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Tuning

V. J. Brusamarello, Y. B. Blauth,

Electrical Engineering Department

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

email: valner.brusamarello@ufrgs.br, yeddo@ufrgs.br

R. Azambuja, I. Müller

Electrical Engineering Department

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

email: Ricardo.azambuja@gmail.com,

ivan.muller@ufrgs.br

Abstract — This paper presents the analysis of two loosely

coupled coils used to transfer energy to charge a battery. This

battery is used to power an electronic device designed to monitor

variables such as impact strength, range of temperature and

humidity associated with the transport of fruits. The device is

inside a sealed enclosure that cannot be opened for recharging

the battery. The study shows the loosely coupled coils need to

work with a resonance capacitor, at least on the secondary coil.

However the resonance frequency also depends on the coupling

factor k and the power delivered to the load. Therefore, this work

proposes a monitoring system with closed loop for fine-tuning the

resonance frequency of the secondary coil circuit. Before starting

charging the battery the system scans the resonance frequency on

the primary coil and measures the output power on the

secondary coil looking for the optimal point. This procedure

reduces problems of variation of coupling factor with positioning

of the coils.

Keywords - loosely coupled coils, resonance, battery charging,

wireless.

I. INTRODUCTION

Magnetically coupled coils have been widely used for a

variety of applications requiring contactless or wireless power

such as biomedical devices [1]-[2], instrumentation systems

[3], among others [4]–[6]. In such applications, the energy

transfer from the source to the load is done by loosely coupled

coils, usually without a common magnetic core. These coils

can be represented by the primary and secondary inductances

L

1

and L

2

, with a low coupling coefficient K

12

.

In order to enhance the power transfer capability, the

loosely coupled coils generally need to be compensated with

capacitors to obtain the resonance effect [7]. Many works have

shown that capacitive compensation is crucial to loosely

coupled applications [1]–[7]. In addition to the power transfer

capability, the operating efficiency of the coupled coils is of

concern to many applications [7]. In fact, applications such as

biomedical implanted devices [1]-[2] may require efficient

power transfer in order to reduce time of charging associated to

uncomfortable positions. In other applications the efficiency of

the inductive link is required in order to avoid energy wasting,

such as automotive battery charge devices [5]. The inductive

power transfer system suffers severely from inefficient

operation, particularly under light loading conditions [8].

Usually, in order to achieve the maximal power transfer

efficiency some tuning technique is applied to the circuit. A

typical approach for controlling the system uses variable

frequency (VF) control in the resonant inverter to meet the zero

phase angle (ZPA) [5] in the load impedance, and uses pulse

width modulation (PWM) technique in the controlled rectifier

of the output side to control the output voltage or current.

According [2], [9], [10] the power flow control of wireless

power pickups is an important point that limit their further

development. Load variations, magnetic coupling variations

between the coils as well operating frequency drifting can

cause the output voltage of the secondary power pickup to

deviate significantly from the original designed value, resulting

in undesirable characteristic for applications where a constant

and stable output voltage is required [9]-[13]. Different

methods have been proposed for controlling the load in loosely

coupled coils such as the shorting control method [13] or the

dynamic tuning/detuning technique proposed in [5], [14], [15].

The fundamental concept of the last technique is to

dynamically change the tuning condition of the power pickup

according to the actual load requirements. This feature

increases the overall efficiency of the system and ensures that

the quality factor of the designed circuit remains unchanged.

Nowadays there is an increasing development of wireless

devices, which need battery recharging regularly. Loosely

coupled transformers have been proposed to work as charger to

wireless devices such as mobile phones, where the primary

core of the transformer is in the charger unit and the secondary

core is in the telephone [4] or simply by applying a printed-

circuit-board [16]. In another application [17], a detachable

transformer is presented as a noncontact charging system for

the batteries of an electrical shaver using a resonant converter.

This paper describes the study of an inductive power

transfer system for charging the batteries of an instrument that

mimes a fruit such as an apple or an orange. Among other

important variables the device records the mechanical shocks,

using a 3-ring load cell during the post-harvest processing of

apples and oranges [18], [19]. The small signals are acquired

by a digital system and sent through a radio channel, which is

linked to a similar system. In this work, the same wireless link

is used to carry information about the secondary of two loosely

coils built in order to charge the power supply batteries of the

whole remote system. A converter was built in order to drive

the primary coil and control the power delivered to secondary

coil. The digital system in the fruit monitors the power in the

batteries and sends the information to the base, which search

the tune frequency point, featuring a wireless loop control

strategy. The following sections will show how important and

sensible to small changes is the tune frequency to the

maximum power delivered from the secondary coil to the load.

In the presented work, the position of the secondary to the

primary coil of the charger has a direct influence to the

coupling factor and therefore has a direct impact on the

detuning of the system. The feedback is used wirelessly, in

order to tune the resonance and achieve the optimal working

condition again. In a generic charging system, this strategy can

be used to overcome the problem of dynamic loads, by

scanning the secondary power, feed backing to the control

system and adjusting the optimal operation point on the

primary coil.

II. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

A. Analysis of the primary coil

The equivalent circuit of two loosely coupled coils can be

represented by three coils [20] (Fig. 1a and Fig. 1 b).

Considering the primary coil connected to the sinusoidal wave

source and the secondary to a load, one can calculate the

equivalent Thevenin of the circuit from the source side (Fig. 1

a). In this case the total impedance from the secondary coil is

reflected to the primary side. By considering the load

L L L

Z R jX = + and the coil impedance

2 2 2 L L L

Z R jX = + , the

impedance on the secondary coil is:

2 2

( ) ( )

Sec L L L L M

Z R R j X X X = + + + ÷ (1)

Thus the reflected impedance on the primary side is

calculated by:

| |

2 2

Re 1

2 2

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

M M L L L L M

f

L L L L

X X X X j R R X

Z

R R j X X

÷ ÷ + +

=

+ + +

(2)

( )

2 2

2 2 2 2

Re 1 2 2

2 2

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

M L L L L L L M L L

f M

L L L L

X R R j R R X X X X X

Z X

R R X X

( ( + + + + + ÷ +

¸ ¸

( =

+ + + (

¸ ¸

(3)

The reflected impedance

Re f

Z with the primary total

impedance

1

Z defined by the source output impedance

S

R ,

and the reactance and resistance of the inductor

1 1 1 L L L

Z R jX = + determines the total current supplied by the

voltage source.

Figure 1. a) Two loosely coupled coils connected to a voltage source on the

primary side and to a load on the secondary side; b) Equivalent circuit; c)

Equivalent Thevenin circuit from the primary side.

The total impedance from the primary coil is:

( )

Re 1 1 1 p f L L M S

Z Z R j X X R = + + ÷ + (4)

The current supplied by the power source (Fig. 1c) is

dependent of the total primary side impedance

p

Z defined by

equation (4). Also, equation (4) shows that a series circuit

resonant capacitor should have the impedance defined by

( )

Re 1 1

_ { }

RC f L M

Z img c Z j X X = ÷ ÷ , where

Re 1

_ { }

f

img c Z is

the imaginary parcel of the conjugate of the reflected

impedance. The resonant capacitor on the primary coil can

increase the drained power from the power source by

decreasing the total series impedance, but the tune point will

vary with the load.

Mutual inductance [20] is defined by:

1 2

M K L L = (5)

The reactance

M

X depends on primary and secondary

inductances coils. This reactance also depends on the coupling

constant K , which change with the relative position of both

coils. The variation of mutual inductance is reflected on the

inductance of both sides, primary and secondary, and thus it

also influences the resonance frequency of the circuit.

B. Analysis of the secondary coil

Considering the primary coil connected to the sinusoidal

wave source and the secondary to a load, one can calculate the

equivalent Thevenin of the circuit from the load side (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. a) Two loosely coupled coils connected to a voltage source on the

primary side and to a load on the secondary side; b) Equivalent Thevenin

circuit from the secondary side.

The voltage reflected on the secondary coils ( )

1

E e is

defined by:

( ) ( )

( )

1 1

1

2 2

1 1

L M M

X X jX R

E E

R X

+

e = e

+

(5)

Where ( ) E e is the sinusoidal voltage source and

1 1 L S

R R R = + .

And the equivalent impedance reflected on the secondary

coils is:

( )

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

Re 2 2 2

1 1

M M L M L M

f

L

X R j X X X X X R

Z

R X

+ ÷ +

=

+

(6)

Where:

1

R is the primary coil resistance summed to the source

impedance;

1 L

X is the primary reactance;

M

X is the mutual inductance defined by

1 2 M

X K L L = e (7)

Where

1

L is the primary coil inductance,

2

L is the

secondary coil inductance and K the coupling constant.

C. Resonance effect on the secondary coil

The behavior of the circuit described in the previous

sections become interesting if a capacitor is calculated in order

to reach the resonance on the equivalent circuit representing the

secondary side. Figure 3 shows the equivalent circuit of the

impedance of the secondary coil in parallel to a current source.

The current source ( )

S

I e is the Norton current defined by:

( )

( )

( )

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2 Re 2

( )

L M M

L

S

L L M f

X X jX R

E

R X

I

R j X X Z

+

e

+

e =

+ ÷ +

(8)

The resistor

eq

R represents the effect of the intrinsic

resistance of the inductors and the resonant capacitor (which

can be described by its quality factor Q ), as well the output

resistance of the input voltage source reflected to the secondary

coil. This circuit shows that when the inductor and the

capacitor reach the resonance, the current

2

i is null. In that

situation the current from the source is divided by the load

(current

3

i ) and the equivalent resistance

eq

R (current

1

i ). If the

equivalent resistance

eq

R is high enough then

1

i is around zero

and the current

s

I is supplied to the load. Equation (8) shows

the dependence of the current source of the primary inductance

1

L , secondary inductance

2

L , primary coils resistance

1

R ,

secondary resistance

2

R , and the coupling constant K .

Figure 3. Equivalent source supplying the current to the load on the

resonance.

In order to reach the resonance on the secondary coil a

capacitor should be calculated and connected in parallel to the

load. If the load is resistive, the resonant capacitor value is a

function of the circuit frequency, and the total inductance as

shown in Figure 3. Variations in the capacitance or the

inductance of this circuit can detune the resonance.

The total inductance of Figure 3 depends on the coupling

factor K, which depends on the geometric position of both

coils. Each time the coils are moved they will have a different

coupling factor, resulting in a variable mutual inductance.

Also, environmental factors such as humidity can change the

capacitor value. Both situations require to fine-tune the

resonance point of the circuit. The dependence of the resonance

frequency of the circuit with the coupling factor can be seen in

Figure 4. The values of the coupling factor K used in this

work are based on measurements of a prototype coil, which

will be presented in the next sections.

D. Non linear load

A rectifier block is necessary in order to have an

application such as a battery charger. The diodes bridge

connected to the battery features a non linear load. An

interesting question to answer is how the circuit behaves with

the nonlinear load.

Figure 4. Dependence of the resonance frequency with the coupling

constant K .

The response is especially important if we are interested in

optimizing the energy transfer to the load. The analysis of the

circuit was done by using a simulator based on spice. In this

simulation, the load is a resistor which assumes different

values. The capacitor C is calculated in order to the secondary

coil reaches the resonance. The results of the simulations are

summarized on table 1 ( 0.29 K = ,

1

1

L

R = O,

2

0.9

L

R = O,

1

77 L H = µ ,

2

48 L H = µ , 231 C nF = , 10

R

C F = µ , e(t) is a

AC pulse source ranging from -15 to +15 V, 50000 kHz).

Figure 5. Simulated circuit used to analyze the non linear load.

TABLE I. POWER ON THE LOAD BASED ON SIMULATED VALUES

L

Z Load Current

Load Power

1 Ω 175 mA 30 mW

10 Ω 160 mA 256 mW

50 Ω 144 mA 1.03 W

100 Ω 123 mA 1.03 W

200 Ω 100 mA 2 W

270 Ω 90 mA 2.2 W

500 Ω 67 mA 2.2 W

1000 Ω 42 mA 1,7 W

5000 Ω 11.5 mA 0.6 W

Table 1 shows that the maximum power transfer, for this

case in particular, occurs when the load takes a value between

270 and 500 ohms. In the case of the battery charger, this

indicates that there is an optimal point at which the voltage

converter to power the battery must be designed. It is

important to note that the maximum power transfer depend on

the load (Figure 6) and the coupling factor (Figure 7).

Figure 6. Dependence of power transferred to the load on the output..

Figure 7. Dependence of power transferred to the variation of coupling

factor K.

III. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS

The main objective of this paper is to study and develop a

wireless charger to be used in an electronic device designed to

monitor variables associated with the transport of fruit and the

like. The results of the first prototype, as well as details of

construction of the instrument for wireless monitoring of

variables was presented in [18]. The first variables to consider

are the size and geometry of the enclosure in which the

electronic device is packed. Due to the spherical geometry and

simplicity we chose to develop two solenoid coils. One with a

diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the sphere to work

as a primary coil which should be at the power charger. The

secondary coil should be located inside the sphere, which is

sealed. Figure 8 illustrates the sphere used in the prototype. the

relative position between the two coils is crucial to define the

coupling factor K. A slight misalignment between the coils

causes the variation in the coupling factor and consequently the

resonance frequency, as shown in Section 2. Finally, the loss of

tune considerably decreases the ability to transfer energy to the

load.

Figure 8. Spherical geometry of the developed prototype.

A. Drive to the primary coil

The primary coil uses a four-quadrant inverter so that the

current oscillates between positive and negative values

(average current in the load is zero). The inverter applies a

square wave from -15 to +15 V with a frequency of 50 kHz. It

is important to notice that, since we use a resonant circuit, the

waveform of the input rectifier is sinusoidal because the high

frequency components are filtered.

The power delivered by the source depends on the total

impedance seen in the primary winding. Since this impedance

has an inductive component, one can use a capacitor in series

to force the resonance, resulting in considerable increase of

current in the primary coil and consequently the energy transfer

to the secondary coil. The choice of the capacitor to be placed

in series depends on the capacity of the power source and must

be done carefully. Figure 9 illustrates the drive circuit used in

this work.

Figure 9. Dependence of power transferred to the load on the output.

B. Power on the load

The circuit shown in Figure 5 was used to test two different

conditions and measure the total power delivered to the load:

a. In the first situation the secondary coil was placed inside

the primary coil in order to have a strong coupling ( 0.7 K ~ ).

b. In the second situation the secondary coil was placed

outside the primary coil in order to have a weak coupling

( 0.3 K ~ ).

In both situations the load

L

Z was a set of resistors. The

output voltage was measured and the power calculated. The

results are shown in Table 2.

TABLE II. POWER ON THE LOAD BASED ON RESISTIVE LOAD

( )

L

Z O Voltage

1

Voltage

2

Load Power

1

Load Power

2

6.8 1.9 0.3 0.5 0.01

47 12 1.6 3.0 0.05

100 24 2.6 5.7 0.06

270 44 4.8 7.1 0.08

470 57 6 6.9 0.08

1000 63 7 3.9 0.04

4700 74 8 1.1 0.01

OC

75 10 -------------- ----------

1

strong coupling

2

weak coupling

OC - open circuit

The practical results shown in Table 2 confirm the

simulated results shown in Table 1. The maximum power

transfer occurs when the load is between 100 and 470 O. Thus

the intrinsic resistances of the inductors and the capacitor, as

well as the internal resistance of the AC source used in the

simulation have realistic values.

C. Wireless tuning

Figures 4, 6 and 7 show that the load voltage and power are

very sensitive to frequency variations. Figure 4 shows that the

resonance frequency is very sensitive to the variation of the

coupling factor K. It is inevitable that the relative position

between the coils of the charger varies in each battery recharge,

varying the inductance reflected to the secondary. Thus, this

paper proposes an adaptive control for fine-tuning the

resonance frequency of the secondary coil circuit, using a

wireless communication link between the control system.

Concerning platforms that include MCU and radio in the

same chip, there are several options, among them, the

Freescale’s MC1322X. This platform includes an ARM 7

MCU and an IEEE 802.15.4 radio, besides standard peripherals

such as a 12 bit ADC with multiple inputs. Since such platform

has been used in the development of the measuring device, it is

very suitable for the application of the battery charger. Thus,

the MCU in the measuring device monitors the battery and

communicates with the MCU that controls and adjusts the

frequency in the charger base, working in the primary coil

(Figure 10).

Figure 10. Block diagram of the charger.

Concerning the software, the MCU of the primary coil

initializes the communication link with the MCU of the

secondary coil. Thus, the control system on the primary side

starts a scan frequency synchronized with the measures of

power in the load carried by the control system on the

secondary side. At each frequency point a measure of power is

performed on the secondary side. This measure is sent by the

wireless link to the primary and compared with the previous

measure. The algorithm searches for the optimum point and

adopts it as the resonance frequency and starts charging the

battery. Figure 11 illustrates the described wireless loop.

Figure 11. block diagram of the charger with wireless communication.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents the analysis of two loosely coupled

coils used for charging an electronic device that monitors

variables associated with the transport of fruits. Once the

measuring device is sealed, the charging cannot be made with

wires connecting the power source and the battery. The

primary coil is connected to a PWM inverter controlled by an

MCU, which among other features has a wireless

communication module. The secondary coil is connected to the

battery charging circuit in which current and voltage are

monitored. This monitoring is made by another MCU that

controls the measuring device and communicates with a remote

base.

The coils analysis showed that the circuit needs at least one

capacitor to force the resonance in the secondary coil in order

to optimize the energy transfer between the coils. However, the

impedance reflected to the secondary side depends on the

coupling factor K and thus the resonance frequency. Also, the

positioning between the two coils causes a variation of the

coupling factor K in the battery recharge.

Thus, this paper proposes a closed loop system to monitor

the power delivered from a charger circuit during the battery

charging process. The MCU that monitors the loader circuit in

the device communicates with the MCU that controls the

primary coil driver when the charging process starts. The

MCU in the AC power base starts a frequency scanning step by

step. The algorithm searches for the frequency where the

maximal power is delivered to the charging battery. This point

is assumed to be the resonance frequency, thus the battery

charge process continues until the full charge is reached.

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