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Dell Hymes


Dell Hymes
Dell Hathaway Hymes (June 7, 1927, Portland, Oregon – November 13, 2009, Charlottesville, Virginia) was a linguist, sociolinguist, anthropologist, and folklorist who established disciplinary foundations for the comparative, ethnographic study of language use. His research focused upon the languages of the Pacific Northwest. He was one of the first to call the fourth subfield of anthropology "linguistic anthropology" instead of "anthropological linguistics". The terminological shift draws attention to the field's grounding in anthropology rather than in what, by that time, had already become an autonomous discipline (linguistics). In 1972 Hymes founded the journal Language in Society and served as its editor for 22 years.

Early life and education
He was educated at Reed College, studying under David H. French, and graduated in 1950 after a stint in prewar Korea. His work in the Army as a decoder is part of what influenced him to become a linguist. Hymes earned his Ph.D. from Indiana University in 1955,[1] and took a job at Harvard University. Even at that young age, Hymes had a reputation as a strong linguist; his dissertation, completed in one year, was a grammar of the Kathlamet language spoken near the mouth of the Columbia and known primarily from Franz Boas’s work at the end of the 19th century. Hymes remained at Harvard for five years, leaving in 1960 to join the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley. He spent five years at Berkeley as well, and then joined the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania in 1965 (where he succeeded A. Irving Hallowell). In 1972 he joined the Department of Folklore and Folklife and became Dean of Graduate School of Education in 1975. He served as president of the Linguistic Society of America in 1982, of the American Anthropological Association in 1983, and of the American Folklore Society - the last person to have held all three positions. He was a member of the Guild of Scholars of The Episcopal Church. While at Penn, Hymes was a founder of the journal Language in Society. Hymes later joined the Departments of Anthropology and English at the University of Virginia, where he became the Commonwealth Professor of Anthropology and English, and from which he retired in 2000, continuing as emeritus professor until his death from complications of Alzheimer's disease on November 13, 2009.[2] His spouse, Virginia Hymes, is also a sociolinguist and folklorist.

Influences on his work
Hymes was influenced by a number of linguists and anthropologists, notably Franz Boas, Edward Sapir and Harry Hoijer of the Americanist Tradition and Roman Jakobson and others of the Prague Linguistic Circle. Hymes' career can be divided into at least two phases. In his early career Hymes adapted Prague School Functionalism to American Linguistic Anthropology, pioneering the study of the relationship between language and social context. Hymes formulated a response to Noam Chomsky's influential distinction between competence (knowledge of grammatical rules necessary to decoding and producing language) and performance (actual language use in context). Hymes objected to the marginalization of performance from the center of linguistic inquiry and proposed the notion of communicative competence, or knowledge necessary to use language in social context, as an object of linguistic inquiry. Since appropriate language use is conventionally defined, and varies across different communities, much of Hymes early work frames a project for ethnographic investigation into contrasting patterns of language use across speech communities. Hymes termed this approach "the ethnography of speaking." The SPEAKING acronym, described below, was presented as a lighthearted heuristic to aid fieldworkers in their attempt to document and analyze instances of language in use, which he termed "speech events." Embedded in the acronym is an application and extension of Jakobson's arguments concerning the multifunctionality of language. He articulated other, more technical, often typologically oriented approaches to variation in patterns of language use

Hymes clearly considers folklore and narrative a vital part of the fields of linguistics. anthropology and literature." "Well. for example. saying. pragmatics. but the idea that seems most influential on Hymes is the application of rhetorical criticism to poetry. L. Together with John Gumperz. in which he includes ethnopoetics. S. He created the Dell Hymes Model of Speaking and coined the term communicative competence within language education. Burke's work was theoretically and topically diverse. in his own mind. including Robert Alter. C." etc. Hymes helped to pioneer the connection between speech and social relations placing linguistic anthropology at the center of the performative turn within anthropology and the social sciences more generally. He feels that the translated versions of the stories are inadequate for understanding their role in the social or mental system in which they existed. Claude Lévi-Strauss. He provides an example that in Navajo.[3] Hymes studied with Burke in the 1950s. He argues that understanding narratives will lead to a fuller understanding of the language itself and those fields informed by storytelling. Hymes promoted what he and others call “ethnopoetics. Hymes noticed that there are commonly poetic structures in the wording and structuring of the tale. that have linguistic if not semantic meaning). the ethnography of speaking has been renamed the "ethnography of communication" to reflect the broadening of focus from instances of language production to the ways in which communication (including oral. and has bemoaned the fact that so few scholars in those fields are willing and able to adequately include folklore in its original language in their considerations (Hymes 1981:6-7). rhetoric. Hymes was the founding editor for the journal Language in Society. broadcast. artistic forms.[5] Patterns of words and word use follow patterned. Hymes has included many other literary figures and critics among his influences. He and Dennis Tedlock defined ethnopoetics as a field of study within linguistic anthropology and folkloristics. Hymes' later work focuses on poetics. particularly the poetic organization of Native American oral narratives. Kroeber. Hymes believes that all narratives in the world are organized around implicit principles of form which convey important knowledge and ways of thinking and of viewing the world. psycholinguistics. In reading the transcriptions of Indian myths. which were generally recorded as prose by the anthropologists who came before. narratives also convey the importance of aboriginal environmental management knowledge such as fish spawning cycles in local rivers or the disappearance of grizzly bears from Oregon.Dell Hymes across speech communities in series of articles. Erving Goffman and William Labov. More recently." "So. Hymes’ goal. is to understand the artistry and “the competence… that underlies and informs such narratives” (Hymes 2003:vii). are essential to understanding how the story is shaped and how repetition defines the structure that the text embodies. narrative inquiry and literary criticism. Hymes defined a broad multidisciplinary concern with language in society. Hymes considers literary critic Kenneth Burke his biggest influence on this latter work. which he edited for 22 years.” an anthropological method of transcribing and analyzing folklore and oral narrative that pays attention to poetic structures within speech. omitted in the English translation. A. In addition to being entertaining stories or important myths about the nature of the world. [6] . “My sense of what I do probably owes more to KB than to anyone else”. Lewis. acts of receiving/listening) is conventionalized in a given community of users. the particles (utterances such as "uh.[4] 2 Significance of his work As one of the first sociolinguists. semiotics. written. sociolinguistics.

teach the young women. channels. Act Sequence Form and order of the event. Participants Speaker and audience. Key Clues that establish the "tone. the family would be festive and playful.[10] The family story may be told at a reunion celebrating the grandparents' anniversary. purposes (goals). A serious. for example.[9] The living room in the grandparents' home might be a setting for a family story. At times. Norms Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reaction. but males. under which he grouped the sixteen components within eight divisions:[8] Setting and Scene "Setting refers to the time and place of a speech act and.[13] The aunt might imitate the grandmother's voice and gestures in a playful way. or spirit" of the speech act. hearer/receiver/audience. scene. purposes (outcomes). The story's plot and development would have a sequence structured by the aunt. addressee. but also the context in which words are used.[11] At the family reunion. key. Possibly there would be a collaborative interruption during the telling. forms of speech. the audience can be distinguished as addressees and other hearers. an aunt might tell a story to the young female relatives. although not addressed.Dell Hymes 3 The "S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G" model Hymes developed a valuable model to assist the identification and labeling of components of linguistic interaction that was driven by his view that. including characteristics such as range of formality and sense of play or seriousness. Ends Purposes. might also hear the narrative. in order to speak a language correctly. norms of interaction. manner. and genres. The model had sixteen components that can be applied to many sorts of discourse: message form. Instrumentalities Forms and styles of speech. serious and commemorative.[7] Hymes constructed the acronym SPEAKING. . the group might applaud the tale and move onto another subject or activity. Finally. or she might address the group in a serious voice emphasizing the sincerity and respect of the praise the story expresses. goals. Linguists will make distinctions within these categories. speaker/sender. and outcomes. to the physical circumstances". formal story by the aunt might call for attention to her and no interruptions as norms. in general. Scene is the "psychological setting" or "cultural definition" of a scene. message content.[14] The aunt might speak in a casual register with many dialect features or might use a more formal register and careful grammatically "standard" forms.[12] The aunt may tell a story about the grandmother to entertain the audience. or possibly those interruptions might be limited to participation by older females. one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar. at other times. the norms might allow many audience interruptions and collaboration. The aunt's story might begin as a response to a toast to the grandmother. addressor. setting. In a playful story by the aunt. norms of interpretation. and honor the grandmother.

D.ix-x.56-57. [15] Anticipating that he might be accused of creating an (English language) "ethnocentric" mnemonic — and. Narrative Inequality: Toward an Understanding of Voice • (2003) Now I Know Only So Far: Essays in Ethnopoetics . 243-245. by Christina Bratt Paulston and G.57.55. "The Ethnography of Speaking". [4] Hymes (2003). and speech communities sometimes have their own terms for types. The aunt might tell a character anecdote about the grandmother for entertainment. The Anthropology Society of Washington. W. com/ philly/ obituaries/ 20091119_Dell_Hathaway_Hymes__82__Penn_education_dean.virginia. p. Dallas: SIL International. In The Early Days of Sociolinguistics: Memories and Reflections. participants. Penn education dean (http:/ / www. [8] Note that the categories are simply listed in the order demanded by the mnemonic. Language in Society.html) Major works • Hymes.x.54 and 56. not by importance [9] Hymes (1974).[15] References [1] A fellow folklore graduate student at Indiana was his former Reed classmate. for instance.62). Dell Hathaway Hymes. ton (key). [10] Hymes (1974). [5] He also had to master the grammars of several Native American languages in the process. 82. 2009. p. agents (instrumentalities). (eds). pp. 13–53 in Gladwin. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. External links • Dell Hymes' personal web site (http://www. • (1983) Essays in the History of Linguistic Anthropology • (1996) Ethnography.Dell Hymes 4 Genre The kind of speech act or event. [13] Hymes (1974). ed. philly. thus. the kind of story. Linguistics. an (English language) "ethnocentric" theory — Hymes comments that he could have.C. for the example used here. and was probably the last person who could recite texts in Clackamas Chinook.53-62. raison (resultat). locale. pp. T. [7] Hymes (1974).) (1972) Reinventing Anthropology • (1974) Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach • (1980) Language in Education: Ethnolinguistic Essays • (1981) "In Vain I Tried to Tell You": Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics. p. the poet Gary Snyder [2] Sally A. html) philly. [3] Hymes (2003). types (genres) (1974. or an exemplum as moral instruction. [11] Hymes (1974). [14] Hymes (1974). 1997. [6] Dell Hymes. Different disciplines develop terms for kinds of speech acts. • (1964) Language in Culture and Society • (ed.55-56.58-60. [12] Hymes (1974). & Sturtevant. an extinct language. p. pp. normes. pp. pp. Retrieved on November 19. Downey. generated a French language mnemonic of P-A-R-L-A-N-T: namely. (Washington).. p. Richard 1962. by implication. actes. pp. Anthropology and Human Behavior.

Regna (2006) "Keeping the Faith: A Legacy of Native American Ethnography. . ed. 3–16. Ethnohistory. and Psychology.Dell Hymes 5 Other sources • Darnell. by Sergei A. Histories." In: New Perspectives on Native North America: Cultures. pp. Kan and Pauline Turner Strong. and Representations. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Qmwne235. D6. Pete212. Hectoralos. BD2412. Ish ishwar. Cbustapeck. Bryan Derksen. J04n. Bluemoose. Pearle.Article Sources and Contributors 6 Article Sources and Contributors Dell Hymes  Source: http://en. Jimwilce.0/ . Mereda. Matve.0 Unported //creativecommons. Wereon. Kh7. Enevins. Williams II. Malangthon. Omnipaedista. Stevertigo. Erasmussen. AmiDaniel. Rich Farmbrough. Languagehat. Lophophor A. Michael David. Wayne Slam. Maunus. Mathonius. Pacaro.wikipedia. R'n' Tom Lougheed. Jfpierce. Mu.php?oldid=517127007  Contributors: 7265. Trialsanderrors. Jenks24. Carlydb. Ememqut1901. RobyWayne. Grisunge. Masken. Eleanornevins. Klemen Kocjancic. Valfontis. Lindsay658. Hikui87. Safrax. Babbage. Charles Edward. Mike Dillon. Bearcat. PaulHanson. 66 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Gianfranco. 79spirit. Davidjobson. Cnilep. Ffbond. DabMachine. Burschik. ChrisCork. Giraffedata. Johnpacklambert. Suncrush. Excirial. Pete unseth. WWGB. Sinatra. Merope. TL789. Bad carpet.