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1 Real Numbers Real Number – Any Number that can be written as a decimal Natural (or counting) Numbers – {1, 2, 3, …} Whole Numbers – {0, 1, 2, 3, …} Integers – {… , - 3, - 2, - 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …} Rational Number – any number that can be written as a ratio; when written as a decimal, either terminates or infinitely repeating Irrational Number – Not rational; when written as a decimal, just goes on and on without repeating Inequality symbols – Less than (<), Greater than (>), less than or equal to ( ≤ ), Greater than or equal to ( ≥ ) Interval Notation Inequality Notation Interval type a≤ x≤b [a,b] closed a< x<b (a, b) open a≤ x<b [a, b) half-open a< x≤b (a, b] half-open [ a, ∞) x≥a closed x>a ( a, ∞) open ( − , b] ∞ x≤b closed ( − , b) ∞ x<b open First four are bounded, endpoints; Second four are unbounded, infinity Properties of Algebra Commutative property Addition a + b = b + a Multiplication: ab = ba Associative property Addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Multiplication: (ab)c = a (bc) Identity property Addition a + 0 = a Multiplication: a ⋅1 = a Inverse property Addition a + (−a ) = 0 1 Multiplication: a ⋅ = 1, a ≠ 0 a Distributive property Multiplication over addition a (b + c) = ab + ac (a + b)c = ac + bc Multiplication over subtraction a (b − c) = ab − ac (a − b)c = ac − bc Properties of the Additive Inverse Graph closed circles on both ends open circles on both ends closed on a and open on b open on a and closed on b closed on a and shade right open on a and shade right closed on b and shade left open on b and shade left

a m a n = a m+n am 2. a m m When multiplying with the same base. 4.1. 2. add exponents When dividing with the same base. subtract exponents Any number to the zero power is 1 A negative exponent moves top to bottom. 5. give the exponent to both numerator and denominator When taking a power of a power. 3. a = n a (ab) m = a mb m 5. multiply exponents ( ) m n =a mn Scientific Notation b ×10 n .   = m b b 7. n = a m−n a 3.11 1 – 63 odds . give the exponent to both factors When dividing with an exponent. where 1 ≤ b < 10 and n is an integer Homework Assignment P. a 0 = 1 1 −n 4. bottom to top When multiplying with an exponent. − (−a ) = a (− a)b = a (−b) = −ab (− a)(−b) = ab (−1)a = −a − (a + b) = (−a ) + ( −b) the opposite of a negative number is positive It really does not matter where the negative sign is in multiplying A negative times a negative equals a positive Negative 1 times a number is the same as the opposite of that number This is like the distributive property of multiplication over addition only with a negative sign Exponential Notation Exponents tell how many factors of the base there are when expanded out Properties of Exponents 1. a a 6.