhodora A. Cartagena)—as the
authorized signatories of MTAP-
IC, Inc. savings account and
savings account with automatic
transfer facility at Banco de Oro-
SM City Iloilo. It was processed
and fnalized June, 2012.
∞∞∞
THEME CHOICE. The 4th
Regional Convention of MTAP-
IC, Inc. is themed “Coping
with the demands of the K-12
mathematics curriculum.” In
the July 8 meeting of the board
at Grand Dame Hotel, the
following are the other proposed
themes: “Mathematics teachers
sailing on the new Mathematics
curriculum” and “Coping
with the demands of the new
Mathematics curriculum.”
∞∞∞
MTAP REVIEWER. In an
overnight session in Dao, Capiz
early in December 2012, the
MTAP-IC offcers proposed and
deliberated the different topics
and questions (with answers)
that will be included in the
planned reviewer of mathematics
problems for Grade 6 students.
The organization hopes to publish
this tailor-made instructional aid
“Since sad reality shows
that Philippine mathematics
education does not fare well as far
as international and even national
standards are concerned, there is
a need for mathematics teachers
to forge a sort of a ‘mathematics
revolution’ in order to spark a
pedagogical transformation
necessary to regain the lost glory
of mathematics education in the
country.”
Sr. Coronel, MTAP
founder and president since
1977, is just one of the many
mathematics experts who graced
the annual affair aptly themed
“Revolutionizing Math Education.”
The confab was also participated
in by about 250 mathematics pre-
service and in-service educators
from about 60 schools in Western
Visayas.
Also among the plenary
speakers were Dr. Auxencia
Limjap, chairperson of the De
La Salle University Science
Education Department and Dr.
Diana Aure, Metrobank Most
Outstanding Teacher Awardee
from University of the Philippines-
Visayas.
Sr. Coronel held a half-day
workshop on problem solving and
cooperative learning strategies.
Dr. Limjap, on the other hand,
facilitated a six-hour workshop
on Understanding by Design
while Dr. Aure discussed “what
makes a mathematics teacher a
winner?” respectively.
Ten more presenters
also shared their educational
research fndings through
parallel sessions. They were Dr.
Harold Cartagena, Prof. Sybel
Joy Labis, Prof. Michelle Callao,
next year.
∞∞∞
STILL ONLINE. At present,
the blogspot (www.mtapiloilo.
blogspot.com), email (mtapiloilo@
yahoo.com) and facebook
account (MTAP-Iloilo Chapter) of
MTAP-IC, Inc. are all active online.
In fact, the facebook group is now
having 352 legitimate members.
Questions and announcements
are posted 24/7 in order to
share, like, comment, or contact
other mathematics enthusiasts
and organization members in
the most contemporary and fast
way. It is maintained by MTAP-IC
secretary Ms. Rosemarie Galvez.
∞∞∞
BACK IN BAROTAC. West
Visayas State University again
held the Science and Math
Enhancement Program last
September 8-9, 2012 at Nueva
Sevilla Elementary School in
Barotac Viejo, Iloilo. Some MTAP-
IC, Inc. offcers and members
also participated in the event.
∞∞∞
FREE RESEARCH WORKSHOP.
Three offcers of MTAP-IC, Inc.
who happens to be offcers of the
DOST-SEI scholars association
in WVSU COE-GS (WDSA)
initiated a Free Research
Seminar-Workshop among basic
education teachers in Guimaras.
Last April 23-24, 2012. The two-
day seminar, participated in by 60
teachers, was mainly organized
by Ms. Rosemarie Galvez and
assisted by Dr. Herman Lagon
and Dr. Harold Cartagena,
among others. Also some of the
presenters are MTAP members
and DOST-SEI scholars Edsel
Llave and Dr. Myrna Libutaque.
The training is themed,
“Revolutionalizing mathematics
and science education through
action research and mathematical
investigation.”
∞∞∞
OUR SYMPATHIES. A valuable
member of the mathematics
teaching ranks in Iloilo passed
away. A faculty member of
University of San Agustin and
an active member of MTAP-
IC, Inc., Mr. Ananias Sustento,
succumbed to the hands of the
Lord last September 11, 2012.
An organizational Death Aid
amounting to PhP 2,000.00 was
given to his family. Also, in a
resolution made by the MTAP-
IC BOD, another Death Aid
was given to the family of Mrs.
Rosalinda Sua-Palmani (sister
of Board Member Engr. Ninfa
Sotomil) who succumbed from
chronic obstruction pulmonary
disease (COPD). Mrs. Palmani
passed away April 11, 2012 at
the age of 73. The MTAP-IC
BOD agreed to give another
death aid to the family of the
late Rosario Soriano Gutierrez,
vda de Paspe, mother of former
MTAP-IC vice president Sergio
Paspe, Jr. last October 15,
2012.
∞∞∞
SPONSORS. As of October15,
MTAP-IC, Inc. has received
sponsorships from media leader
and philanthropist Rommel
Ynion, Summerhouse (Midtown
Hotel), Uygongco Foundation,
Inc., Panorama Printing Press
Inc., and the C & E Bookshop
to defray the expenses for the
4th Regional Convention and
the Inter-Tertiary Quiz Bee this
October 19-21, 2011.
NEWS BLI TZ
Teachers’ org founder:
Math Revolution a must
“THE MAIN purpose of mathematics is to enhance students’ reasoning and sense making abilities,”
thus said by the bubbly 80-year-old mathematician Sister Iluminada Coronel, F.M.M., in the recently-
concluded 3rd Regional Convention of the Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines-
Iloilo Chapter (MTAP-IC), Inc. held October 28-29, 2011 at Iloilo Grand Hotel, Iloilo City.
Prof. Jessica Arsenal, Japanese
researcher Tetsuhiro Takimoto,
Prof. Josephine Lavilla, Dr.
Wilhelm Cerbo, Prof. Alexander
Balsomo, Dr. Helen Hoflena, and
Prof. Amelia Navejas.
On the frst day of the
convention, the Second MTAP-IC
Regional Inter-Tertiary Quiz Bee
was also held with 59 participants
coming from 22 schools
representing all the provinces
of Region VI. After solving 30
grueling mathematics problems,
Ralp Joshua Sarrosa of University
of the Philippines in the Visayas
(UPV) ended up as champion. In
close second was Keith Lester
Mallorca of West Visayas State
University (WVSU), narrowly
followed by Vincent Gasataya
of Central Philippine University
(CPU). The rest of the top ten
winners were: Arvin Escultero
(4th, CPU), Abraham Porcal
(5th, Western Visayas College of
Science and Technology), Mark
Agustin (6th, WVSU), Michelle
Olivares (7th, UPV), Allen Bibal
(8th, UPV), Jevin Amago (9th,
Colegio San Agustin-Bacolod),
and Ryan Tercero (10th, Filamer
Christian College).
The judges of the said
competition were respected
mathematicians Dr. Diana Aure,
Dr. Sonia Formacion, and Dr.
Pilar Arguelles.
Election of the seven new
offcers of the MTAP-IC Board of
Directors to serve for the years
2012 and 2013 was also held. The
following offcers garnered the
most votes: Dr. Heman Lagon of
Ateneo de Iloilo, Ms. Rosemarie
Galvez of USA, Prof. Balsomo of
WVSU, Dr. Harold Cartagena of
Iloilo Central Commercial High
School, Dr. Alex Facinabao of
USA, Prof. Rhodora Cartagena
of USA, and Engr. Ramon
to page 16
NEWS
For her third year as
head of one of the most active
provincial math organizations
in the country, Dr. Alona
Belarga, the present Director
of Instruction and Quality
Assurance of West Visayas
State University (WVSU) was
re-elected as president while
PhD in Science Education
Major in Math graduate of
WVSU Dr. Herman Lagon, who
is presently teaching in Ateneo
de Iloilo, was elected vice
president of the organization
that has about two thousand
members all over Iloilo in its
most recent three years of
existence.
The other Taga-West
who were also voted for offce
by its board of directors were
Prof. Rosemarie Galvez
(secretary) of University of
San Agustin (USA) and Prof.
Rhodora Cartagena (treasurer)
of USA. Both are currently
enrolled in the PhD in Science
Education (Math) Program of
the WVSU College of Education
Graduate School. Engr. Ramon
Taga-west educators lead MTAP Iloilo org
IN A UNANIMOUS way, the new set of offcers of the Mathematics Teachers Association of
the Philippines Iloilo Chapter (MTAP-IC) for the fscal year 2012 was elected January 29 at
Summerhouse Hall, Iloilo City—mostly working in, enrolled at, or graduates of West Visayas
State University (WVSU).
Jardiniano (auditor) of Western
Institute of Technology (WIT) is
the lone elected offcial who is not
from the state university.
To complete the membership
of the Executive Board are Dr.
Wilhelm Cerbo of WVSU College
of Arts and Science, Dean Alex
Facinabao of USA, Engr. Ninfa
Sotomil of WIT, Mrs. Ma. Aries
Pastolero of Iloilo National High
School Special Science Class
(INHS-SSC), Ms. Catalina Reales
of Maasin Central Elementary
School, Engr. Roberto Neal
Sobrejuanite of John B. Lacson
Foundation Maritime University,
Prof. Alfonso Maquelencia of
USA, Prof. Alexander Balsomo
of WVSU College of Arts and
Science, Mr. Alex Jaruda of INHS,
and Dr. Harold Cartagena of Iloilo
Central Commercial High School.
Cerbo, Facinabao, Sotomil,
Pastolero, Marquelencia,
Balsomo, Jaruda, and Cartagena
are all graduates of WVSU.
To note, the 15 members of
the MTAP-IC board were elected
in the MTAP-IC convention—
eight of them last 2010, while the
other 7 in the 2011 convention
October 29, 2011 held in Iloilo
Grand Hotel.
For the past years, MTAP-
IC has organized, among
others, the Regional Math Camp
in Maasin, Iloilo, the Math-
Science Camp for elementary
students in Barotac Viejo, Iloilo,
the Regional Convention in
Math Education at Iloilo Grand
Hotel, the Regional Congress
in Math Investigation (MI) at
WVSU, and the launching of
its frst-ever Newsletter, the
Infnity. It is currently working on
its Reviewer in Math for Grade
Six pupils.
“This year, we plan to
continue our Infnity Newsletter,
conduct MI Regional
Congresses for Students and
Teachers, Math Camp for
Students, continue to support
the MTAP DepEd Saturday
classes, hold Math Quiz
for Tertiary, publish a Math
Reviewer, and hopefully launch
our MTAP Journal, among
others,” said Belarga./The
Infnity
STILL IN COMMAND. MTAP founder and long-time president Sister Iluminada Coronel,
FMM, shares her insights about mathematics education to the participants of the 3rd
Regional Convention at Iloilo Grand Hotel last October 28, 2011. Her four decades of
experience in teaching mathematics has given her the chutzpah to conclude that we must
wage a “math revolution” in order to radically enhance students’ “reasoning and making
sense” skills./Infnity fle photo
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
3
linking Algebra and Geometry
Triangles within a triangle:
A Winning (First Place; Best MI; Best Presenter; Best Poster) Mathematical Investigation presented April 21, 2012 during the 2nd
Mathematical Investigation Congress, Center for Teaching Excellence Building, West Visayas State University, La Paz, Iloilo City
By Christina E. Carsula (Passi Montessori International School), Kim Jay C. Encio (PAREF – Westbridge School, Inc.), Nezel J. Francisco (Colegio de San Jose),
Rutchell L. Gania (Passi Montessori International School ), Analie B. Guion (Buntatala National High School), Stephen Raymund T. Jinon (PAREF – Westbridge School, Inc.),
Jenever F. Nievares (PAREF – Westbridge School, Inc.), and Lowell N. Rublico (PAREF – Westbridge School, Inc.)
I. Introduction
Thi s mathemati cal i nvesti gati on i s
a collaborative effort and attempt of the
investigators in relating Geometry and Algebra
in the study of equilateral triangles. By means of
this mathematical investigation, mathematical
curiosity is satisfed, leading to learning and
addition of existing mathematical literature
which proved true of the characteristics of
Mathematics – growing and dynamic.
Situation
Suppose we will draw some equilateral
triangle with side n units partitioned evenly
by n – 1 points per side and let us connect
two points on any two sides such that the line
connecting these points is parallel to the third
side. Let us note the number of upright and
inverted triangles using the legend/defnition
below:
Upright Triangle – triangle “pointing up”
Inverted Triangle – triangle “pointing down”
II. Statement of the Problem
The investigators would like to determine
the number of upright and inverted triangles
with respect to the n units side of an equilateral
triangle partitioned evenly by n – 1 points per
side, such that two points on any two sides
when connected by a line is parallel to the
third side.
Specifically, it sought to answer the
following questions:
1. What relation or function describes the
number of upright triangles, U(n), of an
FEATURE
TEAM WORK. Group leader Kim Jay Encio explains to his colleagues his proposed proof to one of their
conjectures in their “Triangles within a triangle” mathematical investigation./The Infnity fle photo
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
evenly by n – 1 points per side, when two
points of any two sides are connected by a
line parallel to the third side?
2. What relation or function describes the
number of inverted triangles, I(n), of an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
evenly by n – 1 points per side, when two
points of any two sides are connected by a
line parallel to the third side?
III. Data – Gathering and Conjectures
The table on the next page summarizes the
number of upright triangles of all sizes in each
of the following equilateral triangles of side n
units partitioned evenly by n – 1 points per
side, provided that the line connecting any two
points is parallel to the third side:
Taking the differences in n’s and U(n)’s,
we have
It is distinctively clear from the diagram
that equal frst differences in n’s resulted to
equal third differences in U(n)’s. Therefore,
the relation or function describing the number
of upright triangles of an equilateral triangle of
side n units where each side is partitioned by
n – 1 points, provided that the line connecting
any two points is parallel to the third side, must
be a function of the third degree/ cubic function
which takes the form
U(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D,
where A, B, C and D ℜ ∈ . Since there are four
arbitrary constants in the said form (i.e. A, B,
C, and D), in this case we will arbitrarily pick
(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 10) and (4, 20). Substituting
each of these points to the form
U(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D,
we will have,
1 = A (1)
3
+ B (1)
2
+ C (1) +D
Or
1 = A + B + C +D (equation1)
4 = A (2)
3
+ B (2)
2
+ C (2) +D
Or
4 = 8A + 4B + 2C +D (equation 2)
10 = A (3)
3
+ B (3)
2
+ C (3) +D
Or
10 = 27A + 9B + 3C +D (equation 3)
20 = A (4)
3
+ B (4)
2
+ C (4) +D
Or
20 = 64A + 16B + 4C +D (equation 4)
Expr essi ng t he f our equat i ons
in its augmented matrix form, we have
P e r f o r m i n g p e r t i n e n t
el ement ary row operat i ons, we have

Thus D = 0.
Substituting D = 0 to 6C + 11D = 2, we have
6C + 11(0) = 2
6C = 2
C = 1/3
Substituting C = 1/3 and D = 0 to 4B + 6C +
7D = 4, we have
4B + 6 (1/3) + 7(0) = 4
4B + 2 = 4
4B = 2
B = 1/2
Substituting B = 1/2, C = 1/3 and D = 0 to A +
B + C + D = 1, we have
A + 1/2 + 1/3 + 0 = 1
A + 5/6 = 1
A = 1/6
Substituting these values to the form
U(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D, we have
U(n) = 1/6 n
3
+ 1/2 n
2
+ 1/3 n
or in complete factored form, we have
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2).
Thus, we arrived to our frst conjecture as
follows:
Conjecture 1
The number of upright triangles in
an equilateral triangle of side n units
partitioned evenly by n – 1 points per
side, provided that the line connecting
any two points is parallel to the third
side, is defned by
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2), .
Testing the formula for some known cases…
For n = 1
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2)
U(1) = 1/6 (1) (1 + 1) (1 + 2)
U(1) = 1/6 (1) (2) (3)
U(1) = 1
For n = 2
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2)
U(2) = 1/6 (2) (2 + 1) (2 + 2)
U(2) = 1/6 (2) (3) (4)
U(2) = 4
For n = 3
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2)
U(3) = 1/6 (3) (3 + 1) (3 + 2)
U(3) = 1/6 (3) (4) (5)
U(3) = 10

The results of actual substitution to the
formula match with known existing data for
n = 1, 2, 3. Thus, the formula could possibly
model the number of upright triangles in an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
by n – 1 points per side, provided that the
line connecting two points is parallel to the
third side.
The following table summarizes the
number of inverted triangles of all sizes in
each of the following equilateral triangles of
side n units partitioned evenly by n – 1 points
per side, provided that the line connecting two
points is parallel to the third side:
Taking the differences in n’s and I(n)’s, we
have…
As what we could notice, equal first
differences in n’s did not resulted to equal
[third] differences in I(n)’s. But one can notice
alternating 1, 0, 1, 0. In this case, we can still
fnd a relation or function by partitioning the
odd and even-numbered dimensions of an
equilateral triangle partitioned by n – 1 points
per side, provided that the line connecting two
points is parallel to the third side.
For an equilateral triangle of side n units,
where n , the table of values is as
follows:
to page 14
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
4
I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
While cooking in the kitchen, I found an
evidence of poor construction materials –
cracked tiles. My father would surely worry
about that problem. I, on the other hand,
worried about the mathematical side of the
problem, the heart of this investigation.
Consider a rectangular table covered
with square tiles, which have cracked along a
diagonal of the rectangle. Investigate (Bastow,
Hughes, Kissane& Mortlock, 1984).
Investigating cracks on table
By Ms. Rosemarie G. Galvez
University of San Agustin
II. CONJECTURES
Conjectures were formed through
preliminary skirmishing and systematic
exploration. The construction of the diagrams
should also be done systematically to see the
patterns that will beautifully come out of the
illustrations.
I observed that the diagonal intersects the
segments inside the rectangle. Furthermore,
there are cases when the diagonal contains
the points of intersection of the segments. But,
what conditions should be met for the diagonal
to intersect a particular number of segments
or to contain the points of intersection? With
this question as the focus of this investigation,
I defined the following variables.
Let
r =number of rows
c =number of columns
s =the number of segments in the interior
of rectangle intersected by the diagonal
(Note that whenever the diagonal passes
through an intersection of segments,
then it intersects two segments.)
v=the number of vertices or lattice points
(may be viewed as the intersections of
segments, the corners of tiles, or the
vertices of the small squares) intersected
by the diagonal in the interior of the
rectangle.
The vertices of the rectangular
table intersected by the diagonals are no
longer counted. By counting the number
of intersections in the figures, I came up
with the following tables summarizing my
observations.
Table 1
I set r as constant. So, I just looked at the
relationship of c and s . It is quite obvious that
the relationship is linear.
For s=1 and c = 2,

Hence, the linear equation is s = c - 1
Table2
The slope is
For s=2 and c = 2,

Hence, the linear equation is s = c+0
Table 3
The slope is
For s=2 and c=1,
2=(1)(1)+b
3
b
3
=1
Hence, the linear equation is s=c+1
Table 4
r 4 4 4 4 4
c 1 2 3 4 5
s 3 4 5 6 7
The slope is
For s=3 and c=1,

Hence, the linear equation is s=c+2
Table 5
r 5 5 5 5 5
c 1 2 3 4 5
s 4 5 6 7 8
The slope is
For s=5 and c=2,

Hence, the linear equation is s=c+3
Observe that the linear equations have all
slopes of 1, but the intercepts are increasing.
Again, the linear equations are:
s=c-1 f or r = 1
s=c+0 f or r = 2
s=c+1 f or r = 3
s=c+2 f or r = 4
s=c+3 f or r = 5
We could form relationship for the
s-intercepts, b
i
, and the number of rows, r.
b
i
-1 0 1 2 3
r 1 2 3 4 5

Clearly, b
i
= r – 2.

We know that the slope is 1 and
b
i
= r – 2. By substitution in the linear
equation s=m
1
c+b
1
, we obtain
s=c+r–2
to page 15
GALVEZ. Refecting on refections/The Infnity fle photo
Hence, the first conjecture is:
On rectangular table covered by square
tiles, the diagonal would intersect segments
determined by the tiles. The number segments
intersected by the diagonal in the interior of
the rectangle is determined by s=c+r–2,
where r=number of rows and c=number of
columns.
I also investigated the number of lattice
points in the interior of the rectangle,
contained by the diagonal.
r 2 2 3 4 4 5
c 2 4 3 2 4 5
v 1 1 2 1 3 4
Here I observed that the number of
lattice points will be greater than zero if r
is a multiple of c or vice versa. Of course the
number of vertices intersected is greater than
0 also when r = c . It was observed that
v = r – 1
I decided to have another illustration, say
for r = 6 . Six has more factors, so patterns here
could be seen. The following is the table for
r=6.
r 6 6 6 6 6 6
c 1 2 3 4 5 6
v 0 1 2 1 0 5
From this table, I observed that the
equation v = r–1 does not hold anymore.
Instead, the following equation holds.
v=gcf(r,c)-1
Here are the two conjectures I made
based on the patterns that I observed.
1.) For r x c rectangular table covered with
square tiles, the diagonal intersects
s = c+r–2
segments in the interior of the rectangle,
where:
r = number of rows
c =number of columns
s =number of segments intersected
by the diagonal in the interior of
the rectangle
2.) For r x c rectangular table covered
with square tiles, the diagonal intersects
v=gcf(r,c)-1
vertices, where:
v =number of vertices or lattice
points intersected by the
diagonal in the interior of the
rectangle
gcf =greatest common factor.
III. VERIFYING CONJECTURES
A. Using rectangular table
By substitution,
s=c+r–2
s=7+7–2
s=12
The diagonal intersects 12 segments. By
counting in the figure, this is true.
By using a similar diagram, we could
verify conjecture 2. If we substitute in the
formula, we get
v=gcf(r,c)-1
v = gcf (7,7) – 1
v = 7 – 1=6
Verifying by using the figure tells us the
formula is true for this case.
B. Using 8 x 10 rectangular table
By substitution,
s = c + r – 2
s = 10 + 8 – 2
s = 16
Indeed, the figure shows that the
diagonal intersects 16 segments.
Verifying the number of vertices
intersected of the same figure, we have
v = gcf (r,c) – 1
v = gcf (8,10) – 1
v = 2 –1 = 1
Correct again!
C. Using rectangular table
The number of segments intersected is
s = c + r – 2
s = 7 + 6 – 2
s = 11
Wow! I got it right again. Try counting in the
figure.

The number of vertices intersected is
v = gcf (r,c) – 1
v = gcf (7,6) – 1
v = 1 –1 = 0
Obviously, the figure shows that the
diagonal intersects no vertex in the interior of
the rectangle.
I verified the two conjectures by using
three cases. Observe that in the first case, the
dimensions are all odd. The second case has
both dimensions even. The third case, on the
other hand, has one even dimension while
the other is odd. The cases, I believe, are well-
chosen to somehow represent the infinite
possible rectangular tables that could be
constructed.
Nevertheless, the verified conjectures
still need to be proven.
V. JUSTIFICATION
A rectangular figure covered with
square tiles may be represented by a rectangle
drawn on a Cartesian plane with one side
on the x-axis and another side on the y-axis.
With c representing the number of columns
of squares and r representing the number of
rows of squares, the vertices of the rectangle
FEATURE
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
5
Oftentimes, teachers worry what con-
cept to teach to their students. They do not
only know that the answer lies within the
students. So, it is just a matter of looking
what the students know and use whatever
concepts they have in their store knowledge.
The kinds of experience teachers provide
clearly play a major role in determining the
extent and quality of students’ learning.
Students’ understanding of mathemati-
cal ideas can be built throughout their years
if they actively engage in tasks and experi-
ences designed to deepen and connect their
knowledge. In doing this, the teacher makes
use of the students’ own concept about the
subject and thus provides the learners with
meaningful learning. Therefore, the teach-
er’s proper use of diagnosis is very helpful to
determine what students have and what stu-
dents need to learn. Moreover, looking into
the students’ minds will help teachers design
materials appropriate for bringing out essen-
tial ideas or concepts from the students.
Students exhibit different talents, abili-
ties, achievements, needs and interests in
mathematics, teaching, therefore, should
give students the opportunities to learn im-
portant mathematics under the guidance of
competent and committed teacher. With the
teacher’s guidance, students can thus begin
to develop the ability to articulate using his
prior knowledge. Students’ skills in visualiz-
ing and reasoning about mathematical con-
cepts are likewise developed.
At the beginning of the 21
st
Century,
mathematics for both the elementary school
and high school has been undergoing two
major changes. The frst one is in teaching
where one moves from routine exercises
and memorized algorithms toward creative
solutions to conventional problems. The
second one consists in spreading problem
solving: culture throughout the world. Most
international math competition that Filipino
kids participated in for the past seventeen
years refects both trends. It ranges from the
essay-type to non-routine and open-ended
problems.
On the other hand, it is important for
us to know the difference between an exer-
cise and a problem so that we can have a
better understanding of their functions. Our
defnition of an exercise is you know imme-
diately how to complete the given item just
by looking at it. It is just a question of doing
the work. Whereas a problem, we mean a
more intricate question for which at frst one
has probably no clue on how to approach it.
But by perseverance and inspired effort, one
can transform it into a sequence of exercis-
es. Those are important elements that really
matter in any international competitions. And
in my presentation today, we chose mainly
the latter because they are beautiful, inter-
esting, fun to solve, and they best refect
mathematical ingenuity and elegant argu-
ments.
Mathematics Competitions are well es-
tablished and popular in our country. Proof
of this is the growing number of academic
contests in the region, such as Philippine
Invitational Mathematics Examination of
the MTG, the Math Challenge of the Metro-
bank–Department of Education–Mathemat-
ics Teachers Association of the Philippines,
and the Philippine Mathematics Olympiad.
Math competitions aim to (a) enhance stu-
dents’ competence and interest in solving
mathematics problems with varying levels of
diffculty and (b) challenge their mathemat-
ics skills and ingenuity. Math tournaments
set a high standard of qualifcation for aspir-
ing competitors. For local competitions, such
as those mentioned above, participants go
through a process of elimination, usually in
two or more stages, which increases in dif-
fculty at every stage. Those who excel in
all the elimination rounds are eligible for na-
tional contests and become contenders for
international events.
To give students an edge in math learn-
What makes an international math competitor?
A Philippine Setting
Dr. Simon L. Chua
President, Mathematics Trainers’ Guild (MTG), Philippines
ing, especially in high pressure competitions,
they must be provided with extensive train-
ing to develop their mathematical abilities.
Mathematical Abilities
V. A. Krutetskii, a Russian psycholo-
gist, was the frst to defne the parameters
of mathematical abilities. These parameters
were then revised by the famous Russian
mathematician, A. N. Kolmogorov and fnally
by the Mathematical Educational Committee
and the Mathematics Committee of the US
Research Association. Together they identi-
fed the components of mathematical abili-
ties as follow:
1. Ability to perform appropriate
mental calculation and
mathematical operations as well
as effective prediction by using
numbers clues and other signs
2. Ability to practice logical reasoning
3. Ability to shorten the process of
reasoning
4. Ability to record mathematical
generalization, fguration and
logical mode to memory
5. Ability to form spatial concepts
A report from the Special Committee of
World Federation of National Mathematics
Competition states that high school students
who are being considered as participants in
mathematical contests must possess the fol-
lowing abilities:
1. Observative Ability – the ability
to recognize quickly the “number” or
“fgure” represented by an object and
connects this to a mathematical fgure
and relation. In most international
mathematics competition, this ability
is demonstrated by individuals who
are able to:
(a) fnd out the structural
features and interrelations of
mathematical relations
(b) recognize special fgures and
relations from a geometric
fgure.
2. Associative Ability – based on the
mathematical concept of association
as the process of forming connections
between relevant ideas and/or
knowledge.
3. Computational Ability – the ability to
(a) memorize the defnitions, formu-
las, and rules of operation; (b) simpli-
fy an operational process; (c) reverse
a computational process and be able
to check it; (d) predict and estimate
values; and (e) recognize recurrence
and induction.
4. Abstractive Summary Ability –
This math ability requires students
to summarize a particular problem,
generate an abstract conclusion
through analysis and synthesis, and
then apply the conclusion to the specifc
problem.
5. Ability of logical reasoning – This
ability is the core of mathematical
abilities and includes the following:
(a) Understanding and mastery
of the relationship among
formulas, principles,
theorems, and axioms in a
conceptual system.
(b) Mastery of relevant logical
knowledge such as suffcient
condition and necessary
condition, inductive
reasoning, deductive
reasoning, and analogical
reasoning.
(c) Mastery of commonly used
mathematical methods such
as analytical, synthetic,
inductive, and reductive
methods.
(d) Capacity to think in a concise
manner by simplifying the
reasoning process.
6. The ability of writing and
expressing oneself – the
ability to express ideas clearly
and accurately such as in the
presentation of solutions to
problems.
With these important inputs, we can
have a better perception of our priority with
regard to our focus in uplifting mathematics
education. As always, I make a special
emphasis that mathematics contents are
worth the time and attention of the students.
Mathematics topics can be considered
important for different reasons, such as their
utility in developing other mathematical ideas,
in linking different areas in mathematics,
or in deepening students’ appreciation of
mathematics as a discipline and as human
creation. Ideas may also merit curricular
focus because they are useful in representing
and solving problems within or outside
mathematics.
Careful analysis and consideration
allow us to arrive at a conclusion that the
classroom, the lesson, and the teacher
really matter at making a student an
international math competitor. With this
thought in mind, every teacher must realize
that chances of our students to do better in
any mathematics competition largely depend
in his/her hands. This is why foundational
mathematical concepts and contents
should have a prominent place in the
teaching of mathematics. The improvement
of mathematics education for all students
requires effective mathematics teaching in all
classrooms.
In closing, it is a wonderful privilege to
be in the classroom of dedicated mathematics
teachers where enthusiasm, curiosity and
strategies of young children are valued and
built upon, with lasting effects upon their
understanding, their attitudes, their love of
mathematics, and their confdent views of
themselves as learners of mathematics.
Indeed, it is still the effective mathematics
teachers that make a difference.
Compilation of International Math Contest
Problems
Problem 1
Refer to the diagram below. The hypotenuse
of the given right triangle is 6 cm. Determine
area of this right triangle without Using
Trigonometry.

Problem 2 Given three squares with sides
equal to 2 units, 3 units, and 6 units, perform
only two cuts and reassemble the resulting
5 pieces into a square whose side is equal
to 7 units.
Note: By a cut we understand a polygonal
line that decomposes a polygon
into two connected pieces.
Problem 3
Can you work out which three of the shapes
at the bottom can be joined together to make
this pyramid shape? None of the pieces can
be rotated or turned over.
Problem 4
Can you work out which of the shapes at
the right can be joined together to make the
larger shape at the left? None of the pieces
can be rotated or turned over, and no shape
can be used more than once.

Problem 5
2013 x 2012 2012 2012 – 2012 x 2013 2013 2013
Problem 6
The number 142857 is known as a 6-digit
Cyclic Number because the frst 6 multiples
of this number will still be the same 6-digit
number in different sequential order.
The results are:
142857 × 2 = 285714
142857 × 3 = 428571
142857 × 4 = 571428
142857 × 5 = 714285
142857 × 6 = 857142
We can illustrate this concept with the
diagram above.
Using the 6-digit number above as an
example, fnd a 16-digit Cyclic Number.
Problem 7
The vertices of a square are connected to
the midpoint of another side, as shown in
the fgure, in the process forming a smaller
square. The area of the smaller square is
what fractional part of the area of the given
square?
Problem 8
Given an equilateral triangle with its inscribed
and circumscribed circles, what is the ratio
of the area of the larger circle to the area of
the smaller circle?
Problem 9

Determine all of the digits represented by X
in the long division and also determine the
remaining four digits of the fve-digit answer
of which 8 is the third digit, as shown in
fgure above./The Infnity
∞∞∞
Dr. Chua is the president and co-founder of the
Mathematics Trainers Guild (MTG), Philippines. This
article is part of his talk on “Upgrading mathematics
standards for K-12: building teachers skills in
training students for local, national, and international
mathematics competitions” in the 4th Regional
Convention of MTAP-IC, Inc. on October 19, 2012 at
Amigo Terrace Hotel.—The Infnity Editor
ACCORDING TO Gelman and Gallistel (1978), children learn many mathematical ideas
quite naturally even before they enter school. If we only hold on to this principle, we
would relate our lessons to what students actually have and what they know.
FEATURE
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
6
m
th
section of a line segment cut
into n equal divisions
By Mr. Matthew T. Lasap
Ateneo de Iloilo - Santa Maria Catholic School
to page 15
SNAKE STYLE, “How can I fnd for the coordinates of the mth section of a line segment with n equal divisions?”
Thus was asked by Mr. Lasap when he was preparing for his Analytical Geometry class in Ateneo de Iloilo.
His “serpentile” proof says it all.
Introduction:
As I was preparing for my lesson on
Analytic Geometry, I saw the topic “Division
of a Line Segment”. I know that midpoints
will be a part of the topic, but what made
me worry are the points of trisection of a
line segment. I have never gone through
the formula in fnding for this. Thus, I tried to
derive it. After coming up with such formula,
I was so amazed with it that I began asking
myself, “How can I fnd for the coordinates of
the m
th
section of a line segment with n equal
divisions?” and thus, this investigation.
For the beneft of the readers, sections
as used in this investigation refer to points
dividing the segment into equal parts.
Problem:
What are the coordinates of the m
th

section of a line segment cut into n equal
divisions?
Investigation/Derivation:
Let the point ( ) ,
m m
M h k be the mth
section of a line segment, whose endpoints
are at ( )
1 1
, A x y and ( )
2 2
, B x y , with n
divisions.
To express ( ) ,
m m
M h k in terms of the
coordinates of the endpoints of the segment,
it should be noted that the horizontal
distance of M from A is
( )
2 1
m
x x
n
− and its
vertical distance is ( )
2 1
m
y y
n
− . [Sides of
similar triangles are proportional.]
Hence, ( ) ,
m m
h k is the same as
| | | |
2 1 2 1
1 1
,
m x x m y y
x y
n n
| | − −
+ +
|
|
\ .
2 1 2 1
1 1
,
mx mx my my
x y
n n
− − | |
+ +
|
\ .
2 1 1 2 1 1
,
mx mx nx my my ny
n n
− + − + | |
|
\ .
| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .
Conjecture:
A line segment, whose endpoints are
at ( )
1 1
, x y and ( )
2 2
, x y , cut into n equal
divisions has an mth section at
| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .
where n m > where .
Justifcation:
Let AB be line segment joining
arbitrary points ( )
1 1
, A x y and
( )
2 2
, B x y and with length
AB
d in an
coordinate plane. Suppose ( ) ,
m m
h k or
| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .
is the
mth section when the line segment is cut
into n equal divisions. Clearly, n m > where
.
The conjecture can be proved by
showing that,
a) The distance from point A to point
M is
m
n
of the distance between A and B,
i.e. . This will be the aim of Part 1.
b) M is a point on AB. Part 2 and
Part 3 focuses on this.
This is outlined by the following
illustration,
Figure 2. Paradigm of the Proof
Part 1.
AM AB
m
d d
n
=
Clearly, the length AB of is
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1 AB
d x x y y = − + − .
The distance from A to M should be
m
n
of this distance. So, using the distance
formula,
| | | |
2 2
2 1 2 1
1 1 AM
mx n m x my n m y
d x y
n n
=
| | | | + − + −
− + − | |
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 1 AM
mx nx mx my ny my
d x y
n n
=
+ − + − | | | |
− + −
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
AM
mx mx nx nx my my ny ny
d
n n
=
− + − − + − | | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1 2
2
1 1
AM
d mx mx my my
n n
=
− + −
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 2 AM
m m
d x x y y
n n
=
− + −
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1 AM
m
d x x y y
n
=
− + −
Hence,
AM AB
m
d d
n
=
It has been shown that M has the
required distance from A. However, it is not
the only point satisfying this distance from
A. All the points on the circle with A as its
center has this distance from A. Thus, it has
to be shown that M is on the segment. This
would require that the line containing AB
contains the point M.
Part 2. ( ) ,
m m
M h k is a Point on
The equation of the line containing the
segment is
2 1 1
2 1 1
y y y y
x x x x
− −
=
− −
. ( ) ,
m m
M h k should
satisfy this equation. So,
| |
| |
2 1
1
2 1
2 1 2 1
1
my n m y
y
y y
n
mx n m x x x
x
n
+ −


=
+ − −

2 1 1 1
2 1
2 1 1 1 2 1
my ny my ny
y y
n
mx nx mx nx x x
n
+ − −

=
+ − − −
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
my my
y y
n
mx mx x x
n


=
− −
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
y y y y
x x x x
− −
=
− −
Hence, ( ) ,
m m
x y is on the line containing
the segment.
Having shown that M is on the line is not
suffcient to prove that M is on the segment.
This is because there are two points on
this line with the specifed distance from A.
Hence, it is imperative to show that M is on
AM , i.e. by proving that
BM BA
d d < . This
will, fnally, identify a unique point (M) on the
segment with the necessary distance from A.
Part 3. ( ) ,
m m
M h k is a Point AB
This can be shown by establishing that
BM BA
d d < . So, using the distance formula
we have,
| | | |
2 2
2 1 2 1
2 2 BM
mx n m x my n m y
d x y
n n
| | | | + − + −
= − + − | |
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
2 1 1 2 1 1
2 2 BM
mx nx mx my ny my
d x y
n n
+ − + − | | | |
= − + −
| |
\ . \ .
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
BM
d mx nx mx nx my ny my ny
n n
= + − − + + − −
| | | | ( ) | | | | ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
1
BM
d n m x n m x n m y n m y
n
= − − − + − − −
| | ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1
BM
d n m x x y y
n
(
= − − + −
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 BM
n m
d x x y y
n

= − + −
Since 0
n m
n

< , it can be concluded
that the alleged section is on the line
segment.
It was shown that ( ) ,
m m
x y or
| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .
has a
distance
m
n
of the length of the segment
and that it is on the line segment.

| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .

is the mth section of the segment, whose
endpoints are at ( )
1 1
, x y and ( )
2 2
, x y , cut
into n divisions.
Application:
This investigation aimed primarily in
fnding for the coordinates of any section
of a segment cut in any number of equal
divisions.
It should be noted that the above
conjecture is a generalized formula. The
midpoint formula can be derived by setting
2 n = (since the segment is cut into two
equal parts) and 1 m = (the midpoint is the
frst and only section when a segment is
bisected). Hence,
( ) | | ( ) | |
2 1 2 1
1 2 1 1 2 1
,
2 2
x x y y | | + − + −
|
|
\ .
2 1 2 1
,
2 2
x x y y + + | |
|
\ .
and, thus, the midpoint formula.
A sample problem on point of trisection
is given below.
1. What are the coordinates of the frst
and the second points of trisection of the
segment with endpoints at ( ) 15, 4 − and
( ) 6,8 ?
Solution:
Let,
1 1 2 2
15, 4, 6, 8 x y x y = = − = =
Trisecting a segment means to divide it
into 3 equal parts, thus, 3 n = .
To solve for the frst trisection,
we let 1 m = . Substituting the values,
| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .

( )( ) | |( ) ( )( ) | |( ) 1 6 3 1 15 1 8 3 1 4
,
3 3
| | + − + − −
|
|
\ .
6 30 8 8
,
3 3
+ − | |
|
\ .
( ) 12, 0
FEATURE
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
7
Introduction
Nowadays, the billiard world is beginning
to emerge as a favorite sport of many. Many
enthusiasts come to witness every billiard
tournament happening in the world. Billiard
in fact has nourished the hunger for leisure
but what many are unaware of is that playing
billiards requires skill. There are several
types of equipment used in billiards. One
mathematical aspect of this sport has been
highlighted in the study. This research will be
dealing with the technical side of the game.
The triangle has been given importance in
this investigation. The sport billiards has
been adopted in this study, however, the scope
extends all the way to situations including
signifcantly larger and more balls as opposed
to the norms of the billiard world.
Billiard Ball Triangle (Rack)
A rack is the name given to a frame (usually
wood, plastic, or metal) used to organize billiard
balls at the beginning of a game. Rack may also
be used as a verb to describe the act of setting
billiard balls in starting position in billiards
games that make use of racks (usually, but not
always, using a physical rack), as well as a word
to describe the balls in that starting position.
The most common shape of a physical rack is
that of a triangle, with the ball pattern of 5-4-3-2-
1. Racks are sometimes called simply “triangles”
(most often by amateur shooters) based on the
predominance of this form. Triangular-shaped
racks are used for eight-ball, straight ball, one-
pocket, bank pool, snooker and many other
games. (wikipedia.org)
Several possible mathematical situations
arise from the concept of billiard triangles. One
such situation would be fnding the perimeter of
the triangle when a certain number of layers of
billiard ball triangles are given. One should also
consider increasing the radius of each ball and its
relationship to the triangle’s perimeter. Another
common situation that arises from this concept
would be the area of the triangle with respect
to the number of layers of billiard balls and the
radius of each ball. In the above said situations
comes the heart of this investigation – the
generation of a general formula for each situation
to ft the stated conditions (number of layers of
billiard balls and the radius of each ball).
This study focused mainly on generating
formulas to determine the two major geometric
data that can be calculated from the billiard ball
triangle with respect to the number of layers of
billiard balls, and the radius of each ball.
Situation
Make a billiard ball triangle of varying
layers and billiard ball radii.
Investigate its geometric properties.

Statement of the Problem
This section describes the purpose in
conducting the study, and enumerates the specifc
objectives of the research.
Generally, this study aimed to determine the
new formula of determining the area, perimeter,
and total number of billiard balls in a billiard ball
triangle setup given the number of layers of the
billiard ball set and the radius of each ball.
Specifcally, this study sought to answer the
following:
1. What is the formula to determine the
perimeter of a billiard ball triangle to be
constructed to enclose billiard balls given
a specifc number of layers of billiard balls
and the radius of each billiard ball?
2. What is the formula to determine the
total number of billiard balls in the billiard
ball triangle from the frst layer to a specifc
layer given the specifed layer of billiard
balls?
3. What is the formula to determine the area
of a billiard ball triangle to be constructed
to enclose billiard balls given a specifc
number of layers of billiard balls and the
radius of each billiard ball?
Conjectures
This section shows the preceding data where
the formula was derived. It also shows, step
by step, how it was formulated, and states the
conjecture from it.
Billiard ball triangles
Winning entry in the 2011-2012, Regional Science and Technology Fair, Mathematical Investigation, Individual Student Category
Researcher: Mr. Rey Philip J. Gallos, Advisers: Mrs. Portia J. Estorque and Mr. Julio J. Villalon
Iloilo National High School – Special Science Class, Luna St., La Paz, Iloilo City

The following is a table of the perimeter of
the billiard ball triangles given x as the number
of layers of billiard balls and r as the radius of
each ball.
Based on the given table, conjecture 1 was
formulated.
Conjecture 1
The following formula is used to determine
the perimeter of the billiard ball triangle given x
as the number of layers of billiard balls, and r as
the radius of each ball:
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
The following table shows the total number
of billiard balls denoted by n from the frst layer
to the specifed layer denoted by x.
Based on the given table, conjecture 2 was
formulated.
Conjecture 2
The following formula determines the total
number of billiard balls denoted by n, given x as
the number of billiard balls, from the frst layer to
the specifed layer:
The following table shows the area of the
billiard ball triangles in square units given x as
the number of layers of billiard balls and r as the
radius of each ball.
Based on the given table, conjecture 3 was
formulated.
Conjecture 3
The following formula determines the area
of the billiard ball triangle in square units given x
as the number of layers of billiard balls, and r as
the radius of each ball:
Verifying Conjectures
This section tests the conjectures against
existing cases, extreme cases. Conjectures
are used to make predictions and predictions
are tested. The data may support or provide a
counter-example indicating the need to revise or
reject the conjectures.
Testing Conjecture # 1:
If x = 1, r = 1, P = 2π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(1)[3(1-1)+π]
P = 2[3(0)+π]
P = 2(0+π)
P = 2π
2π = 2π
If x = 2, r = 2, P = 12+4π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(2)[3(2-1)+π]
P = 4[3(1)+π]
P = 4(3+π)
P = 12+4π
12+4π = 12+4π
If x = 3, r = 3, P = 36+6π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(3)[3(3-1)+π]
P = 6[3(2)+π]
P = 6(6+π)
P = 36+6π
36+6π = 36+6π
If x = 4, r = 4, P = 72+8π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(4)[3(4-1)+π]
P = 8[3(3)+π]
P = 8(9+π)
P = 72+8π
72+8π = 72+8π
If x = 5, r = 5, P = 120+10π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(5)[3(5-1)+π]
P = 10[3(4)+π]
P = 10(12+π)
P = 120+10π
120+10π = 120+10π
If x = 9, r = 10, P = 480+20π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(10)[3(9-1)+π]
P = 20[3(8)+π]
P = 20(24+π)
P = 480+20π
480+20π = 480+20π
If x = 98, r = 99, P = 57618+198π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(10)[3(9-1)+π]
P = 20[3(8)+π]
P = 20(24+π)
P = 57618+198π
57618+198π = 57618+198π
If x = 101, r = 202, P = 121200+404π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(99)[3(98-1)+π]
P = 198[3(97)+π]
P = 198(291+π)
P = 121200+404π
121200+404π = 121200+404π
If x = 1234, r = 4321, P = 31966758+18642π
P = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
P = 2(4321)[3(1234-1)+π]
P = 8642[3(1233)+π]
P = 8642(3699+π)
P = 31966758+18642π
31966758+18642π
= 31966758+18642π
Testing Conjecture # 2:
If x = 1, n=1


n = 1
1 = 1
If x = 2, n=3


n = 3
3 = 3
If x = 3, n=6





n = 6
6 = 6
If x = 4, n=10



n = 10
10 = 10
If x = 5, n=15


n = 15
15 = 15
If x = 25, n=315



n = 315
315 = 31
If x = 203, n=20706



n = 20706
20706 = 20706
to page 12
GALLOS: Math whiz from Iloilo National High School-
Special Science Class.
FEATURE
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
8
And yes it was.
As a deputized representative
to the said historic event, I was able
to share insights with lawmakers,
school presidents, deans, cabinet
secretaries and other stakeholders
covering the whole Visayas Area
and the Zamboanga Peninsula.
And I realized that a signifcant
number, if not majority of us, were
groping in the dark as to where is
K-12 coming from and where is it
going.
And so it was. In one whole
day of dialogue, debate, and
sharing, I was able to catch some
vital points that may be relevant
to the present dispensation. In the
most straightforward way possible,
let me enumerate them to you in
To some, the new curriculum makes education more expensive and burdensome; to
others, it is the gateway to having more competitive and competent graduates. The debate
goes on even in the ranks of teachers who are currently implementing the newly-fangled
government policy.
However, we fnd it more productive to instead focus on how to cope with what is
already served on the table.
Of course, the main concern, at least to most educators, is the curriculum. How will it be
implemented from Kinder to Grade 12? How will it be designed in such a way that lessons
will be decongesting but far-reaching? What are the subjects and concepts to be taught per
quarter? When, how, and in what way will the teachers be prepared to face this new kind of
pedagogical prospectus?
The questions seem endless.
Hence, it is not surprising that MTAP-IC, Inc. thought it would be worth it to focus more
on the K-12 issues in its 4th Regional Convention this October. There are many patches
that need to be ftted in this K-12 tapestry and so the association believes that it has a social
responsibility to respond to this challenge by giving its membership the right venue to learn
from the experts, and weave things in the process for the sake of mathematics literacy.
In other quarters of the country, many of these similar dialogues go on. Such is necessary
for the government needs an impetus that must propel the program up to its full circle in
2018. And so we enjoin all Filipinos to cross elbows and embrace the K-12 challenge with
an open heart and mind.
Thus, we call all mathematics teachers to be more receptive to change and to adapt to
the revolutionary program with more progressive pair of eyes. For in the long run, it will be
our students who will be affected by the K-12 vision. The more we understand what it
is, where it is coming from, and where it is going, the better we see how our future will
come into sight./The Infnity
The strong team spirit
among the offcers and Board
of Directors with the unwavering
support of the advisers is
instrumental for leap frogging the
attainment of the organization’s
mission, vision and objectives.
Extensive collaborative efforts
with partner institutions and
agencies were made possible
to achieve synergistic impacts
towards the attainment of math
literacy in this part of the country.
I would like to take this
opportunity to express my deepest
gratitude to all MTAP-IC Offcers
& Board of Directors, Advisers,
Members, Trainers, Speakers,
Judges, Student Assistants,
Sponsors, the Department of
Education, the Commission on
Higher Education, MTAP National
and Local organizations, and the
institutions where the Board of
1. It’s not about you; It’s about
them.
- Some teachers think they are
the only experts whose role is
to impart their knowledge to
students.
2. Study your students.
- Knowing the content of the
lesson is not suffcient.
3. Students take risks
when teachers create safe
environment.
- For students to learn, they need
to let themselves be vulnerable.
4. Great teachers exude
passion as well as purpose.
- The difference between a good
and great teacher is not really
expertise. It is true passion - for
the students, for the content,for
the art of teaching itself.
5. Students learn when
teachers show them how
much they need to learn.
6. Keep it clear even if you
Editor in Chief: Dr. Herman Lagon
Associate Editor: Ms. Rosemarie Galvez
Staf: Dr. Harold Cartagena
Mr. Mathew Lasap ∞ Mr. Keith Malorca
Layout Artst: Mrs. Lennie Yunque (Panorama Printng, Inc.)
Blogspot: www.mtapiloilo.blogspot.com
Facebook Account: MTAP-Iloilo Chapter
E-Mail: mtapiloilo@yahoo.com
Ofcial Publicaton of the Mathematcs Teachers Associaton of the Philippines-Iloilo Chapter (MTAP-IC), Inc.
Volume 3, Issue 1, November 2011 - October 2012
Praeter Limites Eundum Est (Going Beyond the Limits)
Educational reform!?
IMPULSES
Engr. Herman M. Lagon, Ph.D.
Ateneo de Iloilo
MTAP-IC, INC. was privileged enough to be offcially invited in the
gathering of minds dubbed as the K-12 Pre-Summit Conference
held December 7, 2011 at the DepEd Training Center in Lahug,
Cebu City. Then, the K-12 was considered in most schools to be
an emerging pedagogical species that everybody talks about but
nobody is so sure of.
THE COUNTRY is now in its educational milestone with
the entry of the K-12 initiative. The two added years in high
school and the compulsory kindergarten system make it
both challenging and controversial to say the least.
Principles of Good Teaching
can’t keep it simple.
- A good teacher can make a
complex idea understandable.
An essential ingredient of
teaching and learning is good
communication.
7. Practice vulnerability without
sacrifcing credibility.
- A good teacher is not afraid of
saying, “I do not know”.
8. Teach from the heart.
- The best teaching isn’t formulaic;
its personal.
9. Repeat the important points.
- The frst time you say something,
it is heard. The second time, it
is recognized, the third time, it is
learned.
10. Good teachers ask good
questions.
- Learning is exploring unknown
territory, and what better way to
explore than to have the courage
to ask questions.
bullet form.
What are the very important
facts about the state of education
in the country vis-à-vis K-12
program?
• The Philippines must
catch up with the rest of
the world (5th in Quality of
Education and last in the
Quality of Science and Math
Education and Capacity
for Innovation in the World
Economic Forum Global
Competitiveness Report.
• We are the last country
in Asia and one of only three
countries in the world with a 10-
year pre-university program.
What does the K-12 program
aspire?
Dr. Alona M. Belarga
MTAP-IC President (2008-2012)
to page 17
THE MATHEMATICS Teachers Association of the Philippines-Iloilo
Chapter (MTAP-IC) Incorporated is blessed to have hard-working
and committed bunch of wonderful people whose commendable
work ethics made an indelible mark in the lives of mathematics
teachers it has served in the past four years of its revival as a
professional organization.
Directors are affliated with for all
the help extended in various forms
to help MTAP-IC trail blaze a sound
mathematics instruction within and
outside the realm of our respective
working spheres in the region.
Indeed, Andrew Carnegie’s
words were re-lived among the
working staff of MTAP-IC and I
quote:
“Teamwork is the ability to
work together toward a common
vision. It is the ability to direct
individual accomplishments toward
organizational objectives. It is the
fuel that allows common people to
attain uncommon results.”
May the MTAP-IC Team
continue to work hand-in-hand to
make a difference in the lives of the
people it touches.
To one and all, I greet you in
advance: “A grace-flled and joyous
Christmas!”/The Infnity
Teamwork
FROM THE PRESIDENT’S DESK
Ms. Rosemarie Galvez, MTAP-IC secretary, replied through
the MTAP-IC offcial facebook account, “Thank you ma’am
for asking a question that could motivate any mathematics
enthusiast to open a book, think critically, and argue logically.
We say x is a multiple of y if xn=y, for some integer n. For
instance, 6 is a multiple of 3 since 3(2)=6. Also, 12 is a multiple
of 3 because 3(4)=12. Now, is zero a multiple of 3? Could we
fnd an integer n such that 3(n)=0?”
Join our online mathematics discussion. You may like MTAP-
Iloilo page on facebook, post on MTAP-IC’s facebook account,
or leave a comment at www.mtapiloilo.blogspot.com.
Ms. Analiza Opoan Ojerio asked,
“Is zero a multiple of every number?”
• To produce holistically
developed learners who
have 21st century skills
and are prepared for higher
education, middle-level skills
development, employment, and
entrepreneurship
•Enhanced Basic Education
curriculum
• Acquire mastery of basic
competencies, be emotionally
mature, be socially aware, pro-
active, involved in public and
civic affairs, be adequately
prepared for the world of
work or entrepreneurship or
higher education, be legally
employable with potential for
better earnings, be globally
competitive.
Is there a K-12 law in the
offng?
• House bill 4219, by Rep.
Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.-Pending
• Senate Bill 2700, by Sen.
Ralph G. Recto-Pending
• Kindergarten Education Act-
Passed Already
• K-12 may still be implemented
through Executive Order
When will the K-12 be
implemented?
• Universal Kindergarten
started SY 2011-2012.
• The new curriculum for
Grade 1 and Grade 7 (High
E
D
I
T
O
R
I
A
L
OPINION
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
9 OPINION
Algebra alone would make
us cringe in our seats for
symbols that do not seem to
exist and numbers that kept
fying in the air. Well, to start
with, the name algebra itself
even sounds like it belongs in
the lingerie section and not in the
mathematics section; however,
some authors would attribute
algebra to the word al jabr from
the title of the book written by Al-
Khwārīzmī entitled Hisâb al-jabr
w’al muqâbalah (The science of
reunion and reduction), so it is
too far from the lingerie section
after all.
Aside from the weird name,
algebra is also abundant with
invisible. If dealing with the
supernaturals would mean
unscientifc, well, then surprise
surprise! We have one of those
in mathematics. Have you ever
experienced feeling something
that could not be seen? I mean
a ghost or perhaps a spirit?
Well, try algebra. We have these
instances when we have to worry
why 3x-x is 2x and people would
argue that x is actually 1x. In the
same manner that x is actually x
1
.
Where did 1 come from? Is it a
ghost that momentarily appeared
beside x? Boohoo! That is why
mathematics is a waterloo of
many.
Mathematicians decided not
to write numbers explicitly. Did
My warm afternoon greetings to
all of you present on this gathering
of minds. Let me extend by deep
appreciation giving me once again
this rare opportunity to be with
you math enthusiasts of Western
Visayas.
First of all, I warmly extend
my felicitations to the organizers
of this activity—The Second
Regional Mathematics Investigation
Training-Workshop—spearheaded
by the competent and committed
Chairperson, Dr. Herman M. Lagon,
and the dedicated president of
MTAP-Iloilo Chapter, Dr. Alona M.
Belarga. To our dear teachers who
have spent your time, effort and
resources just to participate in this
affair, my heartfelt congratulations to
all of you.
Today’s mathematics teachers
are experiencing major changes not
only in the mathematics content they
teach, but also in the way they teach.
Nearly half of these teachers came
through school when mathematics
consisted of a collection of facts and
skills to be memorized or mastered
by a relatively homogenous group
of students taught using lecture
approach. Now teachers are called
in to teach new, more challenging
mathematics to very diverse
audience using active learning
approach designed to develop
understanding.
As we all know, math is one of
the most diffcult subjects to teach.
While other subjects are typically
easy to master and so can be taught
with little effort, math requires a
dedication of time and energy on the
mart of students that teachers often
fnd diffcult to command. In addition,
some students are troubled by the
need to think logically and perform
complex calculations. These and
other problems create challenges
for math teachers, which, if properly
addressed, can be overcome.
One of these problems is the
lack of commitment. Some students
don’t even try to learn math. They
complain that the subject is beyond
their mental abilities. This attitude
of capitulation cannot produce any
result but failure. To encourage
a student with such a negative
attitude to apply maximum effort
to learning mathematics, you as a
teacher need to work closely with
his parents to monitor how the child
does his daily assignments. The
time the student spends learning
math is important and needs to be
closely monitored. Still, to prevent
the student from just staring at
textbooks or chalkboards, he needs
to be genuinely interested in his
success at math. This interest can
be fostered by parental promises
of incentives or encouragements
on condition of improvement in his
math grades.
Another problem is the
students’ computational weakness.
There are students who despite an
understanding of math concepts,
make basic errors and so don’t do
well at math. Such students misread
signs and carry numbers incorrectly.
These students need to be told their
weaknesses so they can spend
more time doing basic calculation at
home.
Making connections of the
students to the real world is also
one of the problems. Some students
RANDOM BRUSHSTROKES
Of mathematical ghosts
and gender issues
By Ms. Rosemarie Galvez
University of San Agustin
MATHEMATICS has a language of its own. In fact, the language
of mathematics is an enigmatic one. Well, just like English.
Sometimes we ask, “Why is oxen the plural of ox but chicken
is not the plural of chick?” Mathematics has its fair share of
language stumbling blocks.
they decide to hide this from us so
that mathematics will just be for
the sophisticated? Well, perhaps
the ghost-like characteristic
of 1 is a divine secret that
the brotherhood or perhaps
sisterhood of mathematicians
would keep under lock and key.
But, it is not cipher text or some
diffcult codes. Could you just
imagine how the world will be if
we decide to write 1 as exponent
every time? Yes, I understand
that x expressed as x
1
is indeed
helpful in calculations. But is it
not true that 3 is the same as
3
1
? What if you have to get my
cellphone number expressed
in this explicit manner of
exponentiation? You’ll start
getting my number by recording
0
1
, 9
1
, 1
1
, 6
1
, but now I have to
stop because I am running out of
breath. See, explicitly stating the
exponent 1 every time will only
lead to knowing if a person has
globe or smart number. Hence,
it is reasonable indeed to just
simply leave the exponent 1 as
a ghost. Well, in mathematical
parlance, implicitly stated.
While you’re thinking of other
stumbling blocks in algebra, let
me shift the gear to face another
issue, the gender issue. History
tells us that male mathematicians
abound. Pythagoras, Thales,
Pascal, Euclid, Fermat,
Descartes, the list is almost
endless. Would that mean there
is indeed a superiority of the
y chromosome? Should I go
back to my fourth paragraph
and delete the word sisterhood?
Bah! I could sense some male
lips smiling. Well, I just want to
make it clear that I am a woman
and that this column would not
pay tribute to testosterone laden
individuals, though I have to
admit that men have dominated
history, sad to say, in almost all
felds.
The thick mathematics
history book of David Burton
(who by the way is male) has
set aside some lines for the frst
woman mathematician, Hypatia,
whose rise in the intellectual
ladder was interpreted to be a
threat against the Christians. So,
instead of being respected for
her scholarly contributions, she
ended up being ambushed to
death by a mob of angry religious
fanatics who believe that her
lectures centered on paganism.
Well, this is not shocking in
history. Women, have struggled
much to be respected for their
contribution. But we should be
glad that today, women have
been recognized for what they
can do. We don’t need to look
far to fnd an epitome of women
empowerment. Our beloved
MTAP-IC president, Dr. Belarga,
is a good example. Without
her impeccable leadership and
expertise in mathematics, I am
sure we won’t be able to have a
strong and active organization.
These days, gender does not
always come in black and white;
there are those who would rather
prefer to be in the gray areas. As
mathematics teachers, we have
to be aware that these learners,
no matter what shade of gray
they choose, have the right to
learn just like those who are
quite sure with their whiteness
Let me postulate that
mathematics appears in places
that we sometimes least expect
it to be – just like in dance. Let
us see how both, dancing and
mathematics, equate to each
other.
For about 3 1/10 of a
decade of existence, I have
tried different dances. Looking
into some of dance-moves, one
can notice some mathematical
symbols. Just like stretching
your arms on the sides to form
a ‘plus sign’ or holding hands
together in front of your chest
and make a wave just like the
‘sine graph,’ or manipulating your
arms forming’ perpendicular’,
’parallel’ and ‘intersecting lines’.
These are just a few of the many
unbounded possible dance-
moves you can create from
mathematical concepts using
your body.
TWISTS AND TURNS
Dancing in the rhythm of
mathematics
By Dr. Harold Cartagena
Iloilo City Community College
LOOKING into old photos I realized that as a child, my happiest
moment, aside from playing, is when I am dancing. Dancing
was my frst love then. Being a weakling in mathematics I
usually uttered words “I will rather choose to dance in front
of people than deal mathematics,” This might sound odd but
it is true. Ironically, at present, I am a holder of PhD in Science
Education major in Mathematics. See the twist?
To add variations, fun and
energy, you can divide the
usual whole 8 counts in different
patterns and sequences which
will depend of course with the
type of music you are using. You
can have 1 move in every count
or beat, or if you like it faster you
can have two to three moves
in a beat. If it is a group dance,
dancers can take fraction of the
music as they alternately take
turns in the dance foor. This is
math right?
To make the dance number
more dynamic, dancers can
make formations just like square
or circles, or they can form sets
based on colors, sizes, costumes
or movements. Likewise,
geometrical, topological and
abstract properties may be
observed as you look into the
formation, transformation,
translation and refection of each
dancer. See how fun it is?
Realistically, dance and
math can be integrated.
Imagine a class where students
exhibit math concepts through
a dance number. For sure it will
be more enjoyable than having
the usual board games.
So what brings out the
great ‘shift’ in my career? It is
simple as doing the ‘negation’of
my negative attitude in
mathematics. Logically, it will
turn out positive. Correct?
Being in the world of math
is no miracle. I, myself, did
have struggles. Learning the
beat and dance steps or fgures
necessary and persistently
fnish the dance is the algorithm
I used to survive.
Indeed embracing once
weaknesses and connecting
‘coplanar points’ lead to prove
that you can make ‘variances’
and ‘signifcantly’ make a better
change.
Evidently, mathematics
and dance are independent
yet interrelated. No wonder I
became a math specialist.
As word of advice from a
dancer-turned-math educator:
“Learn to dance with the rhythm
of mathematics.”
∞∞∞
Dr. Cartagena is still into dancing
while teaching the scholars of
Iloilo City at ICCC math and its
implication to tourism. He can be
reached at haroldpaykwa@yahoo.
com.-The Infnity Editor
INSPIRATIONS
Math for life!
By Mr. Jerry A. Oquendo
EPS, DepEd RO 6
have trouble applying mathematics
to real-life situations. They fnd it
challenging to comprehend what
numbers represent in the physical
world. For example, a child can
easily divide 15 by 5, but she
might struggle to divide 15 apples
among fve people. Students with
such problems can do better by
practicing their math skills in the
real world. For example, urge their
parents to challenge the students
with mathematical problems on a
daily basis. A mother can ask her
daughter how much sugar she
needs to put in a cake to preserve a
certain proportion.
Diffculty with math language is
also identifed as a factor affecting
students’ poor performance in math.
Particularly challenging are verbal
instructions. There is a list of English
math vocabulary encountered in
textbooks in which all students must
know. So, before a teacher gives
any meaningful math instruction,
he must make sure his students
understand and can use specialized
math vocabulary. These children
can improve their math scores
by writing the problem at hand in
symbols, for example, by assigning
the letters “x” and ‘y” to variables
instead of using variables’ names
directly in their calculations.
Another diffculty is the
visual and spatial aspects. Visual
and spatial aspects of math are
challenging to many. To improve
their skills at solving geometric
problems, these students need to
make models of their problems.
For example, in addition to drawing
a pyramid on paper, they might
need to see and touch a model
of a pyramid to understand the
relations of its sides. Accommodate
such students with models of space
fgures—cubes, spheres, cones,
prisms, and pyramids.
Another barrier is the language
used in instruction. When math
concepts are not properly
understood because students do
not understand the term used by
the teacher, learning will never take
place. In some schools, problems
are being translated frst in their
mother tongue in order for these
children to understand what the
problem is all about.
I fully believe that your stay
in this venue is proof that you are
trying to be equipped with all the
knowledge, skills and right attitude to
arrest some if not all these problems.
This Math Investigation would be
an effcient and effective learning
and teaching tool in the delivery of
more in-depth, relevant, and lasting
math awareness and literacy to our
young mathematicians back at your
respective stations.
Can we look forward when our
students are soaring high in their
achievement and performance in
mathematics—something soon?
Thank you so much./The Infnity
∞∞∞
(This article is an excerpt from the
speech delivered by Mr. Oquendo
during the opening rites of the
2
nd
Regional Math Investigation
Seminar-Workshop on April 11, 2012
at the CTE Building at West Visayas
State University, La Paz, Iloilo City.—
Infnity Editor)
to page 16
LIKE THE famous Simeon Poisson who once said “Life is good for
two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics,” I,
too, share the same sentiment. And I should say Mathematics is, for
life.
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
10
Snapshots
HERE IS the photographic smorgasbord of activities of the Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines-Iloilo
Chapter (MTAP-IC), Inc. in year 2012. For the past months, the organization has been trying its best to be faithful to its
thrust in developing math literacy in the region through seminars, workshops, camps, trainings, information dissemination,
resource sharing, and researches catering not just regular teachers and administrators but also students, parents, out
of-school youth, and pre-service math majors. The pictures here, though incomplete, somewhat represent what MTAP-
IC, Inc. and its active members have done so far.
(Photos taken by Dr. Herman Lagon, Dr. Rosemarie Galvez, Dr. Harold Cartagena, Mr. Neal Sobrejuanite, Ms. Marjie Pineda, Ms. Ma. Eva Claire Sayson, and the Black Box-The Infnity Editor)
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
11
Snapshots
HERE IS the photographic smorgasbord of activities of the Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines-Iloilo
Chapter (MTAP-IC), Inc. in year 2012. For the past months, the organization has been trying its best to be faithful to its
thrust in developing math literacy in the region through seminars, workshops, camps, trainings, information dissemination,
resource sharing, and researches catering not just regular teachers and administrators but also students, parents, out
of-school youth, and pre-service math majors. The pictures here, though incomplete, somewhat represent what MTAP-
IC, Inc. and its active members have done so far.
(Photos taken by Dr. Herman Lagon, Dr. Rosemarie Galvez, Dr. Harold Cartagena, Mr. Neal Sobrejuanite, Ms. Marjie Pineda, Ms. Ma. Eva Claire Sayson, and the Black Box-The Infnity Editor)
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
12
If x = 1010, n=510555



n = 510555
510555 = 510555
If x = 9999, n=49995000



n = 49995000
49995000 = 49995000
Testing Conjecture # 3:
If x = 1, r = 1, A = units
2


If x = 2, r = 2, A = units
2



If x = 3, r = 3, A = units
2



If x = 4, r = 4, A =units
2



If x = 5, r = 4, A =units
2


If x = 101, r = 10, A =units
2


If x = 121, r = 20, A =units
2


If x = 171, r = 5, A =units
2


Justifcation
This section shows the proof to show that the
formula is true for all circumstances.
Conjecture # 1: Perimeter = 2r[3(x-1)+π]
The billiard ball triangle (Figure 1) can be
sliced to look like Figures 2 and 3. The frst part
of the triangle is Figure 2. Looking at Figure 2,
it can be observed that there are 3 straight sides.
Each side is equal twice the radius times the
number of layers of billiard balls minus 1. This
should then be multiplied by 3 since there are 3
sides. Therefore, the perimeter of the highlighted
areas in Figure 2 is 3[2r(x-1) ]. By simplifying
this, the value 6r(x-1) is obtained. On the other
hand, Figure 3 is composed of 3 arcs. You’ll
notice that when the 3 arcs are puzzled together,
a circle is formed. Thus, the formula for getting
the circumference of a circle is used to get the
perimeter of the 3 arc corners of the billiard ball
triangle. Knowing this, the perimeter of the 3 arc
corners is 2πr. Therefore, the total perimeter of the
billiard ball triangle is 6r(x-1)+2πr,, however, this
can still be simplifed to get the formula: 2r[3(x-
1)+π]. Thus, it can be concluded that the formula
for getting the perimeter of a billiard ball triangle,
given x as the number of layers of billiard balls
and r as the radius of each ball, is 2r[3(x-1)+π] .
Conjecture # 2: Total number of balls =


The number of billiard balls in each layer is
equal to 1 more than the previous layer, thus, there
is a common difference of 1, and the trend appears
to be in an arithmetic sequence. Therefore, the
formula for determining the arithmetic sum of a
series will be used to establish the total number
of billiard balls from the frst to the specifed
layer. For any arithmetic series, the formula for
fnding the sum is . In this case, x
was used for the number of layers, so in order
to be consistent, the formula for fnding the
arithmetic sum is . The value for a
1
in
this sequence is 1, and the last term (a
x
) is equal to
x. Thus, the total number of balls is . This
can be simplifed further to obtain the formula:
Therefore, it can be concluded that the total
number of billiard balls in x layers can be solved
using the formula:
Conjecture # 3: Area = r^2 {[6+√3 (x-1) ](x-1)+π}
To fnd the area of the billiard ball triangle,
one way would be to slice the triangle into a set
of rectangles (Figure 4), a smaller equilateral
triangle (Figure 5), and a set of sectors (Figure
6). Starting with Figure 4, the area would be
equal to thrice the area of a rectangle. The area
of a rectangle is equal to its length times its
width. The width of one rectangle is equal to the
radius of one circle. Its length, on the other hand,
is equal to twice the radius times the number
of layers minus 1. This, of course, has to be
multiplied by 3 because there are 3 rectangles.
Thus, the formula for getting the area of Figure
4 is 3{[(x-1)2r]r}. This can then be simplifed to
get 6r
2
(x-1). For Figure 5, an equilateral triangle
is the fgure to be solved. Based on Heron’s
Formula, the area of an equilateral triangle, given
the length of the side, is Each side of the
equilateral triangle in Figure 5 is equal to twice
the radius times the number of layers minus 1. By
substituting this to the previous formula, the area
of the equilateral triangle is . This
can still be simplifed to get . The 4
in the numerator and denominator cancel each
other out, thus, simplifying the formula further to
get r
2
(x-1)^2 √3.. It is important to note that r
2

was not multiplied to (x-1)
2
in order to use it as
a common factor to be brought out of the other
elements of the formula. Lastly, the areas of the
sectors in Figure 6 make up the remaining areas
to be solved in order to get the total area of the
billiard ball triangle. When the 3 sectors in Figure
6 are pieced together, a circle is formed. Thus, the
combined area of the 3 sectors is equal to the area
of one circle. The area is, therefore, equal to πr
2
.
By combining the 3 formulas, the formula:6r
2
(x-
1)+r
2
(x-1)
2
√3 + πr
2
is obtained. Removing
r
2
from the equation, and placing it outside
grouping symbols as a common factor to simplify
the formula yields the formula: r
2
[6(x-1)+(x-1)
2

√3+π]. This can still be simplifed by doing some
factoring inside the grouping symbols. By doing
this, the formula: r
2
{[6+√3(x-1)](x-1)+π} is
obtained. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
formula for determining the area of a billiard ball
triangle with x as the number of layers of billiard
balls and r as the radius of each ball is r
2
{[6+√3
(x-1) ](x-1)+π}.
Summary
This study made use of Mathematical
Investigation, which aimed to determine the
formula of determining the area, perimeter, and
total number of billiard balls in a billiard ball
triangle setup given the number of layers of
the billiard ball set and the radius of each ball.
Specifcally, it sought to answer the following
questions: 1. If given a specifc number of layers
of billiard balls and the radius of each billiard ball,
can a general formula be created to determine
the perimeter of the billiard ball triangle to
be constructed to house the billiard balls? 2. If
given the number of layers of billiard balls, can
a formula be generated to determine the total
number of billiard balls from the frst layer to
the specifed layer? 3. If given a specifc number
of layers of billiard balls and the radius of each
billiard ball, can a general formula be created to
determine the area of the billiard ball triangle to
be constructed to house the billiard balls?
Billiard ball triangles are triangular in form
and have round edges used to house billiard balls
in a game of billiards. Like any closed fgure, the
basic geometric properties are an important part
of its mathematical makeup. These would be area
and perimeter, and since it houses billiard balls,
it’s also important to know the total number of
balls it houses given the number of layers it has.
This has been the foundation of the establishment
of this study.
Three conjectures have been tested and
proven with regard to the billiard ball triangle.
These are for its perimeter, area, and the number
of balls it houses. The formula for the perimeter
of a billiard ball triangle is 2r[3(x-1)+π], where
x is the number of layers of billiard balls and r is
the radius of each billiard ball. The formula for the
number of balls in a billiard ball triangle is ,
where x is the number of layers of billiard balls.
The formula for the area of a billiard ball triangle
is r
2
{[6+√3(x-1)](x-1)+π}, where x is the number
of layers of billiard balls and r is the radius of
each ball. The formulas were based on a table of
values and from geometric principles both basic
and advanced.
The formulas were tested and verifed by
substituting the smallest and the largest and most
extreme cases possible. Each formula was tested
using this method. This was done to test the
formula for possible counter-examples because
of the extreme deviation of values.
The frst and third formulas were proven by
dissecting the billiard ball triangle into common
geometric parts in order to solve for the needed
values. These values were then put together
in order to get the required data of the whole
fgure itself. Geometric concepts such as Heron’s
formula, the area and circumference formula, and
many more were utilized in the derivation and
the proving of the formulas. The second formula
implied the use of the formula for arithmetic
sums. The total number of balls in each layer
appeared in an arithmetic sequence. Thus, the
arithmetic sum formula was used to generate the
second formula – the formula to determine the
total number of balls from the frst to the specifed
layer in the billiard ball triangle.
Possible Extensions
This section may serve as further
investigations for later use and may arise from
student’s investigation. These are clearly stated
from the data.
Based on the fndings and the justifcation,
the following possible extensions were made:
1.) Since the 3 formulas were tested and
proven to be true, students may use them for
questions related to billiard ball triangles and
similar fgures or for entirely different questions
but with the same basic geometric principles.
2.) It is recommended that Mathematics
teachers use and introduce these formulas to their
students as an easier of way of fnding solutions
and as an introductory concept to deeper
geometric problems with similar concepts and
fgures.
3.) The researcher should explore new
formulas related to the billiard ball triangle
concept and other concepts and scenarios
related to this main concept. Such scenarios
could be if the billiard ball triangle had sharp
instead of round corners. Also, the researcher
could visualize concepts on other scenarios
having the same concepts such as if the billiard
balls were enclosed by a square container with
round edges. Or a scenario where the square
container had sharp edges instead and myriads
of other related scenarios that branch out from
the billiard ball triangle concept.
4.) Another possible extension to
investigate on would be the number of balls
with a unit radius that can be contained in
billiard ball triangle, square, and/or other
polygons.
5.) It is suggested that one investigates
on concepts analogous to this study in
3-dimensional fgures such as the number of
balls considering another variable – height.
6.) It is also suggested that one investigates
on taking the concept of thickness of the
material to be used in the construction of the
triangle as an additional determinant in the
surface area and/or volume of the billiard ball
triangle to be constructed./The Infnity
Billiard..... from page 7
Getting the writing job done
writing tips based on experience
By Ms. Rosemarie G. Galvez
Univerity of San Agustin
WITH MY limited experience in writing,
I felt like I was wrung out with writing
juice several times when I was writing
my dissertation as a graduate school
requirement. Three months before
the looming end of my scholarship,
I realized that I have to overcome
slacking moments and very low points
of depression, and I decided to dish out
list of advice that I could give myself.
Somewhat like a list ftted for a self-help
book, my advice could also help any
researcher, mathematics investigator,
or anybody who is in the dilemma of
fnishing a writing job.
I started whipping up some words of
advice for myself based on the popular
theories of learning. I did not bother much to
recall the complexities of each theory, but I
bore in mind the basics that each espoused.
Well, to make sure that writing is done without
mishap, I made sure that the stimuli are right
for writing. I observed that I fell asleep when
I wrote on my bed, I ended up eating when I
worked in the kitchen, and I preferred to pull
the weeds when I decided to do the paper
works outdoors. Hence, I believe that it is
important to have a writing nook that would
serve as good stimulus for conditioning the
mind for writing. Also, it would be better to
reprogram the brain such that the writing job
is placed in the long term memory. Make the
writing task a strong pedestal in your mind that
nobody could ever topple.
Writing is also a learning process, and
writers may be considered as learners who
construct knowledge through the help of a
facilitator. Usually a friend or a colleague could
help. In my case, I had my research advisers,
Dr. Belarga and Dr. Loriega. My dear friend,
Dr. H said, “Pester your adviser.” I bet advisers
would love it when their advisees do that.
Aside from existing theories and numerous
tidbits of advice I got from friends, I made a
list of simplifed three tips that I borrowed from
Plato, cervical cancer vaccine ad, and Nike.
1. Know thyself. What did they do that
they have fnished on time and what have
I done wrong that I have been slacking? I,
myself, should know that. I have been with
myself every single moment of the day, but
I sometimes don’t see myself. I see other
people. A writing job could be done best
when the writer develop a relationship with
himself or herself.
Knowing oneself entails knowing
what works and what does not work. Do
I write well when I am alone or when I
am in a crowd? Do I want to have variety
in my tasks or do I want to focus on one
task only? Do I work well with pressure or
positive motivation? These are some of the
questions that could be used for refection.
The self should be the coach and the friend
of the writer. Sad to say, however, that the
self could also be the primary source of
factors that could put the writer down. So,
to page 17
FEATURE
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
13
Learning from the experts!
N
early 100 math educators from all corners of
Western Visayas learned from the national-
caliber experts in the WVSU Center for
Excellence main function hall for the MTAP-IC
2nd Regi onal Math Investi gati on Semi nar-
Workshop held April 12, 13, and 21, 2012.
Themed “Conquering the Mystery of Math
Investigation (MI),” the math workout was
facilitated in by Dr. Emellie Palomo,
Dr. Myrna Libutaque, and Dr. Elvira
Arellano. This photo feature
shows how the whole
lecture-discussion-
presentation went
through.
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
14
Taking the differences in n’s and I(n)’s,
we have…

In this case, since equal frst differences in n’s
produced equal third differences in I(n)’s, thus
the relation or function that possibly describes
it is of degree 3/ cubic function that has the
form
I(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D,
where A, B, C and D . Since there are four
constants in the said form (i.e. A, B, C, and D),
just like in our frst case, we will arbitrarily pick
(2, 1), (4, 7), (6, 22) and (8, 50). Substituting
each of these points to the form
I(n) = An3 + Bn2 + Cn +D,
we will have,
1 = A (2)
3
+ B (2)
2
+ C (2) +D
Or
1 = 8A + 4B + 2C +D (equation5)
7 = A (4)
3
+ B (4)
2
+ C (4) +D
Or
7 = 64A + 16B + 4C +D (equation6)
22 = A (6)
3
+ B (6)
2
+ C (6) +D
Or
22 = 216A + 36B + 6C +D (equation7)
50 = A (8)
3
+ B (8)
2
+ C (8) +D
Or
50 = 512A + 64B + 8C +D (equation8)
Expressing the four equations in its augmented
matrix form, we have
Perf ormi ng pert i nent el ement ary row
operations, we have…

Thus D = 0.
Substituting D = 0 to 12C + 11D = -1, we have
12C + 11(0) = -1
12C = -1
C = - 1/12
Substituting C = - 1/12 and D = 0 to 16B +
12C + 7D = 1, we have
16B + 12 (- 1/12) + 7 (0) = 1
16B – 1 = 1
16B = 2
B = 1/8
Substituting B = 1/8, C = - 1/12 and D = 0 to
8A + 4B + 2C + D = 1, we have
8A + 4 (1/8)+ 2 (- 1/12) + 0 = 1
8A + 1/2 - 1/6 = 1
8A + 1/3 = 1
8A = 2/3
A = 1/12
Substituting these values to the form U(n) =
An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D, we have
I(n) = 1/12 n
3
+ 1/8 n
2
– 1/12 n.
Or in complete factored form, we have
I(n) = 1/24 n (n + 2) (2n – 1).
Testing the formula,
For n = 2
I(n) = 1/24 n (n + 2) (2n – 1)
I(2) = 1/24 (2) (2 + 2) (2(2) – 1)
I(2) = 1/24 (2) (4) (3)
I(2) = 1
The results of actual substitution to the
formula match with existing, known data for
n = 2, 4, 6.Thus, the formula can possibly
describe the number of inverted triangles in
an equilateral triangle partitioned evenly by
n – 1 points per side, provided that the line
connecting two points is parallel to the third
side, ∈ ∀n 2N.
For an equilateral triangle of side n units,
where ∈ n 2N – 1, the table of values is
shown below. Taking the differences in n’s
and I(n)’s, we have
In this case, since equal frst differences in n’s
produced equal third differences in I(n)’s, thus
the relation or function that possibly describes
it, still, is of degree 3/ cubic function that has
the form
I(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D,
where A, B, C and D ℜ ∈ . Since there are
four constants in the said form (i.e. A, B,
C, and D), just like in our frst case, we will
arbitrarily pick (1, 0), (3, 3), (5, 13) and (7, 34).
Substituting each of these points to the form
I(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D,
We will have,
0 = A (1)
3
+ B (1)
2
+ C (1) +D
Or
0 = A + B + C +D (equation9)
3 = A (3)
3
+ B (3)
2
+ C (3) +D
Or
3 = 27A + 9B + 3C +D (equation10)
13 = A (5)
3
+ B (5)
2
+ C (5) +D
Or
13 = 125A + 25B + 5C +D (equation11)
34 = A (7)
3
+ B (7)
2
+ C (7) +D
Or
34 = 343A + 49B + 7C +D (equation12)
Expressing the four equations in its augmented
matrix form and solving for the constants by
performing elementary row operations, we
have…

Thus,
48D = -6
D =-1/8
Substituting D = -1/8 to 120C + 184D = -33,
we have
120C + 184(-1/8) = - 33
120C – 23 = -33
120C = -10
C = -1/12
Substituting C = - 1/12 and
D = -1/8 to 18B + 24C + 26D = -3, we have
18B + 24 (- 1/12) + 26 (-1/8) = - 3
18B -21/4 = - 3
18B = 9/4
B = 1/8
Substituting B = 1/8, C = - 1/12 and
D = -1/8 to A + B + C + D = 0, we have
A + 1/8 - 1/12 -1/8 = 0
A - 1/12 = 0
A = 1/12
Substituting these values to the form
U(n) = An
3
+ Bn
2
+ Cn +D, we have
I(n) = 1/12 n
3
+ 1/8 n
2
- 1/12 n -1/8,
Or in complete factored form, we have
I(n) = 1/24 (n – 1) (n + 1) (2n + 3).
Testing the formula,
For n = 1
I(n) = 1/24 (n – 1) (n + 1) (2n + 3)
I(1) = 1/24 (1 – 1) (1 + 1) (2(1) + 3)
I(1) = 1/24 (0) (2) (5)
I(1) = 0
Based on the procedure, it is noted that to
fnd the number of inverted triangles in an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
evenly by n – 1 points per side, provided that
the line connecting two points is parallel to
the third side, we use two separate functions
depending whether n is even or odd. Thus,
we defne our next conjecture by the following
Piecewise Function:
Conjecture 2
The number of inverted triangles in
an equilateral triangle of side n units
partitioned by n – 1 points per side,
provided that any two points connected
from two sides is parallel to the third
side, is defned by
IV. Proof/ Justifcation of Conjectures 1 and 2
Before we proceed with the actual proof of
Conjecture 1, let us revisit the following table
of values:

As what we could notice, each succeeding
term is derived by adding successive numbers
of the form
For example…
U(1) = 1 = 1
U(2) = 4 = 1 + 3
U(3) = 10 = 1 + 3 + 6
U(4) = 20 = 1 + 3 + 6 + 10
Now we will proceed with the proof of
Conjecture 1.
Proving Conjecture 1 by Using the Principle
of Mathematical Induction
Conjecture 1
The number of upri ght tri angl es i n an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
evenly by n – 1 points per side per side,
provided that the line connecting two points
of any two sides is parallel to the third side,
is defned by
i. Verifcation. Verify true for n = 4, 5
For n = 4
U(4) = 1/6 (4) (4 + 1) (4 + 2) = 1 + 3 + 6 + 10
1/6 (4) (5) (6) = 20
20 = 20

For n = 5
U(5) = 1/6 (5) (5 + 1) (5 + 2) = 1 + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15
1/6 (5) (6) (7) = 35
35 = 35
The formula was verifed true for n = 4, 5.
ii. Assumption. Since the formula was verifed
true for n = 4, 5, assume true for n = k, i.e.
iii. Proof by Induction. Prove true for n = k + 1.
iv. Conclusion. Since the proposition was
verifed true for n = 4, 5 and was proven true
for n = k + 1, thus the proposition is true and
valid for all N.
Let us extend the formula to other extreme
cases, say n = 11…
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2)
U(11) = 1/6 (11) (11 + 1) (11 + 2)
U(11) = 1/6 (11) (12) (13)
U(11) = 286
In this case, we have to expect 286 upright
triangles for an equilateral triangle of side 11
units whose sides are partitioned evenly by
10 points.
Let us take a glimpse on our tables relating
the measure of side n of our equilateral
triangle with the number of inverted triangles
formed and taking the frst differences in n’s
and I(n)’s…
A. n

2N
B. n

2N – 1

Notice that regardless whether n is even or
odd, the difference of I(n) and I(n-1) is always
a number of the form (n (n- 1))/2.
For n∈2N, For n∈2N - 1,
1 = 1 0 = 0
7 = 1 + 6 3 = 0 + 3
22 = 1 + 6 + 15 13 = 0 + 3 + 10
50 = 1 + 6 + 15 + 28 34 = 0 + 3 + 10 + 21
95 = 1 + 6 + 15 + 28 + 45 70 = 0 + 3 + 10 + 21 +36
Now we are ready to prove our second
conjecture.
Proving Conjecture 2 by Using the Principle
of Mathematical Induction
Conjecture 2
The number of inverted triangles, I(n), in an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
by n – 1 points per side, provided that the line
connecting two points is parallel to the third
side, is defned by
This one is a special case. Since this Piecewise
Function is comprised of two different functions
defned on certain, restricted domains, thus
two mathematical inductions are necessary
to prove each case.
A. The number of inverted triangles in an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
by n – 1 points per side, provided that the line
connecting two points is parallel to the third
side
∈ ∀n
2N, is defned by
Triangles ..... from page 3
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
15


i. Verifcation. Prove true for n = 8,10.
For n = 8
1 + 6 + 15 + 28 = 1/24 (8) (8 + 2) (2(8) – 1)
50 = 1/24 (8) (10) (15)
50 = 50
For n = 10
1 + 6 + 15 + 28 + 45 = 1/24 (10) (10 + 2) (2(10) – 1)
95 = 1/24 (10) (12) (19)
95 = 95
The conjecture is verifed true for n = 8, 10.
ii. Assumption. Since the conjecture was
verifed true for n = 8, 10, assume true for n
= k. That is,
iii. Proof of Induction. Prove for the next even
integer n = k + 2.

iv. Conclusion. Since the proposition was
verifed true for n = 8, 10 and was proved
true for n = k + 2, thus the proposition is valid
∈ ∀n
2N.
B. The number of inverted triangles, I(n), in an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
by n – 1 points per side, provided that the line
connecting two points is parallel to the third
side is defned by
i. Verifcation. Verify the proposition to be true
for n = 7, 9.
For n = 7
0 + 3 + 10 + 21 = 1/24 (7 – 1) (7 + 1) (2(7) + 3)
34 = 1/24 (6) (8) (17)
34 = 34
For n = 9
0 + 3 + 10 + 21 + 36 = 1/24 (9 – 1) (9 + 1) (2(9) + 3)
70 = 1/24 (8) (10) (21)
70 = 70
The conjecture is verifed true for n = 7, 9.
ii. Assumption. Since the conjecture was
verifed true for n = 7, 9, assume true for n =
k. That is,
iii. Proof of Induction. Prove for the next odd
integer n = k + 2.
iv. Conclusion. Since the proposition was
verifed true for n = 7, 9 and was proved true
for the next odd integer n = k + 2, thus the
proposition is valid ∈ ∀n 2N – 1.
V. Summary
This study focused on determining the
number of upright and inverted triangles with
respect to the n units side of an equilateral
triangle partitioned evenly by n – 1 points per
side, provided that the line connecting two
points is parallel to the third side.
Conjecture 1
The number of upright triangles in an
equilateral triangle of side n units partitioned
evenly by n – 1 points per side, provided that
any two points connected from two sides is
parallel to the third side, is defned by
U(n) = 1/6 n (n + 1) (n + 2), N n ∈ ∀ .

In attempt to describe the number of
inverted triangles, I(n), based on the table,
the researchers took the differences in n’s
and I(n)’s. Equal frst differences in n’s did not
result to equal [third] differences in I(n)’s but
alternating 1’s and 0’s are noticed.
I n t hi s case, t he researchers
partitioned the odd and even-numbered
measures of sides n of an equilateral triangle
partitioned by n – 1 points, provided that any
two points connected from two sides is parallel
to the third side. By doing so, and taking
differences in n’s and I(n)’s of each table, it is
noted that equal frst differences in n’s equaled
the third differences of each table. Thus, the
relation or function describing the number
of inverted triangles, I(n), in an equilateral
triangle of side n units must be a function of the
third degree/ cubic unction. Using the same
procedures as to conjecture 1, we arrived at
our second conjecture as follows:
Conjecture 2
The number of inverted triangles, I(n),
in an equilateral triangle of side n units
partitioned by n – 1 points per side, provided
that any two points connected from two sides
is parallel to the third side, is defned by
The formulas are tested against known
existing cases and results match with the data.
The principle of Mathematical Induction was
used to prove the conjectures true and valid
under their respective domains. The formulas
are also used to predict the number of upright
and inverted triangles an equilateral triangle of
side n units partitioned by n – 1 points per side.
VI. Possible Extensions
In light of the aforementioned results of
this study, the following recommendations
are advanced:
1. Furt her i nvest i gat i ons may be
conducted on determining the relationship,
if there exists any, between the number of
points in an equilateral triangle of side n
partitioned evenly by n – 1 points on each
side and the total number of triangles.
2. It is highly recommended to conduct
similar investigations to find a function
rule, if there exists any, relating the side
n of an equilateral triangle partitioned by
n – 1 points per side given that all of these
points are connected, to the total number of
intersections at the interior of the equilateral
triangle.
3. It is proposed to carry out a similar
study to other kinds of triangles (scalene,
isosceles, right, obtuse, etc.).
4. Using the same conditions in this study,
it is suggested to conduct investigations
to find formulas, if there exists any, to
determine the number of quadrilaterals,
pentagons, n – gons at the interior of the
triangle./The Infnity
∞∞∞
The lead proponent of this MI is Kim Jay
Encio. He graduated summa cum laude in BS
Secondary Education and managed to clinch the
Top 3 spot in the Licensure Exam for Teachers
in 2010. Corollary to this, The Infnity would
like to correct the inadvertence it had in its
2011 publication more specifcally in the article
entitled “An Oblique Problem: A Mathematical
Investigation” in page 8 and page 12 that was
also authored by Encio during his BSEd years
in WVSU College of Education as part of the
requirements for the course Mathematical
Investigation and Modeling under the tutelage
of Dr. Helen Hofleña. Also part of his team were
his school mates Louie Jee Labrador, Rimbrant
Padernal, Roel Rocero, and Bryan Tacayon.
The said article was inadvertently named after
PSHS-WV. -The Infnity Editor
are (0, 0), (0, r), (c, 0), and (c, r).

The diagonal intersects vertical segments
between 0 and c. So, the number of vertical
segments intersected by the diagonal in the
interior of the rectangle is c-1.
A similar argument may be used to
obtain the number of horizontal segments
intersected by the diagonal in the interior
of the rectangle. The diagonal intersects r-1
horizontal segments. The total number of
segments intersected by the diagonal in the
interior of the rectangle is
s = number of vertical segments + number
of horizontal segments
s = (c – 1) + (r – 1)
Simplifying, we prove the conjecture that
s = c + r–2.
The diagonal of the rectangle passes
through the points (c, 0) and (0, r). Hence, the
equation of the line that contains the diagonal
is rx+cy=rc. The lattice points intersected by
the diagonal would be the points intersected by
the diagonal containing integral coordinates.
In the linear Diophantine equation, if
one solution of the linear equation ax + by = d
is (x
0
, y
0
), then the other solutions are found by
In a linear equation rx+cy=rc, we
have
We know that the line intersects the point
(0, r). So, we could have x
o
=0 and y
o
=r.
The values of x should be less than c and
should be greater than 0.
The values of y should be less than r and
should be greater than 0.
The same inequality is obtained for
both cases. The allowable value for t should
be less than the greatest common factor of
r and c and should be greater than zero. The
number of values that are allowed for t is the
number of integral coordinates in a given set
of restrictions. That is, t is also the number of
lattice points intersected by the diagonal in the
interior of the rectangle represented by v.
Hence, v is the number of integers in the
set {1,2,…,[gcf(r,c)-2 ],[gcf(r,c)-1 ]}.
Therefore, v=gcf(r,c)-1.
VI. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
This investigation focused on the
rectangular table covered by square tiles and
its diagonal. With the use of analytic geometry,
geometry, and elementary number theory, two
conjectures were constructed and proven.
The first one is on the number of segments
intersected by the diagonal in the interior of
the rectangle, s=c+r-2. . The second one is
on the number of lattice points (or vertices
of the tiles) contained by the diagonal in
the interior of the rectangle, v=gcf(r, c)-1,
where s=number of segments intersected,
c=number of tiles in a column, r=number
of tiles in a row, v=number of vertices
intersected, gcf= greatest common factor. The
values of v and s could be further investigated
when the other variables are odd or even.
An extension of this investigation could also
focus on the diagonal of a rectangular prism.
This investigation is indeed fun. Math learners
will never look at tiles the same way again –
especially the ones with cracks!/The Infinity
Reference
Bastow, B., Hughes, J., Kissane, B.,
& Mortlock, R. (1984). 40 mathematical
investigations. The Mathematical Association
of Australia.
∞∞∞
Ms. Galvez teaches Mathematical Investigation at the
University of San Agustin. Reactions and comments
may be sent to rggalvez316@yahoo.com.–The Infinity
Editor
To solve for the frst trisection,
we let 2 m = . Substituting the
values,
| | | |
2 1 2 1
,
mx n m x my n m y
n n
| | + − + −
|
|
\ .

( )( ) | |( ) ( )( ) | |( ) 2 6 3 2 15 2 8 3 2 4
,
3 3
| | + − + − −
|
|
\ .
12 15 16 4
,
3 3
+ − | |
|
\ .
( ) 9, 4
Thus, the points of trisection is at
( ) 12, 0 and ( ) 9, 4 ./The Infnity
∞∞∞
After graduating summa cum laude
in Bachelor of Secondary Education
(Math) course at WVSU under a
DOST-SEI scholarship, he was
immediately absorbed by Ateneo de
Iloilo-Santa Maria Catholic School to
teach Intermediate Algebra, Statistics,
Trigonometry, and Analytic Geometry.
He is presently fnishing his Masters
degree in Mathematics at University of
the Philippines in the Visayas. This MI
of his was also proofread by his mentor,
Dr. Lourdes Zamora of UPV-CAS
Division of Professional Education.-The
Infnity Editor
mth section ..... from page 6
Investigating... from page 4
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
16
some updates about the new
policy, tips on how to implement
the K-12 mathematics curriculum,
and in-depth refections as to the
implication and intentions of the
program.”
The frst day of the
convention, October 19, is
intended for the Inter-Tertiary
Quiz Bee in the morning. The
formal opening program shall be
held in the afternoon, followed
by the talk on “Upgrading
mathematics standards for k-12:
building teachers skills in traning
students for local, national
and international mathematics
competitions” to be facilitated in
by Dr. Simon Chua, President of
the Mathematics Teachers Guild
(MTG)-Philippines.
The next day, October 20,
will be greeted by a session on
the “Basics of Math Curriculum,”
followed by parallel sessions
which will feature about 10
research papers that concern
K-12...from page 1
Infnity...from page 1
mathematics instruction. The
afternoon assembly shall be
used for the discussion on
“Coping with K-12 Mathematics
Education” to be led by Dr.
Ian June Carces, a renowned
mathematics professor of the
Ateneo de Manila University.
Business meeting which includes
reports and election of new set
of members of the Board of
Directors will follow suit.
The last day, October 21,
shall be graced by Dr. Purita
Bilbao, director of the Center
for Teaching Excellence of West
Visayas State University to talk
about the implication of the K-12
program in the tertiary level. The
whole three-day affair shall be
capped with a closing program
thereafter.
To note, the convention
is offcially endorsed by the
Department of Education and
the Commission on Higher
Education. /The Infnity
Excellence building at West
Visayas State University, was
participated in by mathematics
teachers from all provinces of
Western Visayas, reaching as
far from Caluya Island, Antique,
Boracay Island in Aklan, and
Kabankalan City in Negros
Occidental.
“We are so blessed with
the immense help of our DepEd
offcials, most especially to
Regional Director III Dr. Corazon
Brown who helped us encourage
teachers to join our seminar,” Dr.
Herman Lagon, overall organizer
of the event, said, adding, “in
order to maintain a manageable
size of participants, we had to
regrettably decline the application
of scores of teachers who were
late in making the reservation,
but we promise them to hold the
same set of sessions next year.”
Themed “Conquering
the Mystery of Mathematics
Investigation (MI),” the mathematics
workout is facilitated in by three main
resource speakers who were trained
by the University of the Philippines
National Institute for Science
and Mathematics Education
(UPNISMED). They are Dr. Emellie
Palomo, director of the Integrated
Laboratory School of WVSU, Dr.
Myrna Libutaque, mathematics
teacher of Philippine Science
High School-Western Visayas
Campus, and Dr. Elvira Arellano,
associate dean of the College
of Education and director of the
Center for Research in Science
and Mathematics Education of
WVSU. They are being assisted
by about 10 more mathematics
doctors, professors, and experts
of the feld coming from the
MTAP-IC.
The frst day of the training,
April 12, focused more on inputs
given by the resource speakers.
Dr. Palomo covered the “Nature
and Purposes of Mathematics
Investigation,” “Types of
Mathematics Investigation,”
and “Stages in the Conduct of
Mathematicas Investigation.” Dr.
Libutaque followed suit and talked
about “Conducting Mathematics
Investigation,” and “Writing Proofs
in Mathematics Investigation.”
She also shared the results
and fndings of her dissertation
on Mathematics Investigation
entitled “MI Approach in Teaching
Algebra in the Development
of Problem Solving and Proof
Writing and Mathematical Habits
Math...from page 1
In an e-mailed letter
addressed to Lagon, the chief
of the Bibliographic Services
Division of the NLP Elizabeth
Arevalo said, “We would like
to inform you that we assigned
ISSN 2244-3290 for the printed
copy to your publication entitled
‘The Infnity.’ In this regard,
it is necessary that the ISSN
mentioned above should be
printed on the front page of each
issue (top right hand corner) for
easy identifcation and retrieval.”
With this, articles published
in The Infnity will be considered
formally logged to the NLP, hence,
will have greater weight as far as
authenticity of the written output is
concerned.
“I humbly hope that more
mathematics educators will send
their articles to The Infnity for future
publication,” said Dr. Lagon./The
Infnity
Jardiniano of Western Institute
of Technology, in that order.
They joined the eight other BOD
members who are to comprise
the 15-strong MTAP-IC BOD for
2012.
“We are so pleased with
the turn-out of the convention,”
Dr. Alona Belarga, MTAP-IC
president said, adding, “it was
packed not just with updates
on innovations and trends
in teaching mathematics but
Teachers’...from page 2
also of teachers showing their
commitment to indeed create
a culture shift—a revolution of
sort—in their own classrooms—
making mathematics fun,
positively challenging, appealing
and most of all sensible, to
students.”
“We just hope we have
inspired mathematics teachers to
wage their own little ‘mathematics
revolutions’ in their classrooms
as they deliver the beauty of
or blackness. We may not (and
we should not) come to the point
of mobbing someone to death,
but our words could sometimes
hurl some stunting effects to the
learner’s intellectual growth.
I hope my random
thoughts would make you, the
Of mathematical...from page 8
mathematics teacher, consider
the importance of unlocking the
mathematics language for the
learners, and the signifcance of
dealing with the gender issue.
May mathematics be available
to everyone no matter what
language we speak or gender
of the Mind.”
The last to give inputs
was Dr Arellano who discussed
“Mathematical Habits,” “Using
Investigation in the Classroom,”
“Assessing and Formulating
Rubrics,” “Format in Writing
Mathematics Investigation,”
and Writing Mathematics
Investigation.” The frst day
was capped by preliminaries
in MI writing workshop. Here,
participants were grouped by
six or seven to form a team
that will eventually design, work
on, and create their very own
Mathematics Investigation.
The second day, April 13,
was used entirely by the MI groups
for the skirmishing, formulating
of problem statements, making
conjectures, and writting for
proofs, among others. Four
main facilitator-trainers guided
them in the whole duration of the
workshop.
After seven days (April
14-April 20) of independent group
work, the teams went back to
the CTE building Saturday, April
21, and formally presented their
fnished MI masterpieces before
panel of experts namely Dr.
Palomo, Dr. Arellano, Dr. Alona
Belarga, and Mr. Mario Bañavo.
These outputs were entitled
“Over-Laughing Triangles,”
“Oblong, Oblong, Where Do We
Belong? (Oblong Numbers),”
“Amazing Cubes,” Behind
Refections: Angles and Images,”
“Total Perimeter of a Square and
the Inscribed Squares Formed
by Joining Endpoints,” Triangles
from a Chorded Circle,” “(10n-1)
Times ‘P’ in Seconds,” “Angles in
a Fan,” “The Ladderized Cubes,”
Rectangles: How Many Are
You?,” “Twin in Grid Squares,”
and “The Ultimate 8.” Part of the
reporting was the power point
presentation and an MI poster
that showed the summary of their
investigation.
Group 1 (Over-Laughing
Triangles) was declared the
landslide winner bagging the
Best Presenter, Best MI and
Best Poster awards. They were
composed of Rowell Rublico,
Stephen Jinon, Kim Jay Encio,
and Jenever Nievares of PAREF-
Westbridge School, Inc., Analie
Guion of Buntatala National
High School, Christina Carsula
of Passi National High School,
Christina Carsula and Rutchell
Gania of Passi Montessori
International School, and Nezel
Francisco of Colegio de San
Jose. Their MI paper will be
printed in The Infnity, the offcial
publication of MTAP-IC.
The last day of the seminar
was also capped with the oath-
taking rites of the new set of
MTAP-IC offcers. Inducted were
president: Dr. Alona Belarga,
Director of Instruction and
Quality Assurance of WVSU;
vice president, Dr. Herman
Lagon, subject area coordinator
of Ateneo de Iloilo Santa Maria
Catholic School (AdI); secretary,
Prof. Rosemarie Galvez, college
mathematics teacher of University
of San Agustin (USA), treasurer,
Prof. Rhodora Cartagena,
head of the Mathematics and
Physics Department of USA, and
auditor, Engr. Ramon Jardiniano,
mathematics professor of
Western Institute of Technology
(WIT).
Also took their oath were
the other members of the
Board of Directors, namely: Dr.
Alex Facinabao, dean of the
USA College of Education, Dr.
Wilhelm Cerbo, associate dean
of the WVSU College of Arts and
Science, Engr. Ninfa Sotomil,
mathematics professor of
WIT, Mrs. Ma. Aries Pastolero,
mathematics teacher of Iloilo
National High School Special
Science Class (INHS-SSC), Ms.
Catalina Reales, elementary
mathematics teacher of Maasin
Central Elementary School,
Engr. Roberto Neal Sobrejuanite,
mathematics and computer
professor of John B. Lacson
Foundation Maritime University,
Prof. Alfonso Maquelencia,
mathematics teacher of USA,
Prof. Alexander Balsomo, head
of the mathematics department
of the WVSU College of Arts
and Science, Mr. Alex Jaruda,
mathmetics teacher of INHS,
and Dr. Harold Cartagena of the
Iloilo City Community College
(ICCC).
“It is just apt for us to be
inducted before Sir Oquendo
and the active participants of
this MI seminar-workshop; we
really hope that with you as
witnesses, we will be inspired
more to initiate worthy projects
for the betterment of our
mathematics education in Iloilo
and in Region VI,” Dr. Belarga
told the participants after the
oath-taking rites./The Infnity
MTAP-IC BOD Meetings
1
st
Regular Meeting: January 29,
2012 at Summerhouse, Midtown
Hotel, Yulo Street, Iloilo City
Present:
Dr. Alona Belarga (presiding
offcer), Dr. Herman Lagon, Mrs.
Maria Aries Pastolero, Mr. Alex
Jaruda, Engr. Ninfa Sotomil,
Dr. Harold Cartagena, Ms.
Rosemarie Galvez, Ms. Catalina
Reales, Dr. Wilhelm Cerbo,
Prof. Alexander Balsomo, Prof.
Rhodora Cartagena, and Engr.
Ramon Jardiniano
2
nd
Regular Meeting: April 9, 2012
at Summerhouse, Midtown Hotel,
Yulo Street, Iloilo City
Present:
Dr. Alona Belarga (presiding
offcer), Dr. Herman Lagon,
Prof. Rhodora Cartagena, Dr.
Wilhelm Cerbo, Prof. Alfonso
Marquelencia, Prof. Alexander
Balsomo, Ms. Rosemarie Galvez,
Engr. Ramon Jardiniano
1
ST
Special Meeting: April 21, 2012
at Center for Teaching Excellence
Building, WVSU, La Paz, Iloilo
City
Present: Dr. Alona Belarga
(presiding offcer), Dr. Herman
Lagon, Prof. Rhodora Cartagena,
Mrs. Maria Aries Pastolero,
Prof. Alfonso Marquelencia,
Prof. Alexander Balsomo, Ms.
Rosemarie Galvez, Engr. Ramon
Jardiniano, Mr. Alex Jaruda,
Dr. Harold Cartagena, Dr. Alex
Facinabao, Engr. Ninfa Sotomil,
Ms. Catalina Reales
3
rd
Regular Meeting: June 10,
2012 at Summerhouse, Midtown
Hotel, Yulo Street, Iloilo City
Present:
Dr. Alona Belarga (presiding
offcer), Dr. Herman Lagon,
Dr. Wilhelm Cerbo, Prof. Alexander
Balsomo, Prof. Alfonso
Marquelencia, Prof. Rhodora
Cartagena, Ms. Rosemarie
Galvez, Ms. Catalina Reales,
Mrs. Maria Aries Pastolero, Engr.
Ninfa Sotomil, Mr. Alex Jaruda,
Dr. Harold Cartagena
4
th
Regular Meeting: July 8, 2012
at Grand Dame Hotel, La Paz,
Iloilo City
Present:
Dr. Alona Belarga (presiding
offcer), Dr. Herman Lagon, Mrs.
Maria Aries Pastolero, Mr. Alex
Jaruda, Engr. Ninfa Sotomil,
Dr. Harold Cartagena, Ms.
Rosemarie Galvez, Ms. Catalina
Reales, Dr. Wilhelm Cerbo, Prof.
Alexander Balsomo ,
Prof. Rhodora Cartagena, Engr.
Ramon Jardiniano, Prof. Alfonso
Marquelencia
5
th
Regular Meeting: September
16, 2012 at Summerhouse,
Midtown Hotel, Yulo Street, Iloilo
City
Present:
Dr. Herman Lagon (presiding
offcer), Prof. Alfonso
Marquelencia , Ms. Rosemarie
Galvez, Engr. Ninfa Sotomil, Dr.
Harold Cartagena, Dr. Wilhelm
Cerbo, Ms. Catalina Reales, Engr.
Ramon Jardiniano, Prof. Rhodora
Cartagena
2
nd
Special Meeting: October 7,
2012 at Summerhouse, Midtown
Hotel, Yulo Street, Iloilo City
Present:
Dr. Alona Belarga (presiding
offcer), Dr. Herman Lagon,
Engr. Ninfa Sotomil, Dr. Harold
Cartagena, Dr. Wilhelm Cerbo, Ms.
Rosemarie Galvez, Ms. Catalina
Reales, Engr. Ramon Jardiniano,
Prof. Rhodora Cartagena, Mr. Alex
Jaruda, Prof. Alexander Balsomo,
Mrs. Maria Aries Pastolero
3
rd
Special Meeting: October 14,
2012 at Summerhouse, Midtown
Hotel, Yulo Street, Iloilo City
Present:
Dr. Alona Belarga (presiding
offcer), Dr. Herman Lagon, Engr.
Nimfa Sotomil, Prof. Alfonso
Marquelencia, Dr. Rosemarie
Galvez, Engr. Ramon Jardiniano,
Mrs. Ma. Aries Pastolero, Mrs.
Rhodora Cartagena, Dr. Harold
Cartagena, Ms. Catalina Reales.
Note: Meetings were done in three
to four hours that start with the
reading, revision, and approval
of the minutes of the previous
meeting, followed by the regular
order of business./The Infnity
mathematics to their students—
that will eventually cause
students to love mathematics
and use it to serve others.”
To note, the whole two-day
affair was offcially endorsed by
the Department of Education
(DepEd) and the Commission in
Higher Education (CHEd) through
a regional memorandum. The next
convention is set October 19, 20,
and 21, 2012 in Amigo Terrace
Hotel, Iloilo City./The Infnity
we belong.
∞∞∞
Rosemarie Galvez is interested
to discuss more about the
language barriers in the
mathematics classroom. Email
reactions to rggalvez316@
yahoo.com. –The Infnity Editor
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
17
Parvane Mae Lagon
School Year 1) will be
implemented in SY 2012-
2013 and will progress in the
succeeding school years.
• Grade 11 (HS Year 5)
will be introduced in SY 2016-
2017, Grade 12 (HS Year 6) in
2017-2018.
• The frst batch of
students to go through K-12
will graduate in 2018.
Where will the additional
two years be added?
• The two years will be
added after the existing four-
year high school program.
This will be called Senior High
School.
Why is the K-12 program
better than the current program?
• K-12 offers a more
balanced approach to learning
that will enable children to
acquire and master lifelong
learning skills (as against a
congested curriculum).
• It will help in freeing
parents of the burden of
having to spend for college
just to make their children
employable.
Will this address the drop-
out problem?
• The decongested
curriculum will allow mastery
of competencies and enable
students to better cope with
the lessons. This should partly
address those who drop out
because they cannot cope
with schoolwork.
• The curriculum will be
learner-centered, enriched,
and responsive to local needs.
It will also allow students
to choose what suits their
interest. This should partly
address those who drop out
because of lack of personal
interest.
• DepEd will also
continue to offer programs
such as home schooling for
elementary students and the
dropout reduction program for
high schools. These programs
address the learning needs
of marginalized students and
learners at risk of dropping
out.
How will K-12 help in
ensuring employment for our
graduates?
• The K-12 basic
education curriculum will be
suffcient to prepare students
for work.
• The curriculum will
enable students to acquire
Certifcate of Competency
(COCs) and National
Certifcations (NCs). This will
be in accordance to TESDA
training regulations. This
will allow graduates to have
Educational reform!?...from page 8
middle level skills and will offer
them better opportunities to be
gainfully employed.
• There will be school-
industry partnership for techvoc
tracks to allow students to gain
work experience while studying,
and offer the opportunity to be
absorbed by the companies.
How will the K-12 program
help working students (college
level)?
• DepEd is in collaboration
with CHEd to provide more
opportunities for working
students to attend classes.
• DepEd is working with the
DOLE to ensure that jobs will
be available to K-12 graduates
and that consideration will be
given to working students.
How will the K-12 program
help students intending to pursue
higher education?
•The K-12 basic
education curriculum will be in
accordance with the college
readiness standards from
CHEd which sets the skills and
competencies needed of K-12
graduates who wish to pursue
higher education.
• CHEd will download its
general education subjects to
Grades 11 and 12 (HS years
5 and 6) of K-12 ensuring
mastery of core competencies
for K-12 graduates. This may
lead to a reduction in the
number of years of college
courses resulting to a decrease
in educational expenses of
households.
How close is DepEd in
addressing the resource gaps
(i.e. classroom, teachers)?
• DepEd has targeted to
close the resource gaps in the
next two years.
• Aside from increasing
the budget of DepEd, it is also
enjoying support from local
governments, private partners,
and donor agencies.
How about the additional
cost to parents?
• Grades 11 and 12 (HS
Years 5 and 6) will be offered
for free in public schools.
• K-12 graduates will have
higher earning potential since
they will be more competent
and skilled compared to
graduates of the previous 10-
year system.
• DepEd is in discussion
with CHEd on the possibility of
decreasing the number of years
of certain courses in college.
• K-12 graduates will have
national certifcation from
TESDA, which will enable them
to have higher employment
opportunities.
What will happen to the
college and universities during
the 2-year transition period (SY
2016-2017 and SY 2017-2018)?
• DepEd is in the
process of formulating a
transition management plan
which includes working in
collaboration with other
educational institutions
during the two-year gap. The
arrangements may include
using private school facilities
and teachers for senior high
school during the transition
period.
• DepEd is working closely
with private educational
institutions to address these
transition management issues.
Will senior high school be
implemented in existing high
schools or will new schools be
built?
• Existing schools will be
used for the additional 2-year
program. DepEd is likewise
in discussions with CHEd,
TESDA, and private schools
to use their existing facilities
during the transition period and
beyond.
Is K-12 required for private
schools as well? Will the same
implementation timeline apply to
private schools?
• Since private schools
follow the DepEd curriculum,
they will also be implementing
the 12-year basic
education program but the
implementation plan will differ.
This will be discussed with the
representatives of the private
schools.
• Private schools are active
participants in developing the
K-12 program.
• Note that a number of
private schools offer at least
12 years of basic education:
2 years kindergarten, 6 to 7
years of elementary, and 4
years of high schools.
How will the college and
technical-vocational courses
be adjusted due to the K-12
curriculum? Will adjustments
be made in time for the frst
graduates of K-12?
• TESDA will download
some of its basic technical
competencies while CHEd ill
transfer the general education
subjects to basic education.
• CHEd will be releasing
its updated college readiness
standards which will be the
basis for the competencies in
Grades 11 and 12 (HS Years 5
and 6).
• These activities will be
completed before SY 2016-
2017.
What will happen to the
curriculum? What subjects will
be added and removed?
• There will be continuum
from Kinder to Grade 12;
and to technical and higher
education.
• The current curriculum
will be decongested to allow
for mastery of learning.
• In Grades 11 and 12 (HS
Years 5 and 6), core subjects
like Math, Science, and
English will be strengthened.
Specializations in the students’
areas of interest will also be
offered.
• Right now, a technical
working group has formulated
the new curriculum framework,
standards, and competencies
for K-12. Experts from CHEd,
TESDA, and other stakeholders
are part of this working group.
After this, the changes in terms
of subjects added, removed,
and enhanced will be clearer.
What specializations will be
offered in senior high school?
•Among the specializations
offered will be on academics,
middle-level skills development,
sports, and arts.
• Specializations will also
be guided by local needs and
conditions.
How will students choose
their specializations?
• Students will undergo
several assessments to
determine their interests and
strengths. These will include
an aptitude test, a career
assessment exam, and an
occupational interest inventory
for high schools, and should
help students decide on their
specialization.
For senior high school,
what will happen if majority of
our students want to specialize
in agriculture and only one
is interested to take math or
academics? How will this be
accommodated?
• This is an extreme
situation.
• The areas of
specialization will be offered
according to the resources
available in a locality and the
needs of students.
Will teachers be burdened
by additional teaching load due
to the K-12 program?
• There will be no additional
workload due to the K-12
program. The Magna Carta
for Public School Teachers
provides that teachers should
only teach up to six hours a
day.
• The decongested K-12
curriculum will allow students
and will enable them to focus
on their areas of expertise.
How will teachers be
prepared for the K-12 program?
• Teachers will be given
suffcient in-service training
to implement this program.
The pre-service training for
aspiring teachers will also be
modifed to conform with the
requirements of the program.
I am sure that there are still
lots of questions unanswered
in the issue of K-12. I am also
certain that after months of fne-
tuning, there might be things
enumerated above that may not
be germane to the demands of
the present anymore. Perhaps,
there are already changes in the
policy, approach, or requirement
in the new curricular design that
make the K-12 of December 2011
outdated or inaccurate.
But that exactly is my point.
The K-12 is a living organism,
still adapting, still evolving. Hence,
the demand for us teachers to be
at pace with the new educational
policy is towering. To just wait and
see is neither a convenience nor an
option anymore.
Essentially, each teacher must
take all possible initiatives and
options to be informed about the
new policies of the mutating K-12
in order not to be left biting the dust
of change.
∞∞∞
Dr. Lagon is a subject area coordinator
and physics teacher of Ateneo de
Iloilo-SMCS High School Department.
He also trains gifted high school
mathematics students in the
Mathematics Trainers’ Guild (MTG)
Iloilo. He may be reached through
her manl agon1@gmai l . com. - The
Infnity Editor
“know thyself.” Thank you, Plato
for that tip.
2. No more excuses. Kris
Aquino said this to encourage
women to get the cervical cancer
vaccine. This applies also to those
who wish to start writing. Yes,
excuses abound.
Faci ng t he l apt op and
ignoring the noise and the fun
possibilities that the world has to
offer, I asked myself several times
if writing is indeed worth my time.
Should I type while my garden
is in need of weeding? Should
I prioritize this over the pile of
papers to check? Why should I be
sitting when my tummy fats need
trimming, my laundry is piling up
and the furniture needs dusting?
But if you want to have the writing
job done, then prioritize. No more
excuses.
3. Just do it. Start now. As
the old adage goes, a journey of
a thousand miles begins with a
single step. A single letter, a single
word, a phrase, a sentence, or a
paragraph could go a long way.
But there are just some moments
when I had no motivation to write
or I was too tired to think. To
condition myself, I did tasks that
did not require much creativity
and t hi nki ng. For i nst ance,
I opted to search for related
literature or organize my writing
fles. When the idea bulb lit up,
I tapped the keyboard. If I forgot
the right words, I used blanks
initially. Filling in the blanks was
easier when I had written several
sentences.
When the Pandora’s Box was
opened there was no stopping
of the escape of its contents.
Similarly, when I opened my
brains for ideas, I was surprised
and over whel med wi t h al l
the switches that turned on. I
could feel my neurons making
connections and sometimes my
hand could not cope with the
speed of my thoughts.
Write it now. Write it right.
Write it wrong. Just write it.
Not numbered but very
important is to recognize the
power of health and prayers.
Sur vi ve t he wr i t i ng st r ess
unscathed. It took me a perforated
ear drum to realize that health is
precedence for any successful
endeavor. Also, prayers could
also bring in miracles. We might
believe in different gods and we
might doubt the existence of God
but the healing process of prayer
worked every time./The Infnity
∞∞∞
It turned out having a dose of
one’s medicine worked out. Ms.
Rosemarie Galvez successfully
f i ni shed her di sser t at i on,
Quantifying artworks: an analysis
of the mathematics principles
used by Ilonggo artists.-The
Infnity Editor
Getting...from page 12
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
18
ARTICLE I – Name and Domicile
Section 1 – The Association shall be known as the
Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines,
Inc. – Iloilo Chapter (MTAP-IC) or referred to as MTAP-
IC.
Section 2 – The offce of the Association shall be located at
the place/offce/institution of the incumbent president
or at such other places that the Board of Directors may
designate.
ARTICLE II – Membership
Section 1 – Admission of Members. Any mathematics
teacher seeking admission into the Association must
be proposed/vouched by any member in good standing
and this proposal should appear in his/her application
form to be forwarded to the offce of the Association.
The President has the power to accept new members
subject to the approval of the Board of Directors.
Membership will be effective after paying a membership
fee to the Treasurer which will be dated back to January
1 of that year.
Section 2 – Duties and Responsibilities of the Members.
The member shall have the following duties and
responsibilities:
a. To comply with the by-laws, rules and regulations
that may be promulgated by the Association from
time to time;
b. To attend all the meetings of the Association that
require their attendance; and
c. To pay membership dues and other assessment of
the Association.
Section 3 Members. The board of directors shall consist
of ffteen (15) members to be elected at large by a
secret ballot by the members of the Association during
the General Assembly. Upon assumption to offce,
the Directors shall elect from among themselves by
secret ballot a President, a Vice President, a Secretary
(preferably that he/she belongs to the same institution
with the President), a Treasurer, and an Auditor.
Any MTAP-IC member of good standing who already
served for two consecutive terms are not eligible to run
for re-election. However, he/she is qualifed to run for
the following year’s MTAP-IC BOD election.
Section 4 – Membership Dues. The annual dues of he
members of the Association shall be determined and
fxed from time to time by the Board of Directors with
the approval of the majority of the members.
Section 5 – Resignations. Any member may resign from the
Association by notifying the Secretary. There shall be
no reimbursement of dues under these circumstances.
Article III – Board of Directors
Section 1 – Members. The board of directors shall consist
of ffteen (15) members to be elected at large by a
secret ballot by the members of the Association during
the General Assembly. Upon assumption to offce,
the Directors shall elect from among themselves by
secret ballot a President, a Vice President, a Secretary
(preferably that he/she belongs to the same institution
with the President), a Treasurer, and an Auditor.
Any MTAP-IC member of good standing who already
served for two consecutive terms are not eligible to run
for re-election. However, he/she is qualifed to run for
the following year’s MTAP-IC BOD election.
Section 2 – Powers and Duties. The Board of Directors
shall serve as the Governing Body of the Association.
It shall have the power to:
a. Establish policies and actions which promote the
welfare of the Association;
b. Formulate necessary rules and procedures;
c. Prepare plans and programs for the Association;
d. Fix the time and place of meetings of the
Association; and
e. Discharge such other responsibilities as it may
deem necessary.
Section 3 – Term of Offce. Members of the Board of
Directors shall serve a term of 2 years for those who
got a top 8 rank during the election at large and one (1)
year for those who got the ranks of 9-15. Any member
of the Board may be reelected for another term.
Section 4 – Vacancies. If any vacancy shall occur among
the Directors by reason of death, resignation or for
any other reason, such vacancy shall be flled by a
majority vote of the members of the Board of Directors
constituting a quorum. The Director chosen shall serve
only for the unexpired term of the position to which he/
she is elected.
Any member of the Board of Directors who incurred four
(4) successive absences both in regular and special
meetings of the Association without justifable reasons
will be subjected for expulsion. The remaining members
of the Board of Directors are authorized to appoint or
designate from among the members to replace the
expelled member of the Board.
Section 5 – Quorum and Meetings. The Board of Directors
shall meet at least once every two months. Meeting
shall be held at the call of the President or on a written
petition signed by at least three members of the Board.
By-Laws
Eight members shall constitute a quorum.
Special meetings of the Board may be called by the
President. Notices of any such meeting must be given
at least fve (5) days in advance of the date of the
meeting.
Minutes of all meetings of Board shall be kept and
carefully preserved as a record of the business
transacted at such meetings and must contain such
entries as are required by law.
Section 6 – Powers of the Board of Directors. The Board of
Directors shall exercise the powers of the Association,
conducts its management, administer its properties,
and exercise such power as are herein conferred by
this by-laws. At the annual meeting, the Board shall
approve the new members accepted by the President.
ARTICLE IV – Executive Offcers
Section 1 – Executive Offcers. The Executive Offcers of
the Association shall be President, Vice President,
Secretary and Treasurer, and an Auditor, all of whom
are members of the Board of Directors.
Section 2 – Election and Vacancy. The executive offcer
shall be elected by the Board of Directors at their frst
meeting after their election. Every offcer including the
President shall be subjected to removal at any time by
majority of all the Board of Directors, but all offcers,
unless removed, shall hold offce until their successors
are appointed or elected and qualifed. If vacancy
shall occur among the offcers of the Association,
such vacancy shall be flled by the Board of Directors
constituting a quorum at a special meeting called for
the purpose, provided, such offcers elected shall serve
only the unexpired term of their predecessors.
Section 3 – The President. The President shall be the Chief
Executive of the Association. He/she shall:
a. Preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and
of the members, and enforce the by-laws;
b. Exercise general supervision of the business affairs
and property of he Association;
c. Appoint and dissolve all committees for the
Association and be a member ex-offcio of all
committees;
d. Countersign all orders drawn and signed by
the Treasurer for the payment of money, and
countersign all checks drawn and signed by the
Treasurer;
e. Call special meetings of the Board of Directors and
members when necessary;
f. Make an annual report to the Board of Directors and
to the members; and
g. Perform such duties as may be imposed on him/
her by the Board of Directors.
Section 4 – The Vice President. The Vice President shall
preside in the absence or inability of the President and
shall execute all the duties of the President whenever
the latter may delegate that authority. He/she shall
perform such duties as may be imposed on him/her
by the Board of Directors.
Section 5 – The Secretary. The Secretary shall:
a. Keep a record of all proceedings, such as minutes of
meetings and activities of the Association/ Board of
Directors in a book or books kept for the purpose.
This record shall be open at all times to the Board
of Directors;
b. Keep a true and accurate record of the name,
addresses, and offces of the members;
c. Shall take charge of the reports, records, documents
and the papers as the Board may direct;
d. Shall perform such other duties as are incidental to
his/her offce or are properly required by the Board
of Directors and by the President;
e. Shall attend to the giving and serving of all notices;
and
f. Shall assist the President in the execution of his/
her duties.
Section 6 – The Treasurer. In addition to whatever duties
the Board of Directors may impose, the Treasurer shall:
a. Collect and receive all moneys due the Association
from any source whatever and accurately the
same;
b. Keep and record of the indebtedness of each
member of the Association and the amount receive
from each on forms provided for that purposes;
c. Deposit in the name of the Association, in an
approved bank, all moneys received and report at
each meeting the moneys received and spent since
the last meeting. All bank deposits withdrawals
should be properly certifed and presented to the
President.
d. Keep an account record of all fnancial business
transacted by the Association. These records shall
be open at all times to the inspection of the Board
of Directors. The Treasurer shall pay by check all
bills and obligations of the Association on order of
the President.
Section7 – The Auditor. The Auditor shall:
a. Audit all receipts of disbursements and expenditures
of the Treasurer;
b. Inspect the book of accounts of the Treasurer;
c. Countersign fnancial reports and records of the
Treasurer; and
d. Perform such other duties assigned to him/her by
the President.
ARTICLE V – Adviser
Section 1 – There shall be advisers of the governing body.
The adviser shall be composed of the incumbent math
supervisors of the Divisions of Iloilo, Iloilo City, and
Passi City, the immediate MTAP-IC past President, or
whoever the Board of Directors may designate.
ARTICLE VI – The Election Committee
Section 1 – There shall be a Committee on Election to
conduct the Election of Offcers. The members of the
Board of Directors are authorized to appoint three (3)
members to compose the Committee. The duties and
functions of the Committee will be prescribed by the
Board of Directors.
ARTICLE VII – Members’ Meeting
Section 1 – There shall be annual meeting for all members
of the Association called by the President on the day
and at the time approved by the Board of Directors. At
this meeting, the annual report of the President should
be made. This report should cover in general the entire
work of the Association for the past year.
Section 2 – At the annual meeting, a program should
be presented in keeping with the purpose of the
Association.
Section 3 – Special meetings may be called by the
President according to need.
Section 4 – Notice of the time and place of the annual or
special meetings of the members, shall be given in the
same manner as provided with regard to the Board of
Directors.
Section 5 – A quorum at any meeting of the members
shall consist of a majority of the members and a
majority of such quorum shall decide to any question
at the meetings, except in those matters when the law
requires the affrmative vote of a greater proportion.
Section 6 – At every meeting of the members of the
Association, every member is entitled to one vote only.
Section 7 – Minutes of all meetings of the members shall
be kept and carefully preserved as a record of the
business transacted.
ARTICLE VIII – Investments and Accounts
Section 1 – No investment of any character shall be made
without the approval of the Board of Directors and/or
the members as the case may be.
Section 2 – All books, accounts, and records of the
Association shall be open to inspection by any member
of the Board of Directors at all times and to the
members at the reasonable time during offce hours.
Section 3 – No director or member shall be entitled to or
benefted by any of the profts of the Association except
as a reasonable compensation for services rendered.
ARTICLE IX – Fiscal Year
Section 1 – The fscal year of the Association shall begin
on the frst day of January in each year and shall end
on the last day of December of that year.
ARTICLE X – Annual Fee
Section 1 – The annual fee of the members shall be two
hundred pesos (P200.00) subject to the changes
determined by the Board of Directors. Failure to pay for
the annual fee for the year shall result in being dropped
from membership in the Association.
ARTICLE XI – Amendment of By-Laws
Section 1 – These By-Laws or any part thereof may be
amended or repealed by a majority of all the members
at any meeting called for that purpose. The power
to amend, repeal or adopt new by-laws may be
delegated to the Board of Directors for consideration
and deliberations./The Infnity
Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines,
ILOILO CHAPTER (MTAP-IC), Inc.
P
lease refer to the official blogsite
of the organization, http://www.
mtapiloilo.blogspot.com/, for the
financial report. Other real-time updates
are also posted in this blog for every
member’s perusal and appreciation.
CONSTITUTION
and
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
19
PROF. ALFONSO S. MARQUELENCIA,
Board Member, is an Assistant
Professor 1 at the University of
San Agustin. He is a graduate of
Bachelor of Secondary Education
major in Mathematics at West
Visayas State University in 1992.
In 2005, he fnished the degree
DR. HERMAN M. LAGON, Vi ce
President, is a graduate of Bachelor
of Science in Civil Engineering (Most
Outstanding Engineering Graduate)
in University of Iloilo. He fnished his
Master of Arts in Science Education
in the same school in 2008 and his
PhD in Science Education Major
ENGR. NINFA S. SOTOMIL, Board
Member, is a Professor at Western
Institute of Technology. She fnished
the the degree of Bachelor of
Science in Chemical Engineering,
With Highest Distinction in 1980,
Bachelor of Science in Mathematics,
With Highest Distinction, in 1985
MRS. MARIA ARIES A. PASTOLERO,
Board Member, i s a Mast er
Teacher 1 at Iloilo National High
School. She earned her Bachelor
of Secondary Education Major
in Mathematics at West Visayas
State University, with units in
Master of Arts in Mathematics at
MS. ROSEMARIE GALVEZ, Secretary,
i s a graduate of Bachel or of
Secondary Education Major in
Mathematics (Magna Cum Laude
& Rotary Awardee for Outstanding
Graduate) at West Visayas State
University. She clinched the top
seven spot in the Professional
DR. ALONA M. BELARGA, President,
hol ds t he academi c rank of
Professor 1 at West Visayas State
University College of Education.
She fnished the degree of Bachelor
of Science in Education (BSED)
major in Mathematics at West
Visayas State University in 1984
DR. ALEX B. FACINABAO, Board
Member, is the Dean of the College
of Education of the University of
San Agustin since 2009. He was
chairperson of mathematics and
physics in the same school prior
to his present assignment. He is a
graduate of BS in Math Education
MS. CATALINA M. REALES, Board
Member, is a Master Teacher 2
at Maasin Central Elementary
School and a District Mathematics
Coordinator of the District of
Maasin, Iloilo. She earned her
Bachelor of Elementary Education
Integrated Teacher Education
MR. ALEX A. JARUDA, Boar d
Member, is a Master Teacher 1
at Iloilo National High School. He
was awarded by the Japan Ministry
of Educat i on a MONBUSHO
schol arshi p f or t he Teacher
Training Course in Mathematics.
He earned the degree of Bachelor
ENGR. ROBE RT O NE AL S.
SOBREJUANITE, Board Member,
is faculty member of the Natural
Sci ences Department and the
Quality Assurance Manager of
the John B. Lacson Foundation
Maritime University (Arevalo), Inc..
MS. HERMOSISIMA L. ALTILLERO, Adviser, is an Education
Supervisor (Mathematics-Secondary) of the Department
of Education, Division of Iloilo. Prior to her appointment
as Education Supervisor, she once served as Principal of
Major Manuel A. Aaron Memorial National High School in
Janiauy and Head Teacher of Cadagmayan National High
School in Sta. Barbara.
MRS. LIGAYA H. MONTELIJAO, Adviser, is an Education
Program Supervisor in Mathematics in the Division of Iloilo
City. She fnished the degree of BSED major in Math at
West Visayas State University.
DR. KIM S. ARCEÑA, Adviser, is the Education Supervisor
(Mathematics-Elementary) and Research Coordinator of
the Department of Education in the Divison of Iloilo. He is
a graduate of Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED)
with specialization in Mathematics, Master of Education
(MA Ed) in Administration and Supervision, and Doctor of
Education (Ed. D.) major in Educational Management at
West Visayas State University. Dr. Arcena has attended
a JICA Training Program for Young Leaders (Education
Category) in Kochi, Japan in 2007, the Regional Training
of the TIP Teams on the Mass Implementation of the
Teachers Induction Program, and the DedpEd-MTAP
National Conference on Mathematics Education in 2008.
He is a writer of the Division and Regional Mathematics
Module, and the Module on Local Taxation in the Division
of Iloilo, and has constructed the Division test Reviewer
in Mathematics for the National Achievement Test (NAT)./
The Infnity
ENGR. RAMON S. JARDINIANO,
Auditor, is a graduate of Western
Institute of Technology (WIT) with
distinction and became a faculty
of the Department of Mathematics
of the same school since 1982. A
mechanical engineer by profession,
he also completed his academic
PROF. RHODORA A. CARTAGENA,
Treasurer, is the chairperson of
Math and Physics Department
of the University of San Agustin
and the in-charge of the USA
Statistical Analysis Center. She is
a graduate of Bachelor of Science
in Applied Mathematics and Master
PROF. ALEXANDER J. BALSOMO,
Board Member chairperson of the
Department of Mathematics of
West Visayas State University, is a
graduate of Bachelor of Science in
Applied Mathematics and Master
of Education (Mathematics) in
University of the Philippines in the
Visayas. He is engaged in pure
BOARD OF
DIRECTORS
2012
DR. HAROLD F. CARTAGENA, Board
Member, is the department head
and faculty member of Iloilo City
Community College. He graduated
cum laude in Bachelor of Secondary
Education (Math) at West Visayas
State University under the SM
Foundat i on and COEXSTEP
(Magna Cum Laude) as WVSU-Teacher Education
scholar. In 1995, she fnished her Master of Arts in
Teaching Mathematics at the University of the Philippines,
Diliman, Quezon City as Academic Excellence Awardee
under the Department of Science and Technology Science
Education Institute (DOST-SEI) Scholarship. In AY 1996-
1998, she was awarded a MONBUSHO scholarship by
the government of Japan for her post graduate in teacher
training program at Ehime University, Matsuyama City,
Ehime, Japan. She earned her Doctor of Philosophy in
Mathematics Education (PhD Mathematics Education) in
2001 at the University of the Philippines in Diliman, Quezon
City as DOST-SEI scholar and as Academic Excellence
Awardee. Dr. Alona M. Belarga served as Associate Dean
of the WVSU College of Education Graduate School in June
2007-June 2010, and as chair of the Mathematics Education
Division from June 2010 to Ocotber 2011. She serves as the
Director of Instruction and Quality Assurance of the WVSU
from November 2011 to the present.
in Mathematics in 2011 at WVSU under the DOST-SEI
scholarship. Dr. Lagon is formerly the president of WDSA,
an association of post-grad DOST-SEI scholars in WVSU,
from 2008-2010, and was awarded Most Outstanding
Teacher in Region 6 (PRISSAAP) and in the Philippines
(PERAA), and Most Outstanding School Paper Adviser in
the region (PIA) and in the country (DepEd). He worked
as a professional journalist for six years before teaching
physics (and supervising the science program) in Ateneo
de Iloilo High School (2000-present). He is presently the
editor in chief of MTAP-IC’s Infnity, and is about to fnish
his Master in Business Administration (MBA) course.
Licensure Examination for Teachers (PLET) in 2004 and
earned her Master of Education Major in Mathematics at
the University of the Philippines in the Visayas. She is a
former high school teacher of Sun Yat Sen High School
and Ateneo de Iloilo, repectively. She served as the
President of WDSA, an association of post-grad DOST-
SEI scholars in WVSU from November 2011 to June 2012.
Currently, she teaches college math in University of San
Agustin. She has fnished defending her dissertation for
the degree PhD in Science Education-Mathematics under
a DOST-SEI scholarship in WVSU.
of Education (Mathematics) in University of the Philippines
in the Visayas. She is currently fnishing her PhD in
Science Education (Mathematics) at WVSU.
requirements for Master of Engineering in WIT last year.
math research and sought-after lecturer in statistics
and actuarial math. Sir Alex is a candidate for the PhD
Math program in Ateneo de Manila University under the
Commission on Higher Education scholarship. He is also
currently an active offcer of the Mathematics Society of the
Philippines (MSP) and Philippine Statistics Association (PSA).
Scholarships. He is a graduate of Master of Education
(Mathematics) of University of the Visayas and PhD in
Science Education (Mathematics) in WVSU under the
DOST-SEI ASTHDP-SECC Scholarship.
at Western Institute of Technology and Master of Arts in
Education at West Visayas State University. Amid his
Doctor of Education degree for Curriculum, Instruction,
and Evaluation taken in WVSU, he now fnishes his PhD
in Science Education Major in Mathematics course in the
same university. He is currently the Business Manager of
Association of Deans of Teacher Education Institutions,
Inc. (ADTEI) Region VI.
of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics and is
presently enrolled at West Visayas State University for his
Master of Arts in Education Major in Mathematics.
of Master of Arts in Education major in Mathematics
at the University of San Agustin. In 1998, he fnished
the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B) at the University of Iloilo.
Presently, he is fnishing the degree PhD in Science
Education major in Mathematics at West Visayas State
University.
the University of the Philippines in the Visayas. She was a
recipient of the MONBUSHO Scholarship of the Japanese
Ministry of Education from October 2000-March 2002 in
Kyushu University (Japanese Language Course) and
Fukuoka University of Education (Teacher Training Course
in Mathematics). She worked as an Assistant Language
Teacher in Tokyo, Japan from 2003-2005. Presently she
is the Subject Chairperson in Math of the Special Science
Class-Iloilo National High School.
Program (BEEd-ITEP) at the West Visayas State College
and her Post Graduate at West Visayas State University.
She is a Scholarship grantee of the University of the
Philippine Institute of Science and Mathematics Education
Department (UP-ISMED) in 1993.
He is a graduate of BS Civil Engineering at Western
Institute of Technology and Master of Science in Maritime
Education at the John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime
University. He has completed the academic requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Rural Development at Iloilo
State College of Fisheries.
and Bachelor of Science in Computer Education in 2002
at Western Institute of Technology (WIT). She holds
the degree of Master in Engineering Education and has
completed the requirements for the degree the PhD in
Science Education major in Mathematics at West Visayas
State University. She is presently an associate professor
of WIT.
DR. WILHELM P. CERBO, Board Member,
holds the academic rank of Professor 3 and
presently the Associate Dean of West Visayas
State University College of Arts and Sciences.
He is a graduate of Bachelor of Secondary
Education Major in Mathematics in 1993 as a
University Scholar, Master of Arts in Education in
2003 and Doctor of Education Major in Curriculum
Instruction and Evaluation in 2008 at the West
Visayas State University. As Training Affliate
of the Statistical Research and Training Center
(SRTC), he spearheaded several trainings for the improvement of Statistics
and Statistics Education in the region such as Statistics for Gender Responsive
Local Development Planning and Statistics for Poverty Analysis among the
Local Government Units. He also serves as Chair of the Philippine Statistical
Association (PSA) Region 6 Chapter and sits as member of the PSA National
Board representing the different PSA Chapters in the Philippines since 2009.
NOVEMBER 2011 - OCTOBER 2012
20
T
hi s phot o col l age
presents the participants
in the MTAP-IC’s three-
day Mathematical Investigation
Seminar-Workshop held April 12,
13, and 21, 2012 at the Center for
Education Excellence building at
West Visayas State University.
Working their heart out
to design the most elegant
and authentic Mathematical
Investigation that they can
i magi ne, t he part i ci pant s
found the workshop—as the
final evaluation reveals—to
be humbl i ng, chal l engi ng,
enl i ghteni ng, exci ti ng, and
lasting.
The Infnity fle photos
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