bfhL{lnªdf

g]kfnL hflt /
hghftLo lrgf/Lsf
gof c*fgx¿

s'df/ k|wfg

bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿

;f];n ;fOG; axfMåf/f 18 cu:6 2004 df sdnkf]v/Ll:yt ¿;L ;f+:s[lts
s]Gb|, sf7df8f}dF f cfof]lht ;efdf 8f= s'df/ k|wfgåf/f lbOPsf] JofVofgsf]
k"0f{ kf7 .

©

;f];n ;fOG; axfM

k|yd ;+:s/0f M ;g\

2005

k|sfzs
;f];n ;fOG; axfM
lxdfn P;f]l;P;g
kf]=a=g+= 166, kf6g9f]sf, nlntk'/, g]kfn
kmf]g M 5542544 / 5548142 • ˆofS; M 5541196
Od]n M baha@himalassociation.org
j]a;fO6 M www.himalassociation.org/baha
ISBN 99933 43 68 4

bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿

dx]zrGb| /]UdL JofVofgdfnf

bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx?

;j{ky| d d s[t1tf k|s6 u5{' o; JofVofgsf cfof]hs ;f];n ;fOG;
axfM, lxdfn P;f]l;P;gnfO{, o;/L bf];f| ] dx]zrGb| /]UdL JofVofg lbg]
;Ddfg lbP/ lbjª\ut /]UdLHo"kl| t >4f~hnL ck{0f ug]{ cj;/ lbg'ePsf]df .
cy{gl} ts Oltxf; n]vgsf] ;"qkft ub}{ :juL{o /]UdLHo" cfˆg} ljlzi6tf;Fu
Pp6f j}1flgs b[li6 lnP/ g]kfnsf] Oltxf; n]vgdf Ps klys[t g}
aGg'eof] . Oltxf;sf] ljBfyL{sf] gftfn] d}n] zf]wsfo{ ;'? ubf{ Ps
cg';Gwfg]T;'ssf ¿kdf d}n] u/]sf] g]kfnsf] tLy{ofqfx¿df Oltxf; lz/f]dl0f
afa'/fd cfrfo{, kl08t gog/fh kGt, wgjh| jh|frfo{, dx]zrGb| /]UdLHo"sf]
bz{g / pxfFx¿;Fu s'/fsfgL ug]{ lgwf] u/]sf] lyPF .
g]kfnsf] k/Dk/fut Oltxf; n]vgaf6 5'§} eP/ Oltxf; s]jn …v'8F f /
v's/' Lsf] tdf;fÚ xf]Og, of] s]jn dxfk'?ifx¿sf] hLjgL xf]Og / Oltxf;sf]
k|lqmofdf cy{gLlt s;/L sf/stŒj aGb5 eGg] dxt\ sfo{ g]kfnsf]
Oltxf; n]vg k4ltdf dx]zrGb| /]UdLHo"n] u/]/ b]vfOlbg'ePsf] Pp6f
sLlt{dfg 5 . sf7df8f}s
F f] nflhDkf6df pxfFnfO{ e]6g\ uPsf] / pxfFn]
lbg'ePsf] ;do clg pxfF klxnf]kN6 bfhL{lnª cfpg'x'Fbf d]/f] jf;:yfgdf
kfpsi6 ul/lbg'ePsf] ;D‰gf c‰ cfn} 5 .
…;dfhzf:qÚ ljifos} 5fq geO{ cfk"m Oltxf;sf] 5fq ePsf]n] clg
cfˆgf] ljz]if cWoogsf] ljifo u/L …o'/f]ksf] cfw'lgs Oltxf;Ú eP klg
cfˆg} ynf] bfhL{lnªsf] Oltxf;, ljz]if ToxfF xfdL g]kfnLx¿sf] a;f]af;,
ToxfF p7\g] dfux¿df xfd|f] cfzf / cfsfª\Iffsf k|ltlaDax¿ tyf ltgsf
sf/0f d]/f] zf]wsf] ljifo ag]sf] :gftssf] ljBfyL{ x'Fbfb]lv g} xf] .
ef/tdf g]kfnLx¿sf] a;f]af; w]/} 7fpFdf eP klg bfhL{lnª kxf8nfO{ d"n
u9 egL ;a}n] :jLsf/]sf] tYo xf] .
bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿

1

bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnLx¿sf b'O{ d'Vo dfux¿ ePsf] d}n] v'6o\ fPsf] lyPF .
Pp6f 5'§} hflt ePsf] cfwf/df :jfoQ zf;g jf :jzf;gsf] clwsf/
clg csf]{ ljleGg :t/df g]kfnL efiffsf] dfGotfsf] dfu . clg of] lgSof}n{
bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hfltTj ljsf;sf] k[i7e"ldsf ¿kdf d]/f] lh1f;fsf]
ljifo aGof] . Toltn] ePg . d}n] d"nd} hfg] lgZro u/]F clg g]kfnL hflt
a'´g g]kfnsf] Oltxf; ga'‰L gx'g] 7fg]F .
ToltGh]n g]kfnsf] Oltxf; g]kfnL ePsf] gftfn] d]/f nflu Pp6f
;txL ?lrsf] ljifo dfq lyof] . t/ k/Dk/fut Oltxf; n]vgeGbf 5'§}
dx]zrGb| /]UdLHo"sf s[ltx¿af6 d k|efljt gePsf] xf]Og . d]/f] zf]wsfo{df
pxfFsf s]xL ljrf/;Fu dtleGgtf ePsf] pNn]v ul/P klg pxfFsf
s[ltx¿af6 p4/0f /flvPsf 5g\ / pxfFsf] k|efj d]/f] zf]wsfo{df :ki6
kl/nlIft 5 . g]kfnL hftLotfsf] hGd / ljsf;df g]kfnsf] slyt /fli6«o
PsLs/0fsf] e"ldsf d}n] ljBfjfl/lwsf] lglDt zf]wsfo{sf] ljifo 5fg]F .
snsQf ljZjljBfnoåf/f ;g\ 1984 df :jLs[t d]/f] zf]wsfo{sf] ;ª\lIfKt
¿k Gorkha Conquests: The Process and Consequences of the Unification of Nepal with Particular Reference to Eastern Nepal sf] k|sfzg ;g\
1991 df ePsf] lyof] .
Tof] k':tssf] clGtdeGbf Ps cl3Nnf] k[i7df 5flkPsf] 5 M
... it will not be amiss to mention that in India the Nepali
language has helped to bring about a closer integration of
the Kirats, Magars, Gurungs, Tamangs, Newars, Brahmans,
Chhetris and others. The Nepali language is spoken there
as the first language or ‘the mother tongue.’ There are other
socio-economic factors behind the use of a feeling of identity
among the Indian Nepalis … But that is different story which
receives a detailed treatment in a separate study. Footnote:
Author’s work on Darjeeling in the context of the birth and
growth of the nationality feeling among the Nepalese of the
place, unpublished.

of] sfd ck"0f{ / ck|sflzt g} 5 . kl08tx¿sf] efiffdf g]kfndf
2

bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿

ef/tsf] . km]l/ ePg u|Ls efiffdf pagan. ef/tdf xfdLn] To.n] cfˆgf bfHo"–efOx¿nfO{ x]¥of] M æTof]eGbf d uf]/f] 5'. g]kfndf sldnf k|lqmof 5 eg] xfd|f] bfhL{lnªdf df}/L k|lqmof 5 g]kfnL hfltsf] .ª\st] nfO{ Tofu]/ hfltTjsf] cy{df nationality zAbn] /fi6« jf /fhg}lts .Gtfg < xf}F s] xfdL Pp6} hflt < lat]sf s]xL jif{x¿b]lv bfhL{lnªlt/ klg g]kfnL hfltleq} cfˆgf] 5'§} lrgf/Lsf] k|Zg p7fpg yflnPsfn] d]/f] vf]hLdf Pp6f gofF cfofd hf]l8Psf] h:tf] nfU5 .fdGjlos (syncretic) PsLejg kfOG5 .t hguf]i7L a'‰fpg pgLx¿ nation.fFjnf] 5'./L n]Vof}F eg] xfdL ljb]zL dflgG5f}F.sf] eGbf 8fF8].|t cg]stfsf] (pluralist) . ethnic zAb nationbfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 3 .r]t /xg'kg]{ klg cg'ej ub{5' .xcl:tTj w]/} kfOG5 eg] ef/tdf .dtn t/ To.dfhj}1flgs David Reisman åf/f klxnf]kN6 pkof]u ul/Psf] ethnicity. oxfF cªu|h] L efiffdf k|oS' t kfl/eflifs zAbfjnLn] hGdfpg] u/]sf sl7gfOx¿k|lt . d leGb} x'F .nfO{ d'v afpFbf] Pp6f zª\sfn] . d]/f] gfs To.+/rgfdf . t/ cfˆgf] k':ts kxf8 / vf]nf x¿df OGb|axfb'/ /fO{n] Ps 7fpFdf n]Vg'ePsf] 5 M p. o'/f]ksf w]/}h..f]Rg'kg]{ / o. heathen cy{ nfUg] ethnikos af6 Jo'TkGg / .Ldfx¿ gf£g] u/]sf] cr]n /fhgLlts l. g]kfnsf s'g} gful/sn] ltgsf] nationality af/] ul/Psf] k|Zgsf] pQ/df g]kfnL eGg jf n]Vg'k5{ .nSs lgN5 M xfdL xf}F s] Ps} hftLo . clg efiffaf/]sf] k|Zgdf g]kfnL n]v]/ . d leGb} x'F .{ . xfd|f] nationality xf] ef/tLo cyjf Indian .f‰f tŒjx¿sf] cfwf/df ljsl. Tof]eGbf d .g\ 1953 df cd]l/sL .Gbe{df g]kfnLefifLsf] s'/f p7\bf sub-nationality k|of]u ug'{kg]{ ePsf] kfpF5f}.sf] eGbf . ====Æ p.fsf ¿kdf . k|Zg ug'k{ g].f] /fi6«x¿ PsefifL (mono-lingual) ePsfn] xf]nf Pp6f efiff / cGo . cGtlg{lxt /fhg}lts . log} ljifod} d]/f] of] JofVofg 5 M Pp6f dxt\ lh1f. d leGb} x'F .ldl.Gt'i6 x'G5f}F . ljifoaf/] ljzb / uxg rrf{ ug'{kg]{ clgjfo{ nfu]sf] 5 .4fGtx¿n] dfGg yfn]sf 5g\ . nationality h:tf zAbx¿ k|of]u u5{g\ .

_ 4 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .+zlStzLn e"ldsfsf] k|z+. u'?ª.sf] oyfly{s cfwf/sf] k|ltlglwTj .ª\u p7fpFbf klg ethnic zAb g} rnfPsf] b]lvG5 .f ub{5g\. of] k|lqmof / o.Qfsf] Psflwsf/ pkef]u ug]{ tfufwf/L pRr hftx¿df x'GYof] . pbfx/0ffy{. ef/tsf w]/} /fli6«o kqklqsfn] bfhL{lnªsf g]kfnLx¿sf ljleGg dfux¿nfO{ ethnic demands egL n]Vg] u5{g\ clg g]kfnL hfltleq ls/fFt. t/ .Ldf gf3]/ w]/} sf/0fn] Psa4 ePsf] hguf]i7L a'‰fpF5 . rrf{df d}n] …g]kfnLÚ zAb g]kfn clw/fHoleq o. g]jf/.f}F ztfAbLsf k|yd b'O{ bzsleq jt{dfg g]kfn clw/fHosf] lgdf{0f jf /fhgLlts PsLs/0fsf] k|lqmof jf g]kfnn] jt{dfg /fhg}lts cfsf/ k|fKt ug]{ k|qmd k"0f{ ePsf] lyof] .'gj' f/ cflbsf] lglDt hghflt zAb pkof]u u/]sf] 5' . tfdfª.4fGtsf] e"ldsf u|x0f u5{g\ eGg] tYosf] eg] pk]Iff u5{g\ .sf] clGtd b'O{ jfSo .+:s[lt / wd{n] /fhg}lts l.s]sf] 5' h. . its pragmatic basis was represented in the class of tagadhari high castes who enjoyed a monopoly of power. If the theoretical rationale of the politically unified kingdom of Nepal was expressed by the Brahmanical Hindu religion.f+:s[lts cy{df /fhg}lts jf /fli6«o . g]jf/.sf .ality s} kof{ojfrL‰}F k|of]u ul/Psf] klg kfOG5 . but what is overlooked is the fact the culture and religion often assume the role of political ideology. . /fhg}lts PsLs/0f ePsf] g]kfn clw/fHosf] j}rfl/s d"nwf/ a|fXd0fjfbL lxGb" wd{n] cleJoQm uYof]{ eg] To. clg ls/fFt.f/f+zsf] ¿kdf k|:t't 5 M “Scholars of Nepal invariably praise the cohesive role of the Hindu religion. v|Li6fAb pGgfO.f+:s[lts cy{df k|of]u u/]sf] 5' . tfdfª. …g]kfnLÚ zAbn] Pp6f efiff.” -g]kfnsf ljåfg\x¿ lxGb" wd{sf] .}n] o. To. cfk}m cK7Øf/fdf k/]/ xf]nf oL hguf]i7Lx¿sf lglDt sub-ethnic zAb k|of]u u/]sf] klg b]lvG5 .a} gful/sx¿sf lglDt k|oQ' m x'g] cy{df k|of]u gu/L cyjf /fli6«o / /fhg}lts cy{df geO{ . du/.sf kl/0ffdx¿sf] ljZn]if0f k|sflzt zf]wsfo{df ul/. /fhg}lts cy{df g]kfnsf] /fli6«otf clg .'g'jf/ cflb hguf]i7Lsf k|.

dsflns pNn]v kfOG5g\ .afx]s .Lldt eP klg du/x¿ l.lSsdsf] To.4 pb\lebzf:qL hf]. ef/tsf] Pp6f lhNnfdf bfhL{lnªsf] kl/0flt / To.nLu'8L / ltgtfs ef]6fªsf] Onfsf sfn]aª' k/]sf] lyPg .'?df jt{dfg dxfsfn 8fF8f / jl/kl/sf] . g]kfnsf] .'g]sf] df}lvs k/Dk/fcg'.Qfsf] cfFvf l. bf]hl{] nª jf bfhL{lnªsf] h] g} cy{ nufOP klg o.lSsdn] lbPsf] e"efudf g]kfn . gf]b{] / dl/.s lgo'St x'g] 8f= P= SofDka]n -g]kfnsf b:tfj]hdf lsldn . ToxL jif{ sf7df8f}aF f6 . æclxn] c?0fsf] klZrdlt/ .g\ 1839 .n] s~rghª\ufsf] klZrdkl§ sf+ukfr]g pkTosfdf du/x¿sf lsNnf / eUgfjz]if b]v]sf] pNn]v cfˆgf] e|d0f j[QfGt Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet.g\ 1835 df l. l.k] m 8fN6g x"s/n] ToxfF pNn]v u/]sf 5g\.o hg.S5f}F . n]Vg] k|l.'b/" k"j{ -jf bfhL{lnª.Fu l. plNnlvt Onfsfaflx/ /x]sf dfgj a:tLx¿af/] . jif{kl5 .lsFbg} .f]sf] cg'. w]/}n] SofDka]nnfO{ p4[t u/]sf 5g\ . . e"efudf kg{ yfn]sf] lyof] h'g e"efu / kl5 ef]6fªaf6 uflePsf Onfsf ldnfP/ .kl5 3gf b]lvg] u/L g]kfnLx¿ . sf/0f. ltgn] ToxfF .sf] egfOdf bf. oL ljifodf s] tYox¿ k|:t't ug{ .Gwfg cfjZos 7fg]/} d]/f] zf]wsfo{ a9]sf] lyof] .Ldfglur kg]{ k'nahf/.Dddf s]jn Ps .dtndf l. gfpFn] .Psf] If]q_ df bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 5 .L lyP.ª\Vof lyof] .g\ 1835 df cª\uh]| nfO{ slyt ¿kdf e]6 r9fOPsf] 138 ju{dfOn If]qdf .lSsdsf cflbjf. s'/fdf s]xL .fxa_ n] b.6 ju{dfOn 5 .Æ ltAat e|d0fdf hfFbf z/trGb| bf. la|l6.uf]vf{sf] ljho cleofgsf] kmn:j¿k g]kfnsf] /fhg}lts PsLs/0f ePs} xf/fxf/Ldf ef/tdf lkFmlhO/x]sf] la|l6. of] s'/f xfdL .g\ 1848 df bfhL{lnª.sf] To. hxfFaf6 ltgLx¿nfO{ klZrdlt/ clxn]sf] lnDa"x¿sf] b]zdf nfKr]x¿n] nv]6] clg lnDa"x¿n] ltgLx¿nfO{ c‰ klZrdlt/ nv]6] . xhf/ k'Uof] elg n]v]sf 5g\ . 1902 df u/]sf 5g\ .g\ 1866 df jt{dfg bfhL{lnª lhNnf aGof] .dfgf ufFl./L x'g k'u] .ª\Vof b.g\ 1849 df Tof] .?jf eO{ bfhL{lnªsf k|yd k|zf.lSsd / k"jL{ g]kfn e|d0f u/L lxdfnog hg{N. ldl/s If]qx¿ clg . oL hDd} efu lgh{g lyP egL dfGg . . .'sk] f]v/L. To.ª\Voful/i7 lsg / s.f/ du/x¿nfO{ ef]6]x¿ cfP/ ToxfFaf6 nv]6s ] f lyP .dsflns b:tfj]hx¿af6 hfGg . .Totf 5 .lsG5 < jt{dfg bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf] If]qkmn 1256.Lldt e"v08 dfq hgfpFYof] .

f08'kåf/f cª\u|]hLdf History of Sikkim egL cg"lbt 5 -ck|sflzt_ .nLu'8L oL tLg dxs'df ufEgcl3 o.lSsd k./x]5 eGof s'/f .g\ 1789 b]lv 1815 .'lgg nflu/x]5 O{ s'/f . bfhL{lnªsf] xfjfkfgL / o.Dd jt{dfg bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf bfhL{lnª .g\ 1850 . a.dfgf ‰u8f ldnfpg O:6 OlG8of sDkgLsf b'O{ clwsf/L SofK6]g nf]o8\ / u|fG6 .f/ …kxfl8of -lnDa" / du/_ d'lvofx¿nfO{ aflx/ lxF8b\ f cfˆgf] bhf{ / . v/.x¿sf] cfphfp x'GYof] eGg] .g\ 1908 df ltAatLdf …k|frLg b:tfj]hx¿sf] cfwf/dfÚ n]v]sf1 l. nf]o8\n] To. Tof] zLtsfn pgLx¿n] bfhL{lnªd} latfP .fFrf] ‰"6f] Sof /x]5 ceL+t/ u/L kfsf hfGof dflg. k7fO{ h:tfsf] t:tf] ifj/ a'l‰ xh"/df laGtL u/L 1 6 of] k':ts nfdf bfjf .f]af.cg'. l. To. . l.lSsd k'u]sf lyP .dtndf l6:6f gbL.lSsdsf /fhf y'6f]a gfdUofn / /fgL of]z] 8f]Ndfn] .g sfod ubf{ ToxfF nfKr] / du/ ufpFx¿ lhTg'k/]sf] pNn]v 5 .tjf/l. cª\uh]| n] . 7fpFnfO{ ‘the old Goorkha Station of Dorjeling’ eGb} ToxfF 5 lbg latfPsf] ljj/0f lbPsf lyP . cª\uh]| x¿sf] lqmofsnfksf] lrof] ug{ g]kfnn] la/fPsf] lyPg .g\ 1641_ ltAatLx¿n] l.lSsdnfO{ lht]/ ufe]sf lyP .b/.lSsdsf] Oltxf.'lifdsf] bf]Ho]{ln+df c+u/]hn] 5fpgL xfnL al. a]nf To.Dd l.fª / l.kl5 g]kfn / l.Fu c‰ b]Vg kfOG5 . 7fpFsf] pkof]lutf a'´g cªu|h] ujg{/– hg/nn] pxL SofK6]g nf]o8\ / csf{ Ps hgf RofkDofgnfO{ . lyPg eGg .ª\st] kfOG5 .qf}F ztfAbLdf -. ltgtfs bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnaf6 dflg.Dd uf]vf{x¿n] sfn]aª ' dxs'dfafx]s bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf kxf8 / .df klg .+x e08f/Ln] lbPsf] l/kf]6s { f] Pp6f c+z b|i6Jo 5 M æ=== .lsFbg} .lSsddf‰ l. e"efudf g]kfnL hfltleq kg]{ hghflt uf]i7Lx¿sf] a.gbx¿ tL k'/fgf kl/jf/x¿.L cfˆgf] zf.lSsdsf] of] Oltxf. bfhL{lnªdf du/h'ª -du/hf]ªÖdu/sf] lsNnf <_ gfpF ePsf] 7fpF 5 .Ddfg k|bz{gsf lglDt /fHoaf6 /]zdsf] j:q nufpg] / guf/f lk6fpg] clwsf/ k|fKt ePsf .klg du/ a:tLx¿ / du/ af]nLsf] k|rng kfOG5 .g\ 183637 df v6fPsf lyP . bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .g\ 1829 df bfhL{lnª eP/ l.

g .g elg huf lbofsf] /x]5 t]xL bf]h{ln+df c+u/]hsf] 1 . bfhL{lnª bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 7 . bf]h]{lnª l.'lifdfsf] bf]h{ln+ eGofsf] hufdf .'lifdsf] af6f] u/L g+u]n'rf bf]Ho]{ln+ k'uL l.fx]k 1 Hdfbf/ 24 gfn l."rgf kfOG5 .'lifDofn] c+u/]hnfO{ sf]l7 /f. /x]5 t].d]t 5fpgL xfnL a:ofsf] 14 d}Gxf eo]5 === l.g\ 1839 df SofDka]n bfhL{lnªsf zf.'ab] f/nfO{ bfhL{lnª k7fPsf] .'lifd t/km hfg nfUof eGof hfg x'Fb}g egL ha/h:t u/L yfd\Gof sfd\ gug'{ .'lb 12 /f]h 1 d'sfd wgs'6f z'ed\ ===Æ nIfjL/ zfxL / x]dbn yfkf n]V5g\ M æ=== xfdLx¿sf] ift\ / c+u|]hL ift\lb kfxf8sf] af6f].lsP klg g]kfnLx¿sf] cfphfpaf/] cGo s]xL .kfxL.fgf /fifL tqmfl/ hldg\ xfdLx]¿nfO{ .+yL/ a.fn ldlt kf]if .Fu e} pg\af6 5f]6f .'lifd wdf{ t/kmsf] aft laxf]/f hfGof a'‰Gof 4 hgf dflg.} l.af6 a]nbf/ l‰sfO{ /fif]5 60/50 a]nbf/ xfdLn] klg b]io'+ c‰ c¿ klg cfpF5 e+5+ egL o]xL lj:tf/sf] ifj/ Nofof+5 === .+kflnb]lif bf]h]{ln+ .fx]a af6 hfFxfF rflxGof xf] jfxf l.kfxL k7f`f} === sf]xL /o]tx¿ .dsfnLg pNn]v kfOG5g\ . k7fofsf] nfndf]x/ cfOk'UofYof] === .+jt\ 1894 .d]tsf] xfn.jfgfsf] hufdf of] aGbf]a:t rflxGo} s'/f xf] of] s'/fsf] aGbf]a:t eo]5 al9of eof] xf]nf lsldn\ -SofDka]n_ . x'g yfNof] . lg:sL wdf{ bflndsf]6.k't{ u¥of kl5 === cfpGof sfd u/f}Fnf .jfgfl. gf]e]Da/ 1840 df lszguGhaf6 Ps hgf cª\uh]| clwsf/Ln] SofDka]nnfO{ n]vs ] f] lr7Ldf 25 xhf/ sDkgL ?lkofF lhDdf nufO{ lzj/fh yfkf .Æ ltgtfs slt g]kfnLx¿ bfhL{lnª If]qdf lyP 7Ls cfFs8f kfpg g.+kflnb]lif bf]hl{] n+.6s agfpg egL dª\l.\t/km cfof eGbf klg jfxfFaf6 ha/h:t u/L yfd\Gof 5}gg\ of] s'/f `fxf xfh./b]lv dw].'lifd t/kmsf /o]t\ o]. k7fof+Yof+ .+kflnb]lif lt:6f k'uL dw].jfgfsf] lg.Dd .k7f === egL d]x/ e} alS.L uofsf] 8f8f] 20/25 sf].fx]a.s eP/ cfPkl5 o.'/t a'‰L kmSof{5 === .fx]anfO{ kgL n]vL hfGof5 egL xs'd cfofsf cy{ l. . If]qsf] ljsf.

ltgLx¿df w]/}h. .g .ª\Vof cjZo w]/} lyPg .f6f] g]kfnL zAb …el/ofÚ (bharriahs) sf] k|of]u ljrf/0fLo 5 .g\ 1839 df Sebundy Sappers gfds sfo{an u7g ePsf] lyof] .f] cfˆg} b]zaf6 efUg]x¿ 5g\ hxfF kms]{/ uP hldgbf/x¿n] k]ml/ kqmg]5g\ egL ltgLx¿ q:t 5g\ .fdGtL k|yfcGtu{tsf] zf]if0f k|an ljsif{0f zlQmsf] ¿kdf al9/x]s} .'? ePkl5 v'Ng yfn]sf sfdwGwf / ljz]if u/L lrof pBf]usf] b|t' ljsf.g. …lrofsf] af]6df k}.do bfhL{lnªdf cª\uh]| L zf.]gfdf uf]vf{x¿ klg ePsf] pNn]v kfOG5g\ . by the lords of the soil) hª\uaxfb'/n] 3/nf}/L u/L 6 xhf/ lnDa"nfO{ sf7df8f}F nfFbf ToxfF x}hf rnL slt .Ddsf] cfˆgf] sfo{sfndf nfKr] / g]kfnL efiffdf sf]zx¿ tof/ kfl//x]sf] / wd{k|rf/sf s]xL krf{x¿ oL b'O{ efiffdf afF8\g] u/]sf] pNn]vn] otf g]kfnL af]Ng] / a'´g]x¿sf] . Onfsfdf w]/yf]/ g]kfnL af]Ng]x¿ .dflxt eO. hd{gLsf] df]/fljofaf6 cfPsf] df]/fljog ld.Dd rn]sf] clwlgoddf cª\uh]| L zAb …s'NnLÚ sf] . .g\ 1848 df x"s/sf] e|d0fdf ltgL.g\ 1864 df ef]6fªdfly wfjf af]Nbf la|l6.srx/Ldf .Fu} O. . (Jung 8 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .ª\Vof al9/x]sf] .f kmN5Ú eGg] .Fu lxF8g\ ] bndf yf]/d} f Ps hgf uf]vf{ ePsf] / cª\uh]| x¿n] .g\ 1840 b]lv 1860 .gn] .ª\st] lbG5 . cfsif{0f zlQm aGof] .'/Iff / af6f]3f6f] d/Ddtsf] lglDt .g\ 1848 df Ps 7fpF n]v]sf 5g\ M bfhL{lnªdf la|l6. . .o dbf{ 3/nf}/Lb]lv afFr]sfx¿ hxfg}. cª\uh]| L zf.fO{ wd{kr | f/sx¿ klg bfhL{lnª cfpg yfn] .'g/] g]kfnaf6 lgu{dgsf] kl/df0f w]/} a9\g uPsf] bfhL{lnªsf hgu0fgfx¿sf] ljZn]if0fn] k|dfl0ft u5{ .g\ 1862 df k|sflzt bfhL{lnªsf] Pp6f e|d0f j[QfGtdf To. bfhL{lnªsf] . of whom there were many residing as British subjects in Dorjiling. x"s/n] .Fu efu]/ bfhL{lnª uPsf] klg ltgn] n]v]sf 5g\ . and afraid of being claimed. (The Nepalese.do o. g]kfndf .s]sf] k|df0f nfU5 .g\ 1841 . should they return to it. sfo{anaf/] ‘It is composed almost entirely of Nepalese’ n]lvPsf] 5 . were mostly runaways from their own country.'?df g]kfnL hg.sf] k|hf eO{ w]/} g]kfnLx¿ a:5g\.dsfnLg 36gfjnLx¿af6 cª\uh]| x¿n] bfhL{lnª lnPsf] .

889 hg. hft / hfltx¿ 5g\.lSsdaf6 slyt ¿kdf e]6:j¿k kfPsf] 138 ju{dfOnsf] bfhL{lnª e"efudf .g\ 1872 df bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf] df]7 hg. cyjf g]kfnL g} cfˆgf] d"n efiff ePsfx¿ rf/ xhf/ lyP eg] /xn 31 xhf/ ef]6ad]{nL efiffuf]i7Lsf cyjf dtjfnLx¿ lyP .Gbf g]kfnL afx'g–5]qL dfGof}F eg] clg tyfslyt .380 g]kfnL lyP . dufy{sf] hgu0fgf l/kf]6d{ f hg. To.Æ clg 8An'=8An'= x06/cg'. ltgdf g]kfnL slt lyP pQ/ vf]Hg] k|of.Dk"0f{ lhNnf g} 9fSg]5g\.f/ ] f] lyof] .fwf/0faf6 leGg} 5'6]/ a:5g\ .ª\VofnfO{ hfltx¿df juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5.sf] tLg jif{kl5 ePsf] bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf] klxnf] hgu0fgfsf] cfwf/df . ef/tdf klxnf] cflwsfl/s hgu0fgf .Rofpg] hdsf]{ ubf{ Tof] k|ltzt 38.df lxGb" egL b]vfOPsf] 9.712 lyof] .Æ g]kfnLafx]s bfhL{lnªdf cfP/ a:g] . bfhL{lnªsf] lglDt 5'§} .Lx¿af/] n]lvPsf] 5. t/ Tof] j}1flgs 5}g .ª\Vofdf 35. Tof] l/kf]6d{ } n]lvPsf] 5. æPs lbg g]kfnLx¿n] . æltgLx¿ :yfoL a:b}gg\ .xh} nufpg .'Gh]n pgLx¿ oxfFsf hg. .ª\sngcg'. ug{ yfn]sf clwsf+z g]kfnL lhNnfdf :yfoL eO{ a:5g\ .ª\Vof 22.g\ 1869 df ul/Psf] hgu0fgfcg'.s]sf] 5' . ltgsf] tkl.f/ .ª\sng .f/ lhNnfdf a.4 lgsfNg . o.607 k'us hgfdf clwsf+z g]kfnLx¿ ePsf cg'dfg To. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 9 . ltgn] u/]sf] .ndf …g]kfnLÚ zLif{sdf PsrfnL. t/ k]mxl/:tdf a|fXd0f / Iflqo -afx'g–5]qL_ x¿ 5}gg\ . who were contoned at Kathmandoo. cyjf 94.fgf] hftx¿sf] . oxfF To.L=Pkm= dufy{n] u/]sf lyP .712 df]7 . causing many families who dreaded conscription to flock to Darjeeling). æbfhL{lnªdf cfP/ a.lsG5 .dtnjf. where the cholera breaking out.Bahadur levied a force of 6000 of them.g\ 1871 df ePsf] lyof] .f]af.ª\Vofsf] 34 k|ltzt g]kfnL b]vfPsf lyP eg] ltgsf] e"nnfO{ .Æ bfhL{lnªsf tTsfnLg cª\uh]| lhNnfkfnn] Pp6f l6Kk0fL n]vs ] f lyP .g\ 1835 df cª\uh]| x¿n] l.ª\Vof 94.nfO{ gbf]xf]¥ofO{ olt g} eG5' dufy{n] df]7 hg. carried off some hundreds. u/f}F . dufy{sf] cfFs8fdf g]kfnL zLif{saflx/ b]vfOPsf a|fXd0f / /fhk'tnfO{ kxf8sf afl.lsG5 . ljifodf ljzb ljZn]if0f d}n] Pp6f n]vdf ul/.ª\Vof hf]8b\ f k|foM rf/ xhf/ lg:sG5 .

fgf] hftdf hDdf 2. .117 lyof] eg] ltgdf g]kfnLsf] hg.F 254. g]kfnL hg.ª\Vof 177 k'Uof] . To.754_.455 u'?ª lyP .619 /fO{.ª\Vof 376.f/f+zdf b'Oc{ f]6f s'/f /fvf}F — Pp6f xf] lrofaf/Lsf] . kxfl8of 92.369 lyof] h.ª\Vof a9]/ 223.000 n] cfk"m g]kfndf . ef]6ad]{nL kl/jf/sf efiff af]Ng]x¿sf] . sfdL 1.6 k|ltzt_ g]kfnL lrofsdfgdf lyP .g\ 1856 b]lv bfhL{lnªdf lrofsdfgx¿ vf]lnFb} uP .567_. h.ª\Vofdf 114. .420 lyof] eg] k|f/Dedf ef]6ad]n{ L af]Ng] dtjfnLx¿sf] .088 hgf g]kfnL lyP. o.g\ 1901 df df]7 hg.g\ 1931 df lhNnfsf] hg. g]kfnL hg. . To.ª\Vofdf .fsL{ 328_ 5g\ .000 xhf/ lyof] .712 lyof] . lnDa" 10 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .ª\Vof j[l4. o.Gbf ePkl5 ToxfF g]kfndf hGdg]x¿sf] .kl5 tfdfª -6. slyt .608 hgf g]kfnL lyP clg To.712 df 33.114 tfdfª.258 g]kfnL b]lvG5g\ .df s]jn 749 hgf g]kfndf hGd]sf lyP . kj{ltof 21 nfO{ 5]qL dfGof}F eg] of]ukmn 220 k'U5 .314 k'us hGd]sf] egL btf{ u/fPsf lyP . .'?df ef]6ad]n{ L kl/jf/sf cfˆg} af]nLx¿ af]Ng] uf]i7L jf dtjfnLx¿ lyP . .aeGbf w]/} /fO{ -6.f] .262 du/.608 g]kfnLdf 57.ª\Vof 249.ª\Vof j[l4 clg bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnLx¿ :yfoL afl.ª\Vofsf] 7"nf] lx:.ª\Vof 31. lhNnfsf] df]7 hg.738 -45.ª\Vofdf 5]qL Ps} hgf btf{ 5}g.ª\Vofdf sdL .g\ 1891 df of] ] f] lyof] h.g\ 1872 sf] df]7 hg.df 88.ª\Vof 319.000 k'u]sf] lyof] . . . .260 df 223.S5g\ .308 g]kfnLx¿ lyP clg pgLx¿df s]jn 59 xhf/ g]kfndf hGd]sf lyP .sf] 67.fgf] hftsf] . 15. 17.635 lyof] h.a} g]kfnL afx'g gx'g klg . a|fXd0f btf{ ug]{ 904 .ª\Vof 445.480 lyP cyjf g]kfnL g} d"n efiffsf] ¿kdf af]Ng]x¿ 66.6 k|ltzt jf 254.k|To]s bzssf] hgu0fgf ljZn]if0flt/ guO{ . . .ª\Vofdf w]/h} .ª\If]kdf tfufwf/L -afx'g–5]qL_ sf] .g\ 1890 df lrofsdfgx¿sf] .kl5 43.466 -bdfO{+ 252.g\ 1951 df df]7 hg.g\ 1872 df 74 cf]6f lrofsdfg lyP eg] .ª\Vof 94. 7s'/L 56. clg g]kfnL hg. .g\ 1941 s} cfFs8f x]/f}.ª\Vof 34.df 161. .803 lnDa".ª\Vof nueu 190.ª\Vof 94. . 17.Fu} bfhL{lnª kxf8df hg. pbfx/0ffy{.886.940 clg slyt .ª\Vof 134. uf]vf{ 51.Ddsf] cjlwdf 148 cf]6f lrofsdfgx¿ lyP .f lrofsdfgdf lyof] . .g\ 1905 b]lv 1935 .g\ 1872 sf] hgu0fgf -klxnf] cflwsfl/s hgu0fgf_ x]/f}F .g\ 1941 df lhNnfsf] df]7 hg.

s'/fn] ljZn]if0f vf]H5 .fdflhs b[li6n] klg …xfdLÚ x]o ePsf] nfUg] sf/0f lyP .. cy{gl} ts -cfly{s_ dfq xf]Og . >d a]r/] hLljsf]kfh{g ug]{ g]kfnLx¿ cy{gl} ts zf]if0fsf l.zSt x'g'df s'g sf/stŒjx¿ pQ/bfoL lyP To.j].419_. h'Qf agfpg] / l. 3tL{ -1. . hguf]i7Ldf PsTj / hftLotfsf] efjgf knfP/ la:tf/} k|v/ / . 7"n7"nf kbdf pgLx¿ lyP eg] .nfpg]x¿ l5d]sL laxf/ Pj+ /fh:yfgsf lyP . s'ng} af/L / ljz]if u/L lrofaf/Ldf xhf/f}s F f] . cª\uh]| x¿ ./sf/L tyf u}/. kLl8t ag]sf g]kfnLx¿df c¿sf] cJoj:yfsf] t'ngfn] …xfdLÚ eGbf …pgLx¿Ú leGb} eGg] efjgf a9\g' c:jfefljs lyPg .120_ ub}{ df]7 hg.a} c¿åf/f zfl. du/ -3. a:tLlt/ .dfhdf kF'hLklt / hldgbf/ sf]xL lyPgg\ .{ jf{ dflns lyP.L cg]kfnL lyP .fg aGg].f}F ztfAbLsf] z]if efu. cfk"mleq eflifs. g]jf/ -1. k|foM .fgf Jofkf/ ug]{ tyf sf7ld:qL.x/lt/ l.ª\Vofdf >dhLjL aGg] bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL . g]kfndf /x]sf] . cj:yfdf kfOG5 .663_.fgf ls.fdGtL k|yfsf] cTofrf/af6 pDs]/ d'Unfg k:g]x¿ s'g} /fd/fHodf k'u]gg\ .Dd lgDg dWoljQ >]0fL knfpg nfu]sf] .k|sf/n] zf]lift.-4. gflkt.j{xf/fju{sf lyP .s / zfl.fdflhs. …ltgLx¿Ú agfd …xfdLÚ sf] tLj| r]tgfsf] pT.kfxL tyf >lds x'g].687_. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 11 . pGgfO.sf/ lyP . dWod / . t/ o. af]nLsf] cg'k:| y lje]bdf dfq afFl8Psf]. . cª\uh]| x¿sf] s'/} 5fl8lbpFm. hguf]i7Lleq zf.a} g} >dhLjL lyP .a} . lzlIft …afa'Ú / dxfhg vfnx¿ >dhLjL g]kfnLnfO{ …s'NnLÚ afx]s c¿ s] 7fGy] xf]nfg\ .t lyPgg\.gsf] 3fgdf k/] . ef/tsf] cf}klgj]lzs zf.dfhdf hftLo efjgf kl/of]lht u/L hufpg' s'g} dWoljQLo jf k'FhLjfbL juL{o :jfy{ lyPg . u'?ª -3. lrofpBf]u pgLx¿s} lyof] . g]kfnL hguf]i7Lleq Pp6f ju{sf] csf]{ ju{dfly cTofrf/ / zf]if0f lyPg . To.dfhnfO{ …Dn]R5Ú ePsf]n] x]o 7fGg] u/]sf] tYo 5 . .fdGtL Joj:yfsf] zf]if0faf6 pgLx¿ la|l6. 5fpgL / .ª\Vof 27.t lyP .dtnaf6 cfpg] lzlIft ls/fgf / kljqtfjfbL lxGb"x¿ klg klxnf hflt. . t/ kl5 tfufwf/L jr{:jsf] :yfkgfsf] kmn:j¿k hft k|yfsf] cg'nDa ljefhgdf k/]sf clwsf+z dtjfnL hghfltn] ag]sf] g]kfnL . . bfhL{lnªdf a:g] g]kfnLx¿ k|foM .+:s[lt. ..dtnjf.982 k'U5 ./sf/L bˆt/x¿lt/ lgDg kbdf .020_. To. wd{.+f:s[lts j}ljWo af]ss ] f] o.

xf6ahf/.fOF . .f| –] t].Sy] xf]nfg\ .of}F n]vx¿sf] ljifoj:t' ljZn]if0f (content analysis) ubf{ lg:s]sf] lgisif{n] o. of] r]tgf g]kfnLleqs} juL{o :jfy{n] psf.x/.L . cª\uh]| L. ljleGg ef]6ad]{nL af]nLx¿ cfˆgf] k|fylds jf df[tefiff ePsf dflg. hftLo PsTjsf] efjgf a9\g] o. lzIffsf] dfWod lyof] lxGbL. lzIffdf k5f}6] / w]/h} .lSsd]. lrofaf/Lsf w'/f.fwg agfP/ hf]xf] gu/]sf] eP bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt x'g] lyPg ./L cfpg] sltko tfdfª / g]jf/x¿n] bfhL{lnªd} g]kfnL efiff l.f] ePg .'? eO.f] dhb'/L ug]{ hg.Defjgf w]/} lyPg .]g .|f] efiffsf] ¿kdf hfg]sf] g]kfnL efiffsf dxŒj a9\g yfNof] .Gbf ePsf ltAatL jf ef]l6ofx¿ cfˆg} hfltcg'.lhn} lxGbLefifL x'g . To. k|lqmofdf bf].s]sf] lyof] . n]Krf.f/ a9]sf] lyof] . g]kfnaf6 lg:s]/ d'Unfg k:g]x¿ . efiffn] w]/} k|ult klg u¥of] .d"xx¿ k[ys\ky[ s\ a:g . a? of] r]tgf zf]lift / zfl. w]/} k|lts"n cj:yfdf klg g]kfnL efiff bfhL{lnªdf .bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnLdf PsTjsf] r]tgf a9\g] sf/0f g]kfndf h:tf] /fli6«o Pstf lyPg.Sg] .Sy]./]/ otf :yfoL ¿kdf a:g yfNg]x¿sf] bf]. hgu0fgfcg'.d"x r]tgfsf] cf8df a9]sf] lyof] .t ju{sf] .f/ bfhL{lnªdf af]lng] o:tf ef]6ad]n{ L kl/jf/sf efiffx¿sf] . 5fpgL / uf/blt/ 5Øf.x¿ xhf/f}s F f] . g]kfnL efiffdf otf kqklqsf lg:sg yfn]kl5 ltgdf k|sflzt .d'bfon] o.f| ] k|an sf/stŒj ag]sf] lyof] g]kfnL efiff .a}n] geP klg w]/}n] g]kfnL a'´y] jf af]Ng klg .f/sf] l. cª\uh]| sf] zf.L nfKr]x¿ c‰} s]xL 12 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .ld. o. g]kfndf cfˆgf d"nynf] lsk6lt/ ef]6ad]n{ L kl/jf/sf af]nLx¿ af]lnP klg .]kl5 leGgleGg efiffuf]i7Lsf . g]kfnsf] PsLs/0fkl5 /fhsfhsf] efiff ag]sfn] g]kfnLsf] k|. ef]6fgL jf ltAatL efiff rnfpF5g\. a.'/lIft af]nL dfq eP/ afFrg] .'? ePkl5 bfhL{lnª e]sdf vf]lng yfn]sf lzIffnox¿df st} g]kfnL k9fOFbg} lyof] .nfO{ ljrf/ ljlgdo ug]{ tyf cfˆgf efj / efjgf cleJoQm ug]{ . cflbjf. ljrf/nfO{ yk k'li6 lbPsf] xf] .ª\Vofdf d'Unfg k. æbfhL{lnªsf] afl.s]sf klg a"9fkfsfx¿ atfpFy] . . t/ To. pb"{ / kmf/.ª\Vof 19 lyof] .f| ] k':tfn] cfˆgf afa'afh]sf af]nLx¿ e'n/] g]kfnLnfO{ g} klxnf] efiff dfGg] k|lqmof . eP/ sfd ubf{ / a:g kbf{ tL cfuGt'sx¿n] cfk"mn] bf].g\ 1907 df k|sflzt bfhL{lnª u]hl] 6o/ eG5.g .

fsL{nfO{ dfq g]kfnLefifL dfgL bfhL{lnª lhNnfdf pgLx¿sf] .+ljwfgsf] cf7f}F cg'.f/ bfhL{lnª kfj{To c~rndf g]kfnL Pp6f .Dd g]kfnLnfO{ lzIffsf] dfWod agfpg'kg]{ dfu.ª\Vofsf] kfFr efudf Ps efu v./sf/n] afx'g–5]qL. c~rnsf] Pp6f /fhsLo efiffsf] dfGotf lbg .f] efiffnfO{ To.dfqfdf cfˆg} nfKr] efiff af]N5g\ === kxf8df lnDa" k|foM ./sf/L efiff agfpg] P]g kfl/t ul/Fbf bfhL{lnª lhNnfdf clwsf+z hgtf g]kfnL ePsf] / pgLx¿sf] dft[efiff g]kfnL ePsfn] g]kfnL efiff klg Pp6f .g\ 1992 df . klxnf g]kfnLnfO{ k|fylds lzIffsf] dfWod agfpg] dfu.Gtfg c‰} cfˆg} lwdfn efiff k|of]u u5{g\ .n] qmdzM df:b}5 clg of] bfhL{lnªsf] ax'efifL lhNnfdf Pp6f . lzIffsf] dfWod g]kfnL agfpg'kg]{ dfu. g]kfnL efiffsf dfGotfsf lglDt ePsf qmlds dfux¿ xfdL csf/0f p7]sf kfpFb}gf}F .ª\Vof 70 k|ltzt jf clws 5 eg] . g]kfnLnfO{ dfWolds :t/df Pp6f ljifo agfpg'kg]{ dfu. .f‰] efiff (lingua franca) eO{ k|rlnt 5 . t/ g]jf/.g\ 1961 df klZrd aª\ufn . g]kfnL ljifodf cg.ª\Vof 19 k|ltzt dfq /x]sf] s}lkmot lbFb} aª\ufnL efiffnfO{ Ps dfq .{ . bfhL{lnªsf g]kfnLx¿df vDa' -lhDbf/_.Æ cfˆgf] ljlzi6 lrgf/Lsf] d"n 6]jf g]kfnL efiff ePs}n] xf]nf lxGbLdf lzlIft x'g yfn]kl5 bfhL{lnªsf lzlIft g]kfnLx¿n] k|fylds lzIffsf] dfWod g]kfnL x'g'k5{ eGg] dfu ug{ yfn] ."rLdf 7fpF kfpg'k5{ eGg] dfu .kmn hgcfGbf]ng . jf g]kfnL lxGbL af]N5g\ h. o.fw/0ftM kxfl8of jf kj{ltof klg elgG5 .lsG5 egL u/]sf] l. sfdL. hg.DaGw bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 13 ./sf/L efiff x'g'k5{ eGb} rs]s { f] .cg'./sf/L efiffsf] dfGotf kfPkl5 …efiff xfd|f] k|f0f xf]Ú eGb} .Lsf .kmfl/.'? ul/Psf] / ef/tJofkL ag]sf] g]kfnL efiffn] .Fu g]kfnL efiffsf] . d'dL{ / dª\u/ hftLo efiffx¿df v'a} k|rlnt 5g\ .k|sf/ bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hfltTj jf g]kfnLsf] ljlzi6 hftLo lrgf/Lsf] k|Zg.'g'jf/ / ofvf klg af]lnG5g\ . bdfO+.'? ug'{kg]{ dfu.nfO{ .fdfGo csf]{ efiff xf] clg t/fO{df lwdfn cflbjf. === ljleGg hghfltsf efiffnfO{ o. u'?ª. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnLn] . clg ./sf/L efiff aGof] .g\ 1972 b]lv bfhL{lnªaf6 . /fHo k'gu{7g cfof]un] cfˆgf] l/kf]6{df s'g} c~rndf Pp6f efiff ljz]if af]Ng]x¿sf] .{ / Pd=P=sf] k9fO .kmn eof] . :gfts :t/.

} u/L n]krf efiff klg cr]n n'Kt x'g nflu/x]5 . lnDa" OToflb . tkfO{+x¿ .g\ 1924 df bfhL{lnªdf …g]kfnL .'xfpFb}g . === cf} s'g} Pp6f hfltn] o. ls/fFtL.n] k[ys\k[ys\ af]nL af]n] klg g]kfnL efiffnfO{ g a'´g] sf]xL 5}gg\ . æ. .efklt xl/k|. o.Dd]ngsf] gfpF …g]kfnL . s.flxTosf] vf]hL ug]{ klg 5 .flxTo . k|lqmof ljZn]if0f ubf{ o. o.flxTo .a}n] a'´g] efiff_ h:tf] eO{ /x]5 . efiffnfO{ of] d]/} efiff dfq xf] eGg .}s. O{ efiffx¿ cWoog u/L Ogsf k|frLg u|Gyx¿ k|sflzt u/L OgnfO{ n'Kt x'g glbg' egL .a}nfO{ g]jf/L efiffsf] 7"nf] k|frLg .åf/f dfly elgPsf tyf c¿c¿ ofjt\ hfltx¿ Pp6} dxfg\ g]kfnL /fi6«sf cª\u /x]5g\ eGg] klg hfx]/ x'G5 .Dd]ngn] t uf]vf{nLx¿sf] efiffsf] kf] pGglt ug{ cfF6]sf] /x]5 eGg] zª\sf pTkGg xf]nf t/ To:tf] t zª\sf ug'{ plrt 5}g lsgeg] g]kfnL efiff cfhsn lxdfnrn k|b]zsf] ligua franca -.s] eg] c¿sf] t s] s'/f < === o.Æ bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hfltsf] ljsf.Dd]ngÚ /fVg'knf{ eGg] xfd|f] ljrf/ 5 lsgeg] …g]kfnLÚ zAbsf] lj:t[t cy{ x'G5 .'sf] /x]sf] b]V5f}F . o.flxTo 5 eGg] s'/f tf yfxf g} 5 . k|b]zdf a:g] dflg.Dd]ngn] 7"nf] pBf]u ug]{5 .efkltsf] efif0fdf xl/k|.asf] af]w x'G5 cf} o.fb k|wfgn] eg]sf lyP.DaGwL pQdpQd . g]kfnL . zAbn] g]kfn b]zsf . efiffnfO{ cr]n g]jf/x¿n] t la.L{.Dd]ngsf] Pp6f csf]{ p2]Zo g]kfnsf k|frLg efiffx¿ tyf .efsf .}sf dgdf of] . .gª–df.flxTo k|sflzt ug]{ .fb k|wfgsf] efif0fsf] Ps c+z x]/f}F M æo.Æ 14 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . u'?ª.Æ .Dd]ngsf cf7 p2]Zodf Pp6f lyof] M æg]kfnsf leGgleGg efiff tyf . hfltdf .flxTo cWoog ug]{ tyf tT. g]jf/.Dd]ngÚ :yflkt ug]{ p2]Zon] 8flsPsf] klxnf] .flxTo .dflxt x'g] cnu tŒjx¿sf] ljno dxŒjk"0f{ b]lvG5 .a} hflt h:t}— du/.

Dd]ngÚ gfds Pp6f . yf¿. nfKr] . /fO{ af]nLsf].dfh . /fO{. g]jf/.dfj]z 5f}F .f] slxn] ePg. being a predominantly Hindu society.don] To:tf] dfu u/]g . tfdfª.Æ t/ To. ljåfg\x¿n] cGo sf/stŒjx¿ klg atfPsf 5g\.d:t af]nLx¿sf] klg vf]hL u/f}F. g]kfnL eGgfn] xfdL w]/} hftsfx¿ oxfF .Sg] efiff g]kfnL x'gfn] xfdLn] klxn] g]kfnL efiffsf] pGglt ug'{k/]sf] xf] .Æ (The Nepali society of Darjeeling. tfdfª af]nLsf]. cfˆgf–cfˆgf efiffnfO{ klg ca o. æbfhL{lnªsf] .dl0f k|wfgsf] syg lyof] M æxfdL g]kfnL xf}F . ef]6]. .'b[9 agfpgdf g]kfnLnfO{ dft[efiffsf] ¿k lbg] sfo{eGbf hft k|yfsf] k|efj w]/} sfo{s/ lyof] .Dd x'g . But they are also class stratified. hft k|yfnfO{ x6fOlbg' xf]. h.dfg . lnDa". .Sg] / a'´g .flxTo . was instrumental in making their society an organic whole.f]nfO{ pgLx¿sf] .\ clg .fdflhs Joj:yfaf6 lg:s]/ cfPsf] cg'ej.) g]kfnL efiffeGbf hft k|yfsf] e"ldsf bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hftLotfsf] bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 15 .'g'jf/ .d:t hfltx¿ g]kfnL x'g\ .f‰f j]ze"iff -bf}/f. Remove the caste system and the constituent parts will fall apart. t/ tL ju{ :t/Ls/0f ePsf klg x'G5g\ . === .df …hft k|yfÚ nfO{ k|dv ' tf lbOPsf] kfOG5 . The influence of the caste system. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hftLotfsf] efjgf a9\gd' f g]kfnsf] kxf8 v08af6 .dfh ePsf]n] g} o. ef]6]. lstfax¿ n]vL hxfF.s]sf] gjLg hfu[lt u/fO{ pGglt ug'{k5{ ./L e'n]/ x'Fb}g . g]jf/L af]nLsf].…g]kfnL .ª\36sx¿ k[ys\ky[ s\ eP/ 9Ng]5g\ .a}n] af]Ng .+:yf :yflkt xj.Hhgu0f Û g]kfnL efiff dfq pGglt ug'{k5{ eGg] d]/f] clek|fo xf]Og .\ eGb} k|:tfj /fVbf oxfF ljj]Ro ljifodfly kf/. .'?jfn_ / xltof/ -v's'/L_ sf] e"ldsf klg dflglnpFm . nfKr]. lnDa" af]nLsf].åf/f JofKt x'Fb}5 . the caste system automatically forms the basis of their social organization and almost every aspect of the society is pervaded by the same.dfh d'VotM lxGb" . u'?ª. w]/}h. t/ . k|To]s hfltsf] :jtGq efiff 5. u'?ª af]nLsf]. rather than the adoption of ‘Nepali’ as their mother tongue for many.

x/b]lv s]xL 6f9f /+ua'ndf cfk"måf/f :yflkt wfddf hf]. hflt. uf]vf{kqsf] xf/fxf/L uf]v]{ va/ sfut lgsfn]/ g]kfnLdf kqsfl/tf .Fu kfng ePsf] gb]lvPsf] Psfw ljb]zL ko{jI] fsx¿n] pNn]v klg u/]sf 5g\ .g\ 1875 df ef/tsf] Pp6f .fO{x¿sf sf/0f g]kfnL hfltTjnfO{ rf]6 k'us ] f] b]lvFbg} .'wf/jfbL cfGbf]ng …cfo{.Fu} la:tf/} hftLo cfwf/df /fhg}lts dfux¿ p7\g 16 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .fO{ ePsf lyP .Dk|bfodf k|lji6 eP/ kl5 cfo{.flxTo pNyf u/L 5kfpg].Fu} . hfltTjsf] cfwf/ g} alg.dfhÚ sf] zfvf bfhL{lnªdf vf]lnPsf] lyof] .dlg .Dk|bfo Jofks ePsf] nf]sk/Dk/f 5 .Dk|bfosf ljb|fx] L .ª\Vofdf . o.dfhdf k|dv ' e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ cfo{.DaGwL dfux¿. la|l6.dfhL tyf O. 7"nf hftx¿sf] .dfhdf hft k|yfsf lgodx¿ s7f]/tf.+x /fO{n] .lsg] s]xL sf/0f k|:t't ub{5' .+:yfks bofgGb . To. wd{nfO{ pl5g]/ g]kfnL efiff bfhL{lnªdf hftLo tfbfTDotfsf] alnof] . ltgdf g]jf/x¿afx]s cGo hfltleq cfˆg} hft k|yfsf] k/Dk/f lyPg .dlg .jfO{ /r]sf lyP . csf]{ s'/f./:jtLsf] .eGbf s]xLcl3 g} .g\ 1899 sf] …bfhL{lnªsf] klx/f]Ú sf] .dfhsf .'? ePsf] O. e]sdf g]kfnL kf7Øk':ts n]Vg].Fu.fdflhs jr{:j gePsf] / clwsf+z dtjfnLx¿åf/f ul7t bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL .df w]/ dxŒjsf] 5 eGg] ljrf/.fb k|wfg lyP .Gt slj 1fglbnn] …pbonx/LÚ /rgf k"0f{ u/] .dlg.fdflhs :jLs[lt k|fKt u/]sf pbfx/0f kfOG5g\ . klxnf hf]. s]nfpg . cfo{. .ljsf.fO{ wd{ k|rf/af6 cfslif{t eP/ s]xL g]kfnLx¿ O. a? pgLx¿n] klg To.s]sf] g]kfnL efiff Tofu]gg\ . g]kfnL hftLo efjgfsf] ljsf.Fu k"0f{ . ltgsf lzio ePsf / bfhL{lnª e]sdf Tof] .g. zf.xdlt hgfpg g. o. cGt/hft / cGt/hghftLo lax]jf/Lx¿n] . bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnLx¿sf] a:tL a:g yfn]bl] v hft k|yflj/f]wL wfld{s cfGbf]ngx¿sf] k|efj JofKt lyof] .fO{ kfb/L uª\ufk|./L hft.'? ug]{ Ps hgf O.Tofy{ k|sfz sf] g]kfnL pNyf ug]{ k+= lbn'l.g\ 1883 df bfhL{lnª . ljleGg hft / hghfltsf w]/} hgf dflg. bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hg."q ag]sf] Oltxf.lsG5 .'?b]lv . hft k|yf gdfGg] hf].Sof] . k|lqmofs} kmn:j¿k bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL efiff. afn. bfhL{lnª d'Unfg k:g]x¿ hftkftsf] cfwf/df g]kfndf rNg] …d'n'sL P]gÚ b]lv d'Qm lyP .'?b]lv ef]6ad]n{ L kl/jf/sf efiff af]Ng] dtjfnLx¿sf] k|e'Tj ePsf] rrf{ cl3 g} eO.

jf]R{ r .ªsf] g]tT[ jdf . 5'§} k|fGt -/fHo_ uf]vf{Nof08sf] dfu / lx+. b]jk|sfz /fO{ clg ut b'O{ bzsb]lv To.+ljwfgsf] cf7f}F cg'. To.gÚ -1917_ / g]kfnL. e'l6of. l3l. l3l.fdflhs . ptf bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnsf .dfgtfsf] clg To. bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hflt To.s]sf] lyof] . ef/tsf] cflwsfl/s .flxTo csfbdL.sf] k'/fgf] k|:tfj lyof] .kl5sf] d'Vo 36gf .+:yfks / cGo g]tfx¿df 8Da/l.s} cfwf/df sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] bfhL{lnª zfvfsf] kIfdf /tgnfn a|fXd0f -dfOnf afh]_ / u0f]znfn .'?b]lv uf]vf{ gfpF u/]sf . kl5 To. 6L= dg]g."rLdf cGte'{St x'g'k5{ eGg] dfu 22 cu:t 1992 df . uf]vf{ lnusf .g\ 1975 d} dfGotf lbO. k|foM . P. kf6L{n] k|fGtsf] dfu 5f8]/ g]kfnLefifL ax'.kmn eof] .lsg] :yfgLo .ª\u7g …lxnd]G. cf/=8L.nfO{ lbuf] agfpg] .'Aaf.+x u'?ª. nfKr]nfO{ k|ltlglwTj ug]{ …g]a'nfÚ -1936_ eP klg uf]vf{ jf g]kfnL hfltTjsf] cfwf/df .flxlTos .'jf. To."q g]kfnL efiff ePsf] cfwf/df ul7t ePsf] nfU5 .Fu.g\ 1988 df bfhL{lnª uf]vf{ :jfoQ kfj{To kl/ifb\sf] u7g xf] . .fTds cfGbf]ngkl5 . g]kfnL efiff ef/tsf] . lzjs'df/ /fO{. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 17 .DejtM To. cl/axfb'/ u'?ª.gsf] dfu ug{ yfNof] . lbNnLn] g]kfnL efiffnfO{ .n] k|foM cfwf ztfAbL g} bfhL{lnªsf] /fhgLltdf cflwkTo hdfof] .+:yfx¿ cfP . uf]i7Lleqsf] s'g} zlQmzfnL ju{ jf hft jf hghfltsf] :jfy{ of bafadf geO{ .ª s]xL To:tf gfpF x'g\ .'Aafn] x:tfIf/ u/L cGo eflifs k|fGt.ª\Vof ePsf] bfhL{lnªsf lglDt cf~rlns :jfoQ zf.a} /fhg}lts kf6L{x¿sf] g]tT[ j tfufwf/L ljz]if u/L afx'gx¿s} xftdf ePsf] rrf{ ul/G5 .'jf. egf}F eg] ToxfFsf] /fhg}lts g]t[Tj dtjfnLju{df kg]{ JolQmx¿s} xftdf b]lvG5 .= .sf] t'ngfdf ./sf/sf b'O{ s0f{wf/ hjfx/nfn g]x¿ / lnofst cnL vfgnfO{ 1fkgkq r9fPsf lyP .yfn] . clg o.'?b]lv g} bfhL{lnªn] leGg} lrq k|:t't u/]sf] 5 .g\ 1980 df uf]vf{ /fli6«o d'lSt df]rf{sf] u7g. ut lv|i6Lo ztfAbLsf] .f]l./x …uf]vf{:yfgÚ sf] dfu ub}{ ef/t :jfwLg x'g] a]nf ul7t cGtl/d .P.+:yfg . efiffsf] cfwf/df k|fGt u7g ug]{ sª\u|]. /fhg}lts eGg . e]sdf /fhg}lts k|e'Tj sfod ug]{ .g\ 1943 df 8Da/l.+x u'?ªsf] g]t[Tjdf uf]vf{ lnu :yflkt eof] .Fu} ef/tsf] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] bfhL{lnª zfvf vf]lnof] .

flxTo n]vg .lsg] . .'? x'gc' l3 .ª\Vofdf g]kfnLx¿sf] .+:s[ltsf cfwf/df cfˆg} 5'§} lrgf/Lsf] cfjfh p7fpg yfn]kl5 / g]kfnLsf] .df klg g]kfnL hfltsf .r]t JolQmx¿nfO{ lrlGtt agfPsf] b]lvG5 .lqmo x'g .f6f] g]kfnL hfltcGtu{t k[ys\ hghfltx¿sf] micro identity sf lglDt pRrl/t x'g yfn]sf :j/x¿n] w]/} .ª\36s dfGo hghflt jf hguf]i7Lx¿ ljn'Kt x'g] cfzª\sfn] u|:t 5g\ .g\ 1992 df k"/f ePs} . bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hfltdf lrlgPsf] . g]kfnLx¿sf b'O{cf]6f dxŒjk"0f{ dfu -Pp6f /fhg}lts / csf]{ eflifs_ . kf7Øk':ts / va/ sfut lgsfNg] clg kl5 g]kfnL ."qkfq eof] / hfthft.Gbe{df g]kfnL hfltleq} .f6f] cfˆgf] k[ys\ hfltsf] gfpFdf cfk"mnfO{ btf{ ug{ yfn] eg] ef/tsf] kl/k|I] odf c0f'ljIf0f oGqn] dfq b]Vg .ª\u7s tŒjx¿n] cfˆgf] hflt.n s[lt /Rg] clwsf+z gfpF dtjfnLju{df kg]{ JolQmx¿s} 5g\ . Ps c/adf Ps s/f]8 Ps k|ltzt xf]nf t/ hgu0fgf l/kf]6{cg'.g\ 1988 / . k|Zg p7\5 M oyfy{df s] hftLo cl:tTjdf hghftLo lrgf/Lsf c8fgx¿kl5 g]kfnL hflt ljgfzsf/L xfFs x'g g.+:yfx¿ . afnsyf.Gbe{df g]kfnL hfltsf] ljlzi6 lrgf/L_ sf] . nfvhlt dfq 5 .flxlTos If]qdf klg To:t} cj:yf 5 .ª\u7gx¿n] ef/tsf] Ps c/aeGbf w]/} hg. cf}krfl/s ./fhgLltafx]s .g\ 1990 df ePsf] k|hftflGqs qmflGt g} g]kfndf hghftLo lrgf/L klxNofpg] /fhgLltsf] 18 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .sf . ef/tLo g]kfnL Pp6f .dolt/ x7ft\ bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hfltleq hghftLo lrgf/Lsf c8fgx¿ k|s6 x'g yfn] . g]kfnLdf gf6s n]Vg] / v]Ng].fadf g]kfnLx¿sf] .dGjofTds (syncretic) PsLejg s] Pp6f e|d dfq xf] < macro Identity -ef/tsf] ./sf/L lx.ª\s6sf] 38Ldf k/]sf] ljrf/ kf]V5g\ w]/} .Snf < g]kfnsf] .jfO{ / nx/L n]Vg].flxTodf cg]sf}F c.'? eP . s]xL ef/tLo g]kfnL . w]/n} ] JofVofltt 7fg]sf].04 k|ltzt aG5 clg To.fdflhs .ª\3. wd{.f/ aL.a} If]qdf tfufwf/L jr{:j / tfufwf/Lsf] ljk/Ltfy{s zAb klg gx'g] dtjfnL jf ef]6ad]n{ L / cGo hfltx¿df lje]b alienation sf] Pp6f d'2f 5 .fadf 0. hflthfltsf .ª\Vof k|foM aL.ª\Vof Ps s/f]8 ePsf] bfaL ub}{ cfP klg cflwsfl/s jf .r]tx¿ . 36gfsf] . nfvsf] lx. . efiff.ª\Vofdf g]kfnL k'Ug] dfq xf]Og To.

æclxn]sf] g]kfndf b]vfk/]sf . dfOh"nfO{ dn]h.df .gsfndf ePsf bdgx¿sf] kl/0flt xf] .do o. lnDa'.fdGh:o gePsf] b]V5f}F .lsFbg} ." k'mk"nfO{ gLgL.Æ clg k]ml/.Dej x'g .lsG5 . efph"nfO{ ttfh".dfhsf] k|f¿k b]Vg .ª\36s x'g] ljleGg hghfltsf lghL ljlzi6tf nf]k eP/ uOxfn]sf] klg lyPg . 8f= u'?ª eGg'xG' 5. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 19 . oxfF hftLo÷hghftLo . g]kfndf d'n'sL P]gsf kl08tx¿ k/Dk/fut sd{sf08 / rfs8Ldf Jo:t /x] eg] l.fdflhs kl/j]zaf/] Pp6f k|. . tfdfª cflbn] g]kfnL efiffnfO{ k|foM dft[efiffsf] ¿kdf cª\uLsf/ u/] klg .ª\u p7fpFb} eGg'ePsf] lyof] M æof] ljutsf] lxGb" g]kfnsf] cjz]if xf] eg] d]rL gbL k"j{ x]/]df eljiodf g]kfnL . g]jf/x¿ lbbLnfO{ ttf. . g]kfnL /fhgLltdf tfufwf/Lx¿sf] Psflwsf/ oyfjt\ 5 eg] d'n'sL P]gaf6 :jtGq l. dfdfnfO{ kfh'.{] g\ ckm b g]KnLh :6]6 df n]v]sf 5g\ .flxTo.hLjtfcl3sf zf. . g]kfnsf] lglDt of] .'if'Kt /x]sf] efjgfsf] cleJolQm xf] .dfgtfsf cfwf/df v'nf k|lt:kwf{ ub{5g\ .Gt'ng / . u'?ª.fdflhs . g]jf/.dfhj}1flgsx¿n] . snf / /fhgLltnfO{ kl/eflift ug]{ sfddf dfu{bz{g lbP . afh]–af]h"nfO{ chf–chL eG5g\ eg] tfdfªx¿ lbbLnfO{ gfgf. clg kf]xf]/sf] …b dx]zrGb| /]UdL n]Sr/Ú lbg] 8f= xs{ u'?ªn] …lqz"n / bf]hÚ{] df g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] .Æ -k[= 4_ cj:yf To:tf] x'Fbfx'Fb} klg / hftLo Pstfs} cfwf/df s]xL dxŒjk"0f{ pknlAwx¿ . /fO{.kmf]d. æg]kfndf hftLo efjgf gf}nf] cg'el" t xf]Og.lSsd / bfhL{lnªsf g]kfnLefifLx¿n] g]kfnL Oltxf.s] klg jt{dfgdf pRrl/t x'g yfn]sf 5'§} :jhftLo lrgf/Lsf k|Zgx¿ ljrf/0fLo 5g\ . bfhL{lnª e]sdf dfly plNnlvt g]kfnL hfltTj .d:ofx¿ ef]Ug'kg]{ eljiojf0fL ul/.g\ 1990 sf] hgcfGbf]ng qmflGtkl5sf] g]kfnn] hghftLo lrgf/L Jojl:yt kfg]{ .s]sf] 8]lj8 u]Ng/n] 6«fG..Gbe{df o:t} ljrf/ JoQm ug{ .d:of hLjGt ePsf] / x'g] sf/0fx¿ xfdL a'´5f}F .fOgf] zAbx¿ eg] c‰} klg k|fozM cfˆgf] hghftLo af]nLs} k|of]u u5{g\ .Æ jt{dfg bfhL{lnªsf] .lSsd / bfhL{lnªdf .a} hft÷hfltx¿ .'b9[ x'g] k|lqmof rln/x]sf] .lglDt Pp6f gofF uf]/]6f] dflgG5 .

fdflhs r]tgfx¿ NofPkl5 ut lv|i6Lo ztfAbLsf] k|f/lDes bzslt/ g]kfnL hfltleqsf hghfltx¿df s'g}s'g}n] cfˆg} . Nationalism : Critical Concepts in Political Science.Sb}gg\. vol. 111. g]kfnL hfltTj ljsf.f]n] hGd.gÚ :yflkt ePsf] b]lvG5 . g]kfnL efiffnfO{ cª\uLsf/ ub}{ cfk"m g]kfnL hfltsf] eGg] cg'ej ug]{x¿n] cfˆgf afa'–afh]sf] s'/f . p.Fu. lzIffsf] ljsf.'wf/ ug]{ p2]Zo lnP/ :yflkt .} sf/0f b]lvG5g\.f/ clg . 20 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . London.f‰f .f/ .|f] ljsf.afh]nfO{ Dx]Dx].fdflhs . 2000. . clg o.sf] k|lqmof sfo{/t eO/x]sf] .DklQ x'G5 .g\ 1924 df g]kfnL . . /utsf] .Dd]ngsf] :yfkgf x'Fbf lbPsf efif0fx¿ xfdLn] x]l/.df ljleGg cflbd cfzlStx¿ Uff}0f eP/ uP klg lgld6ØfGg} eP/ n'Kt eOxfn]sf] b]lvFbg} .ª\uf] g]kfnL hfltTjsf] ljsf.Sof}F .ª\u7g vf]Ng] sfd gu/]sf klg xf]Ogg\ .d"xdf hGdg]x¿sf] . sfsfnfO{ cfu'. . k'mkfnfO{ k'.flxTo . o:tf sd{sf08 Psfkl§ afx'g k'/f]lxtn] u/] klg .+:yfsf] gfpFaf6 2 Cliifford Geertz. in John Hutchison & others (ed).I. .fOgf] zAbx¿sf] k|of]uafx]s w]/h} .P.fOgf]n] cleefjL efjgfTds cfzlSt / lgi7f hGdfpg] u5{ clg of] s'g} Pp6f . ljjfx / d[To'df cfˆgf] sd{sf08 e'ns ] f lyPgg\ .dfhj}1flgsx¿df Psy/Lsf] /fo 5 . cfw'lgstflt/ cu|.+:yf .do .fO{ eG5g\ . tyflk of] lyof] af}4 wd{sf] k|rf/ / k|.D‰]/ cflbd÷cfB:j¿kLo -primordial_ efjgf .Fu} cfˆgf] k'Vof}n{ L b:t'/cg'.fFRg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . ‘The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in New States’. w]/}kl5 o.uF 6fFl.DkGg ul/GYof]. cfw'lgs ljZjdf o:tf] hftLo÷hghftLo cfzlSt / Tof].x¿n] cfk"mnfO{ cfˆg} cflbdtf jf cfBtfsf] sfFrn' Laf6 d'St kfg{ . af]hn" fO{ dfd.n] . c‰} ul/G5 . Routedge./L ljifonfO{ a'´g vf]Hbf …PlYgl.6LÚ af/] ljleGg wf/0ffx¿ pkof]uL aGb5g\ ./ eO/x]sf] ax'hftLo ax'efifL b]zx¿df ljlzi6 hftLotfsf d'2fx¿ af}/L p7\g] 36gfkl5 b'O{ . / k|ultsf] dfu xf] dfG5g\ .Psf efjgfx¿ To.2 bfhL{lnªdf w]/} sf/0fx¿n] Pp6f l.zSt t/ k/:k/f>oL tyflk :jtGq / ljk/Lt p2]Zo ePsf tŒj pQ/bfoL x'G5g\ eGb} klxnf] tŒj lrgf/Lsf] vf]hL / bf].f]l. cl3 eg]‰}F d}n] ethnicity nfO{ hghflt cy{df lnPsf] 5' .g\ 1922 df …g]kfnL tfdfª a'l4i6 P. dflg.dfhdf g}lts .

f‰f .ª\3.ª\u7g. .+:yfx¿ klg :yflkt eP .DklQ agfP/ Pp6f cs]:6«n P]So (orchestral unity) sf] /rgf g} g]kfnL .Æ3 o:tf] csf]{ Pp6f n]vsf] clGtd cg'R5]b oxfF /fVb5' M 3 dgk|.antf lnP/ xfdLn] Psb'O{ /fli6«o clwsf/x¿ xfl..ª\u7g.+:yfx¿ /fhg}lts lqmofsnfkdf . g]jf/ . o:tf . lgliqmo eO.dfh / .'g'jf/x¿sf] ls/fFtj+zL . t/ g]kfnL jf uf]vf{ hfltsf] of] d'7\7L 5'§f5'§} cf}nF f / cfFVnfx¿df ljeflht eP/ uP s]xL xfl.s]sf k'/fgf ."qdf afFws ] f] 5 eg] ef/tdf g]kfnL hflt–uf]i7Lleq kg]{ ljleGg hftnfO{ …g]kfnL hfltTjÚ n] Psd'i7 kf/L .a hguf]i7Lx¿sf nf]sw'g.+:yf :yflkt ePs} . o:tf . du/x¿sf] du/ nfkmf . clg cr]n afx'g–5]qLx¿sf] >L lxtsf/L tfufwf/L .n ug{ afFsL g} 5 .lqmo x'g yfn] . tfdfªx¿sf] clvn ef/tLo tfdfª af}4 . …g]kfnL hflt / .n ug'{ t k/} hfcf]. h'g .a} . …ls/fFt . ofSvf -b]jfg_ .n ul/. cg'.ª\u7gx¿nfO{ cfˆgf]–cfˆgf] uf]i7Lsf .s]sf 5f}.b:ox¿sf] .Dd]ngsf zfvfx¿ vf]lnPsf va/x¿ 5fkfdf lgs} b]lvFb}5g\ . p2]Zo leGg} eP . of] .\ xfd|f] klxrfg g} nf]k eP/ hfg] l:ylt dfq xft nfUg]5 .d. pgLx¿sf] d"n p2]Zo cfˆgf] .…g]kfnLÚ x6]/ …clvn ef/tLoÚ eof] .dolt/ …g]jf/ .+:s[lt arfpg' ePsf] atfpF5g\ .+:s[lt . afhfufhf .'Aaf n]V5g\.fdflhs .'g'jf/ -d'lvof_ sf]OFr\a' OToflb .fdlos kl/k|]Iodf .'Aaf.ª\u7g. t/ lv|i6fAb gAa]sf] bzs .l" rt hftsf .ª\uLt xf] eGb} g]kfnL .Ú bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 21 .dfh. æg]kfn /fi6«leqsf ljleGg hft / hfltnfO{ …g]kfnL /fli6«otfÚ n] Ps .+:yfx¿ k]ml/ .an t'NofPsf] 5.fb .fb .+nUg 5}gg\ .ª\u7gx¿.dfhÚ h:tf .dy{g k|fKt gePsfn] k|foM ljjfbx¿ klg pl7/xG5g\ .+:s[ltÚ gfdsf] cl:tTj g} sxfF /xG5 .ª\u7gx¿ :yflkt x'g yfn] .ª\u7g clg tfdfª 3]b'ª.flxTosf Ps Vofltk|fKt slj dgk|. xfd|f] hfltleqsf hftkftsf PsfOx¿ ljlR5Gg ePkl5 …g]kfnL hfltÚ / …g]kfnL . u'?ªx¿sf] td' 5f]h+ wL+.dfhÚ.F c‰ s]xL d"n clwsf/x¿ xfl.'? x'g] a]nfb]lv bfhL{lnªdf ljleGg hfthfltsf cg]sf}F . . tyflk pgLx¿ w]/} k|efjsf/L ePsf] kfOFbg} . ls/fFt ofsy'ª r'dn'ª / ofof]Svfsf] 5q5fofdf v'ns ] f /fO{ / lnDa"x¿sf . ls/fFt /fO{ vf]Da' .

bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . casf] 50-60 jif{df To:tf] l:ylt t xfdLdf gcfpnf < vf. …xfd|f] hftn] hghfltsf] bhf{ kfP w]/} ./L ePsf] lyof] To. s'/f] s] xf] < of] s] eO/x]5 < 7Ls} x'Fb}5 ls a]7Ls x'Fb}5 < oL k|Zgx¿sf] 7Ls pQ/ xfdLn] cfh} vf]Hgk5{ h:tf] nfU5 . .sfpg] / d"ndGq.4 efiff / hftLotfsf] cfwf/df ul/Psf dfudf bfhL{lnªsf clwsf+z g]kfnLx¿ Psa4 x'g] u/]sf] b]v/] g]kfnL hfltnfO{ k'm6fpg hft–hftsf] .f/ bfhL{lnªdf ljleGg hfthfltn] cfˆgf ljlzi6 lrgf/Lx¿sf k|Zg p7fpg yfNg' g]kfndf . s]/fh:tf] ufFlhPsf] uf]vf{ PstfnfO{ tf]8\g g} d}bfg]x¿n] of] hft–hftsf] rfn rn]sf] eG5g\ . 22 29 h'nfO{.d]t lbg] t xfd|}x¿ x'g'k5{ . …5/kl:6Psf .'gr/L .jf]{Rr cf]xbfdf k'Ug] >L 6]sgfy l/hfn g]kfndf z/0ffyL{ hLjg latfO/xg'ePsf] 5 ..+xåf/f w]/} . dnfO{ hxfF. t/ hghfltsf] bhf{ xfl. …afF8 clg zf.Gt /fO{. csf]y{ /Lsf] ljrf/cg'.'if'Kt hftLo efjgfx¿ cleJoQm x'g yfn]sf 36gfx¿s} k|ltWjlg xf] .+:yf vf]Ng] if8oGq ul/Psf] eGg] ljrf/ af]Sg]x¿ yf]/} 5}gg\ . g]kfndf 4 . k]ml/ sf]xL eG5g\. cfOkLP. d}bfg]x¿n] oxfF .n ug]{ xf]8df cb"/bzL{ tl/sfn] x:ofª–km:ofª ubf{ clxn]sf] uf]vf{ hflt g} 6'qmf–6'qmf eof] eg] xfdLdfly lyrf]ldrf] ug{ vlKk.g\ 1990 sf] hgcfGbf]ngkl5 . ug]{x¿ g]kfnsf] z/0ffyL{ lzlj/df k'Ug gknf{ < clxn] ef]6fªsf] .do xfd|f cfOPP.dob]lv yfGsf]df /flvPsf] d08n cfof]usf] l/kf]6n{ fO{ x7ft\ lqmoflGjt ug]{ ljjfbf:kb 3f]if0ff xf] . z/0ffyL{ lzlj/lt/ x]¥of}F eg] w]/} ef]6fª ..x'lnot / cf/If0fx¿ kfpg]5f}F . eljiodf xfd|f hftsfx¿ cfOPP. To./sf/sf k|yd bhf{sf kbflwsf/L /lx. 2004 .s]sfx¿ e]l6G5g\ .g u/Ú eGg] gLlt . cfOkLP. t/ bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hfltTjsf] ljsf.sf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ pSt JofVof lrQa'´bf] nfUb}g . eP/ lg:sg]5g\ .}sf] ts{ cs}{ . . o:t} xf] eg] klg l.Ú s'/f 7Ls} xf] / /fd|f] klg .dfrf/.Dd nfU5 bfhL{lnªsf g]kfnLx¿df k[ys\ hfthfltsf] lrgf/L w]/} d'v/ ePsf] Pp6f d'Vo sf/0f 8 cu:t 1990 sf] lbg tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL ljZjgfy k|tfk l.æs. h.+:d/0fleq hfthftsf lqmofsnfkÚ.lhn} cltqmd0f unf{g\ .'G5' .

'ljwf cGoq lj:tf/ ul/g' plrt x'g] lyof] . o.dsfndf ePsf] of] 3f]if0ff jL=kL= l.5 h]xf]. jif{kl5 .5 k'Ug] eof] .sf l.fdflhs Gofosf] lglDt Tof] /0fgLltsf] cf}lrToaf/] uxg ts{ljts{ / cg'ejfl>t (empirical) hfFr x'g'kYof]{ clg dfq Tof] .a}n] …d08n l/kf]6Ú{ sf] s6' cfnf]rgf u/]sf 5g\ . g]tfx¿n] nfe pkef]u ul//x]sf] kfOG5 ."lrt hftsf lglDt cf/If0fsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] rfnL..fdflhs Gofosf] lglDt . Srinivas. 1996. k'/fgf yf]qf / b'a{n cfFs8fx¿df cfwfl/t lyP . cGo k5f}6] ju{nfO{ gf]s/Lrfs/L cflbdf cf/If0f lbg] /fhgLltsf] . clg . Viking. of] l/kf]6{n] :jfwLgtfkl5 ef/tLo .dfhj}1flgsx¿ atfpF5g\ .ª\3if{.uF xf]Og .xdlt gagfO{ u/]sf] sfd eg]/ w]/}n] cfnf]rgf u/]sf 5g\ . New Delhi. cg'.f]rL.dfh . k|Voft . bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 23 . kb jf Ifdtf afF8r'F8 kf/]/ pkef]u ug]{ ljlw. Caste : Its Twentieth Century Avatar.sf/ x'gx] ¿nfO{ nfe k'¥ofPsf] x'bF g} .'ljwfs} s'/f lgsfN5g\ . hflthft lrgf/Lsf] /fhgLltn] o.N.Fu a9L ul/g] x'G5.b:ox¿sf] klg pQ/ Pp6} kfOPsf] 5 .5 k|ltzt :yfg cf/lIft lyof] eg] o. cf/If0f gLlt jf:tjdf jl~rtx¿sf] :jfy{df geO{ cf/If0fsf] nfe kfpg] hftsf >]i7hg (elites) sf] :jfy{df x'g] u/]sf] k|foM . ed. cfˆgf] 5'§} lrgf/Lsf] xf]8afhLkl5 gf]s/Lrfs/Ldf cf/If0fsf] cfsif{0f sfo{/t 5 . tfufwf/L . d]/f k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/df .fdflhs Gofo :yflkt ug]{ 5 M.a} o:tf hfthfltsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{x¿n] …cf]aL."lrt hft / hghfltsf] lglDt jiff}{+b]lv 22./f]sf/ cf]xf]bf. k|yfsf] s'ke| fjdf kg]x{ ¿ jf To. .n] k|lts"n k|ltlqmofx¿ hGdfof] . s'g} /fli6«o . kmn:j¿k o. gofF ju{nfO{ lbOPsf] 27 k|ltzt hf]8b\ f cf/If0fsf] k|ltzt 49.sf] k|efj bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hfltdf kg{ u¥of] .g\ 1990 sf] hgcfGbf]ngs} .+ljwfgdf cg'.LÚ sf] . ga'‰L.df k5f}6] ju{ jf hftx¿ lrlGxt ug]{ dfkb08x¿ e|dfTds.j{ljlbt 5 .dfhdf hft / hfltsf] cfwf/df cgfjZos lje]b / ljefhgx¿ NofPsf] .+/rgfdf cfPsf kl/jt{gx¿nfO{ cfˆgf] Wofgdf g/fv]sf] / d08nLs/0fn] ef/tLo .lqmo .+xn] cGo sf/0fn] pQ]lht eO{ u/]sf] c:jLsf/ u/] klg lzIffno / gf]s/Lrfs/Ldf …cGo k5f}6] ju{Ú (Other Backward Classes) sf] lglDt 27 k|ltzt :yfg cf/If0f s'g} c¿ sf/0fn] g.dfhj}1flgsx¿ .aofnL. ef/tsf] .\ x'g] x'gfdL eOxfNof] / To.ª\u7gsf ..

Dk"0f{ g]kfnL hfltsf] x'g] u/]sf] .d"xsf nf]suLt.ª\36s hguf]i7Ln] hfltleq To:tf] cfGtl/s l:yltsf] .'ljwfx¿sf lglDt ljjfbx¿ kl/:k'm6 gePsf klg xf]Ogg\ .dfg cGo /0fgLlt jf pkfox¿dfly /f]s dfq nufO/x]5 < oL ljifox¿df uxg ts{ljts{ cfjZos lyof] t/ .]/ To.d"xsf] k|of. . .DalGwt hghftLo uf]i7Lsf >]i7hgx¿ (elites) jf c‰ egf}F pgLx¿sf] u'Kt if8oGqsf/L bn (elite cabal) cflbd efjgfx¿ psf.6 zq'sf] ¿kdf .Dk"0f{ g]kfnL hfltsf] a}/L x'g] u5{ .j{q b]lvof] eg] bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hfltdf klg To. 1. s'g} hghfltsf] . Delhi. s]xL hft 6 Dipankar Gupta.S5 eg] bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL . o. Pp6f hftLo l:ylt (ethnic situation) ljsl.n geP klg .a}sf] . clg /fd|f] zq'sf] cefjdf w]/} cfGbf]ngx¿ .ª\36s .Psf .f+:s[lts d~rx¿ lgs} .lqmo b]lvG5g\ .nfO{ Wofg glbO{ k|wfgdGqL kb cf]u6\g] Ps hgf JolQmn] lnPsf] ck‰{6 lg0f{osf] kl/0ffd ./0fgLlt s]jn cf/If0f xf] < ls o.t x'g ToxfF Pp6f :ki6 zq' x'g'k5{. nf]sg[To.dfg efuLbf/Lsf] 38]/Ldf bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hftLotf km:6fO/xg] cfzf u/f}F .ª\u7gx¿df nfe / .+/If0f ug]{ p2]Zon] :yflkt g]kfnL÷uf]vf{ .Qf.dfgtf. p. Joj:yf.Fu 6fFl. 24 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . lje]b / alxisf/. 1996.s} cfwf/df /fhgLlt ug]{ To:tf] cfB efjgfnfO{ /fhg}lts lqmofsnfkdf kl/0ft u/L cfˆgf] g]t[Tj :yflkt ug{ nfluk/]sf x'G5g\ . geP/ .dfhleq s'g} . hgljrf/ glnO{ jf To. o:tf] l:yltsf] kl/0ffd hftLo cGts{nx xf]Og t/ hftLo Psa4tf g} x'G5 .Lldt /fhgLlts :jfy{n] o:tf] s'/fdf ljrf/ gubf]{ /x]5 ./L 5'§} lrgf/Laf6 ltgLx¿nfO{ k|fKt x'g .Sg] nfesf] k|nf]egdf .+:s[ltsf] hu]gf{ s]jn To.lsg] k|efj k/]sf] 5 .dflji6 ljleGg hft / hghflt . nf]sk/Dk/fsf] .sf] :jfutof]Uo eGg} g. pTkL8g."qkftlag} . clg w]/} o:tf cu'jfO. o.fdflhs k|j[lQ pbfx/0f:j¿k 5g\ . cr]n g]kfnL hfltdf .fdgf ug'k{ /]sf] cj:yf lyPg / 5}g . s'/fdf bfhL{lnª klg ckjfb b]lvFb}g . zf]if0f cflb x'g . . s'g} jfXoLs tŒj zq'sf] ¿kdf lrlgG5 eg] Tof] ljz]if s'g} hghftLo uf]i7Lsf] dfq geO{ . ‘The Content of Ethnicity: Sikh Identity in a Comparative Prespective’. elgG5.]nfP/ uPsf 5g\ .n] c‰ c. OUP.

ª\u7gaf6 kmtjf hf/L ug]{ sfd u/] klg w]/h} . o:tf nfe / .L kj{tsf /fhfsf sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ .df o.}F dgfP .f+:s[lts rf8kj{ xf] .}F–ltxf/ gdfGg] lgwf] u/L cfˆgf] .}F–ltxf/ wfld{seGbf w]/} g]kfnL÷uf]vf{sf] .af/] h'g rrf{ u¥of}F To.f]n] To. dgfpg]x¿sf] ts{ lyof] — xfd|f] wd{ cs}{ eP klg k/Dk/fb]lv dgfP/ cfPsf] b. tfdfªx¿ df‰ kf]xf]/ b. ækxf8df /xFbf kf] uf]vf{ kj{t kfNkf lkp7fgf o]:tf] lyof] dw]zdf cfofkl5 t xfdL kxfl8of Ps} x'5F f}F ."lrt jf cf]aL.'ljwf klg Tof] ljz]if hguf]i7Ldf >]i7hgsf] cr]n k|rlnt creamy layer jf bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 25 . cg'.nfO{ 6]/g] g\ .f/ clwsf+z tfdfª. l.lSsd / klZrd aª\ufndf tfdfª / lnDa"nfO{ cg'.DalGwt hguf]i7Lsf .a}n] cfˆgf] kl/ro uf]vf{ jf g]kfnL -ef/tLo g]kfnL_ g} lbG5g\ . xh'nf{O{ 5fl8 dlw:oflt/ lsg nfu'nF f . efiff.ª\36s hflt / efiff uf]i7Lx¿n] . k/Dk/f To:t} xf] Sof/ .af6 k|l] /t eP/ ca cGox¿n] xfdL 5'§} hflt xfd|f] wd{.Fu} ofqf u/f}F eGbf pgLx¿n] eg]sf lyP /].an 5g\ . k|fKt l/kf]6x{ ¿cg'. hfltleqs} Pp6f ju{n] csf]{ ju{dfly lyrf]ldrf] u/]sf] jf Pp6f ljz]if hft jf hfltsf] jr{:j / k|e'Tjdf c¿ jl~rt x'g'k/]sf] cj:yf kfPgf}F . b'O{. lnDa". . sltko sf/0fjz g]kfnL hfltsf . cfˆg} 3/ jf ef}uf]lns Onfsfaflx/ .Æ tLg.+:s[lt 5'§} eGg] c8fgx¿sf] hflt layf]Ng] sfd t gunf{ eGg] k|Zg cgfjZos xf]Og . clxn]. jf/f0fzL uO/x]sf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] rf}aL. Ps. tyflk bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hflt 6'lqmP/ ljn'Kt gxf]nf eGg] d]/f] cfˆgf] wf/0ff s]jn efjgf dfq geP/ s]xL tYox¿df cfwfl/t 5 h'g tYox¿ 7f]. du/ cflbn] b.Dd bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hftLotfsf] ljsf.do. >L % a8fdxf/fh k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] hLjgdf k9]sf] lyPF . / .-hflt_ nfO{ cGo k5Øf}6] ju{df btf{. clvn ef/tLo tfdfª af}4 .dodf cfˆgf] 5'§} lrgf/Lsf] k|Zg p7fP klg Tof] s]jn cfGtl/s ljifo ePh:tf] nfU5 .ª\u7gsf] km/dfgsf] tfdfª 3]bª' åf/f lj/f]wn] kl/j]z s]xL pQKt ePsf] lyof] . u'?ª.}s F f] 6Lsf nfpg] gnfpg] ljjfb lgs} rls{Psf] lyof] .L sf] bhf{ kfpFbf . /fO{.l" rt hghfltsf] dfGotf clg o.'ljwf k|fKt x'g] xf]Og.a} jf clwsf+znfO{ s'g} nfe jf . ljleGg hghftLo uf]i7Ln] 5'§} lrgf/Lsf s'/f p7fpFb} lxGb" rf8 eg]/ b.

+j[lQ xf] .flxTodf :ki6 pNn]v ul/Psf] x'G5 .ª\u7gsf sfo{stf{n] cfk"m 5'§} ePsf] c8fg lnFbf ToxL .+:yfx¿n] cfˆgf] c8fgx¿ ljifodf h]hlt k|rf/ . cfˆgf] 5'§} lrgf/Lsf] s'/f ug]{x¿n] c‰. efiff hGdFb} s. a? To./L PsefifL ePsf] sf/0f s'g} :jfy{uf]i7Ln] cfˆgf] efiff c¿dfly yf]k/]sf]n] xf]Og t/ .Dej xf]nfh:tf] 5}g clg o.d'bfosfx¿n] ljk/Lt ts{ k|:t't u/]sf] klg w]/} pbfx/0f kfOG5g\ .afx]s s]jn efjgfdf cfP/ s'/f p7fpg]x¿nfO{ cfˆgf] eflifsf -af]nL_ sf slt pkeflifsf 5g\ clg s'gnfO{ :t/Lo dfg]/ :jLsf/ ug]{ 26 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . hghfltn] cfˆgf]–cfˆgf] lrgf/Lsf c8fgx¿ lnFb}df bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hflt ljgi6 gxf]nf . efiffuf]i7Lsf] cfˆgf] 5'§} If]qLotf (territoriality) 5}g / knkndf cGox¿. hflt. sf/0f cfˆgf k'Vof}{nL af]nL pgLx¿ g} a'´b}gg\ .ª\36s hghfltsf efiff pkefiffx¿ d[tk|foM eO. efiff Pp6f . cg'ejsf] cfwf/df o:tf] cj:yfk|lt w]/}h. clg o.df b'n{e ePsf] ljåfg\x¿ dfG5g\ . clg ck|rlnt s'g} efiff jf af]nLnfO{ af}/L p7fP/ hLljt agfpg . hflt.}n] lnP/ cfpFb}g .a} g]kfnLd} ub}{5g\ .sf] ljk/Lt leGg} eP klg .Fu .do / kl/l:yltn] :jtM To:tf] cj:yf .[li6 u/]sfn] xf] .fx|} .dfhdf .b"wsf] dfly t/ nfUg] :t/n] g} pkef]u ug]{ x'g\ .a} g]kfnL jf uf]vf{ sxnfOg] Pp6} . bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL . PsefifL g} eO. clxn] ljleGg hfltuf]i7Lsf .flxTo k|sflzt ub}{5g\ tL Psb'O{ kftfafx]s .s]sf] bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hflt 5 . .Dks{df cfpg'kg]{ x'Fbf .fdflhs .ª\3Lo Joj:yfsf] 5q5fofdf ePsf] :jLsf/ u/]sf] oL ljleGg hghftLo .sf sf/0f w]/} 5g\ .ª\36s hft.Dd cfk"m g]kfnL jf uf]vf{ ePsf] v'nf v08g u/]sf 5}gg\.s]sf] jf:tljstf 5 . o.r]t ePsf 5g\ .ª\u7gåf/f k|sflzt .s]sf] 36gfsf] pbfx/0f dfgj Oltxf. tyflk slxn]sfxLF o:tf .f‰f efiffsf] ¿kdf g]kfnL efiff clgjfo{ aGb5 . hghftLo gofF c8fg lng]x¿n] cfˆgf]–cfˆgf] af]nL÷efiffsf] k'g?4f/ ug'{kg]{ / k|rngdf Nofpg'kg]{ s'/f u/] klg of] sfd . bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hfltTjnfO{ Ifo x'g glbg] d"n 6]jf g]]kfnL efiffsf] Jofks pkof]u g} x'g] k|foM lglZrt b]lvG5 .f] g} . bfhL{lnªdf x/]s hft.

Dd .flxTosf d"n :tDex¿ w]/h} .flxToaf/]sf u|Gyx¿df g]kfnL cfˆgf] dft[efiff geP/ klg g]kfnL efiff / . bfhL{lnªaf6 g]kfnL efiff x6\of] eg] ToxfF g]kfnL g]kfnL hflt /xg]5g} .f‰f g]kfnL efiff g} x'g] nfUb5 . cfh slyt ¿kn] of] hfltcGtu{t ljlR5Ggtfsf cfjfhx¿ p7] klg .flxTonfO{ 7"nf] of]ubfg k'¥ofpg]x¿ egL lzjs'df/ /fO{. kf/. JofVofgsf] .Dd bfhL{lnªdf of] hfltTj÷hftLotfsf] d"n cfwf/ jf 38]/L .f] JolQmx¿ dtjfnLju{sf 5g\ .eGg] k|Zg ubf{ o.'b/" eljio. OGb|axfb'/ /fO{ / cGo /fO{. efOrGb k|wfg / cGo g]jf/ tyf To. bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hftLotfaf/] rrf{ ubf{ o. g]kfnaf6 k|sflzt g]kfnL .fb k|wfg. /fli6«ob]lv /fHo / :yfgLo :t/.f‰f efUo -cj:yf_ / g]kfnL efiffn] lgjf{x u/]sf] ljifonfO{ dxŒj lbPsf] lyPF .'?df ToxfF Pp6f ljlzi6 g]kfnL hflt lgdf{0fdf g]kfnLsf] .Qm}g . Jofks .f‰f efUo / . bfhL{lnª] g]kfnL .flxTo /rgf u/L . bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 27 ./L c¿ uf]i7Lsf g]kfnL efiff.af/] g]kfnsf oxfFx¿ w]/} cjut x'g' x'Gg .dl0f k|wfg.s]/ .ª\Vofdf kf7s.af/] pgLx¿sf] cgle1tf :ki6 ‰NsG5 . kfb/L uª\ufk|.]jL / .Lldt kf7s / dfGotfsf] ljsNk cfsif{s x'g .du| g]kfnLx¿sf] .Ddfg k|flKtsf] 7fpFdf cfˆgf] k'Vof}{nL af]nL l.flxTosf/x¿sf] juL{s/0f ug]{ k|yfn] bfhL{lnªsf g]kfnLx¿ slt /fFlsg] u5{g\ To.

ª\Vof .g\ 1971 df 781.f/ hgu0fgf l/kf]6{ M .g\ 1872 df bfhL{lnª lhNnfdf g]kfnL hg.550 .369 .g\ 1941 df 376.605.g\ 2001 df 1.xfos efiffsf ¿kdf af]Ng]x¿sf] .g\ 1901 df 249.ª\sng .748 .618 .635 .ª\Vof M .g\ 1951 df 445.024.F.ª\Vof bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf] df]7 hg.g\ 1872–1951 hfthfltcg'.kl/lzi6 Details from Mr.777 .900 28 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . Magrath's Darjeeling District Census Compilation.g\ 1901 b]lv 2001 .g\ 1921 df 282.g\ 1981 df 1.640 .L=Pkm= dufy{sf] .ª\Vof M .g\ 1911 df 265.117 .Dd .C.g\ 1961 df 624.g\ 1951 g]kfnL efiff .g\ 1901 b]lv 2001 .335.260 . 1872 .g\ 1931 df 319.ª\Vof bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf] df]7 hg.g\ 1991 df 1.269 .Dd bfhL{lnª lhNnfsf] g]kfnL hg.

1872 ETHNICAL DIVISION OF THE POPULATION Name of Nationality. Tribe or Caste II.F.150 51 7 235 331 99 2 1.919 29 . NON-ASIATICS Eurpeon English Irish Scotch French German Italian Prussian Total American TOTAL OF NON-ASIATICS Name of Nationality.419 47 3. MIXED RACES Eurasian Number 207 97 42 19 43 6 5 419 1 420 Number 32 III.886 3.Details from Mr. Magrath’s Darjeeling District Census Compilation. Tribe or Caste I. ASIATICS A.Other than Natives of India and British Burmah Nepali. vizAle Basnet Chibing Damai Diwan Dilpali Durlami Gain Ghalia Gharti Ghatwal Gurung Gurkha Hatwali Iyakha Jamadar Jimi Jirel Kami Khamba bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 9 2 15 252 7 4 26 28 537 1. C.

088 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .781 B.814 6 3 328 5 1. Aboriginal Tribes Aka Dhimal Lepcha Mech Murmi Uraon Total 30 165 873 3.Khawa Limbu Magar Manjhi Moktan Newar Pahariya Parbatiya Parel Pradhan Rai Risingia Sengten Sarki Suchikar Sunawar Tamang Thakur Thami Thapa Unspecified 310 4.663 3.011 275 3 1.648 14.557 1.952 893 6. Natives of India and Burmah I.087 92 21 3 30 1.192 4 56 13 447 398 Total 25.

781 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 31 .150 l/l. /fO{_ 3.fsL{ 328 Oofvf -ofvf_ 235 .<_ 7 .814 u'?ª 3..ª\sng M .L=Pkm= dufyf{sf] .011 bdfO{+ 252 df‰L 275 lbjfg 7 df]Stfg 3 lbNkfnL 4 g]jf/ 1.633 lrljª 15 du/ 3.ª\Vof g]kfnL .087 b'nfdL{ 26 kxfl8of 92 ufOg\ -ufOg]_ 28 kj{ltof 21 3lnof -3n]_ 537 k/]n 3 3tL{ 1.]ªt]g 3 xftjfnL .913 s'n 25.ª\Vof cfn] 9 vfjf 310 a:g]t 2 lnDa" 4.419 k|wfg 30 36jfn -s6'jfn <_ 47 /fO{ 1."rLsf/ 5 hdfbf/ -lhDbf/. /fO{_ 331 7fs'/ -7s'/L <_ 56 lhdL 99 yfdL 13 lh/]n 2 yfkf 447 sfdL 1.g\ 1872 df bfhL{lnª lhNnfdf g]kfnL hg.ª\u] 6 u'vf{ 51 .886 clglb{i6 398 vDaf -vDa'.ª\Vof g]kfnL .

470 6.803 ofvf 242 1.939 11.bfhL{lnª lhNnfdf g]kfnL hg.L 267 1151 1.fsL{ 328 1.864 lnDa" 4.820 3.687 8.745 5]qL 11.448 3.781 5.432 2.597 12.288 17.835 .551 8.236 47.450 33.g\ 1911 .827 tfdfª 6.162 9.751 10.94 4.451 14.941 30.191 16.932 3tL{ 1.409 41.g\ 1901 .317 e'hn] 5.119 850 825 btf{ ul/Pg bdfO{+ 252 4.'g'jf/ 11.465 27.195 8.120 5.567 24.g\ 1921 .g\ 1941 .085 a|fXd0f 904 6.719 8.912 12.133 40.745 of]uL 454 474 du/ 3.305 13.453 5.575 11.299 17.242 14.055 4.036 2.599 25.272 19.g\ 1872-1951 hft–hfltcg'.779 11.053 496 998 df‰L 275 327 yfdL 13 475 7s'/L 56 804 yfkf 447 uf]vf{ 51 kxfl8of 92 kj{ltof 21 - 32 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .934 16.770 6.262 19.186 9.816 5.663 14.f/ .463 .ª\Vof .992 2.419 3.822 4.g\ 1931 .116 sfdL 1.174 8.431 56.803 19.691 4.143 1.331 16.643 4.481 43.226 30.890 u'?ª 3.754 33.Gof.432 .413 g]jf/ 1.455 17.584 2.020 11.154 15.794 64.823 1.826 10.g\ 1951 /fO{ 6.060 1.378 9.428 3.268 9.235 12.778 2.927 8.999 11.g\ 1872 .804 14.114 49.

dk"/s n]vssf] klxnf] kx/.ª\Vof 64.803 4. u'?ª.ª\Vof 88.8\ol/_ efiffsf] tflnsf (1.827 13.780 44.L. ljZn]if0fsf] lglDt cfFs8f cfjZos aG5 . sfdL.fsL{sf] dft[efiff 7fg]/ lhNnfdf g]kfnLefifLsf] . df klxnf] n]v …bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnL hflt M Pp6f P]ltxfl.sf] k|lqmofnfO{ b[li6df g/fvL /fO{.s cWoogÚ af6 Ps p4/0f k[i7 40-42 .730 58. .df bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hfltsf] ljsf.595 14. . bfhL{lnª 1982.833 19.929 20.g\ 1951 df eof] . g]jf/. lnDa". 5]qL..|f] af]Ng] b]vfOof] .'g'jf/ yfdL v= af]Ng]sf] .875 49.j\l.092 17.423 17.339 457 420 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 33 . c¿nfO{ g]kfnL dft[efiff xf]Og t/ cfˆg} af]nL dft[efiff af]Ng] clg g]kfnL bf].Gof. l/kf]6{sf dft[efiffsf] tflnsf (1. :jfwLgtfkl5 klxnf] hgu0fgf . o.958 lbof] .xfos -.413 17.412 4.9) / dfWolds jf .864 15.g\ 1951 sf] hgu0fgfn] s]jn afx'g.xfos efiff ePsf] egL b]vfOPsf] . du/ k|j[lQnfO{ leGg} b]vfpg] r]i6f eof] . tfdfª.ª\Vof u= v–df g]kfnL efiff .10) ldnfP/ oxfF /flvG5 M s= dft[efiff /fO{ tfdfª lnDa" du/ u'?ª g]jf/ . bdfO{+ / .

. s]xL pbfx/0fx¿ M s= dft[efiff * v= af]Ng]sf] .|f] efiff g]kfnLn] af]Ng]x¿ 210. g]kfnL . hft / hghfltsf] cfwf/df .2% cª\u|]hL 2.989 8.]kf{ 8.ª\udf s]xL tYox¿lt/ . jif{cl3 g} eg]sf lyP . .372 11% nfKr] 13. .L hfltx¿sf] g]kfnL efiff.ª\Vof aª\ufnL 64.980 634 0.126* 98% ef]l6of 7.Ldf aª\ufnLx¿sf] .3% lxGbL 30.436 1. tflnsf x]bf{ :ki6 b]lvG5 kxf8jf.g\ 1953 sf] k|foM 320.ª\st] ug{ Psb'O{ s'/f Wofgdf /fVg of]Uo 5 .335* 88% pb"{ 2. a]nf xfdL 5fq cj:yfdf x'g]x¿nfO{ yfxf 5.Fu cfTdLotf b]lvG5 ..000 hg.ª\Vof Ps.ª\Vofdf 37. .]kf{x¿ hDd}n] g]kfnL bf].444 aª\ufnL lyP egL b]vfOPsf] 5 .df 5g\ .ª\Vof u= v–df g]kfnL efiff .1% c¿sf] t'ngfdf kxf8jf.240 3.446 2.4% sfut] 350 314* 90% df/jf8L 267 11 4.g\ 1872 df . . oxL k|.g\ 1941 df aª\ufnLsf] .g\ 1951 sf] hgu0fgfdf csf]{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ ljifo klg 5 .ª\Vof sbflk Tolt w]/} lyPg.L ef]6.075* 99% .dfhsf ulx/fOdf a:g] cGtwf{/fdf k|jfx / k|ltk|jfx rfvnfUbf] .g\ 1951 df bfhL{lnªdf oL ljleGg af]nL hfGg] / af]Ng]sf] .ª\Vof 34 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .dtnjf.6% ltAatL 1. bfhL{lnªsf] .xfos efiff ePsf] egL b]vfOPsf] .665 698 2.o klg b]lvFbg } .] nfKr].431 0.275* 89% 8'Skf 1.030 b]vfOP .063 6.394 12.DejtM aª\ufnLefifL /fhj+zLh:t} c¿ klg To.dfhzf:qLo cWoogsf] ljifo 5 .f| ] efiff n]vfP. lhNnfdf ljleGg hDdf 64 dft[efiff af]Ng]df bf]. c¿n] Tolt n]vfPgg\. hflt. To.flxTo .Dd]ng :yflkt x'Fbfsf efif0fx¿n] cs}{ s'/f tL.121 986* 88% /fh:yfgL 714 – 00% lrlgofF 509 14 3.

./sf/n] ToxfF a.g\ 1907 sf] u]hl] 6o/df cf]dn] Ln] l. hf] cs}{ u|Gysf] ljifo aGg .846 lyP . aª\ufnsf c¿ lhNnfdf hGd]sfx¿ 6.fk]lIfs u'?Tj lbg] k4ltn] n'sfPsf] 5 . /fHo k'gu{7g cfof]u u7g eof] .g\ 1951 df aª\ufnL efifL 64.g\ 1941-51 df kfj{To dxs'dfsf] j[l4 x/b/ 14.nLu'8LnfO{ kxf8sf] k]mbdf 784 hg.830 lyof] eg] lxGbL efifLsf] .S5g\ . .7 k|ltzt lhNnfsf] hg. …g]kfnLÚ egL /fO{.ª\Vof j[l4 x/b/ 17.939 dfq b]lvG5g\ .ª\Vofdf 209. .2 k|ltzt j[l4 l.7 k|ltzt j[l4 eO{ . vf]lhPsf tYox¿ cg]s 5g\.Æ . . sfdL.2 k|ltztsf] kfFr u'0ffeGbf a9L 61. h'g .sf] k|aGw ldnfPsf]n] bfhL{lnªdf hg.ª\Vof / bnbn ePsf] cf}nf] nfUg] ufpF eg]sf lyP .g\ 1931-41 df tLg kfj{To dxs'dfsf] hg.ª\Vofdf b]vfOPsf] lyof] eg] .fª\lVosLo kl/jt{g ePsf] b]lvG5 .g\ 1951 df 32.f]af.L lhNnfsf] hg. .ª\Vof 10.480 k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . bdfO+.g\ 1947 sf] u]hl] 6o/df P=h]= 8\of. æc¿ kxf8jf. .ª\Vofdf k"j{ aª\ufnaf6 cfPsf z/0ffyL{nfO{ klZrd aª\ufn .240 /x]sf] b]lvG5 .g\ 1941 sf] hgu0fgfdf .ª\Vofdf 94 k|ltzt 5g\ .Dk|bfox¿nfO{ .sf] dxŒj a9]sf] Pp6f sf/0f lyof] . u'?ª.L hfltx¿ lhNnfsf] df]7 hg. 5]qL.446 / lxGbL efifL 30.ª\Vof 21.sf] hg.487 jf 73 k|ltzt w]/} lyof] eg] b.ª\If]kdf oxfF olt g} k|z:t dflgG5 .g\ 1941 df o.nLu'8L dxs'dfsf] eof] .a}nfO{ ug]/ . tfdfª.x/sf] hg. Pp6f.161 lyP . lnDa".g\ 1941 df 67.ofsf c¿ b]zdf hGd]sfx¿ -g]kfnnufot_ ca 2.ª\Vof 445. aª\ufn ljefhgkl5 l.996 lyof] .{ .g\ 1951 kl5 g} b'O{ k|d'v 36gf 36] . .ª\Vofsf] 94 k|ltzt lyP.g\ 1951 df 36]/ 66.g\ 1941 df .g\ 1951 df afx'g.260 df lhNnfd} hGdg]x¿ 338. k|z:t .nLu'8L oftfoftsf] s]Gb| eO{ o. ef/tb]lv aflx/ Pl. efiffsf] cfwf/df k|fb]lzs bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 35 .fsL{nfO{ dfq g]kfnLefifL ug]/ of] efiff af]Ng]sf] k|ltzt dfq b]vfOof] . . jif{df o.8 k|ltzt .3 k'U5 . aª\ufnb]lv aflx/ ef/td} hGd]sfx¿ 40. of] s'/f .n] :ki6 eg]sf 5g\.LeGbf g]kfnLsf] afx'No 5 .g\ 1951 df g]kfnL hfltsf] k|ltzt 36]/ 59 df k'U5 . g]jf/ . .g\ 1951 sf] hg. du/.788 lyP . .dt'No 18 k|ltzt j[l4 l.nLu'8Ldf ePsf] lyof] .355 b]vfOPsf] 5 . kfls:tfgaf6 cfpg] 5.lhNnfdf 15. . clg oL kxf8jf. g]kfnaf6 cfpg] 749 lyP.Dk"0f{ kxf8jf.

jif{ /fO{ af]nL af]N5' eGg] dfq 233. tfdfª n]vfpg] 761. lg0f{odf cfpg s/ nfU5.g\ 1961 df klZrd aª\ufn /fhsLo efiff ljw]os kfl/t u/L lhNnfsf ljlzi6tf gljrf/L oxfF klg aª\ufnsf c¿ Onfsfdf ‰}F aª\ufnLnfO{ Ps dfq /fhsLo efiff agfpg] r]i6f ul/of] . .sfª\u.f| . jif{kl5 x7ft\ of] kl/jt{g b]lvg] lyPg .130 5 . gofF hgu0fgfn] g]kfnL af]Ng] hguf]i7Lsf] g]kfnL efiffdf cfw[t hftLo efjgf w]/}cl3b]lv tLI0f x'Fb} cfO/x]sf] cg'dfgnfO{ k'li6 lbG5 .640 .fadf lhNnfdf g]kfnLefifL b. tfdfª.] oxL cfFs8fsf] cfwf/df bfhL{lnªdf 20 k|ltzt g]kfnLefifL b]vfP/ .676 b]vfOG5 ltgdf sdfg a:tLdf g]kfnLefifLsf] .ª\Vof 306. hgu0fgfsf] lx. a[xt\ ¿kdf :jtM:k"mt{ hgcfGbf]ng k|an eP/ dfq uPg t/ /fhgLlts bnsf] csd{0otfn] . .x/df 62.g\ 1961 df lhNnfsf] hg. hDdf ca .ª\Vofn] cfˆgf] dft[efiff /fO{.g\ 1951 df bfhL{lnªsf] g]kfnLsf] P]ltXo .DaGwL s'g} k/fdz{ cfof]usf] k|ltj]bgdf /x]g . o:tf k|foM sdfg a:tL Onfsf / ljz]if sflnDkf]ª dxs'dfdf b]lvG5g\ . k|ltztsf] lx. u'?ª 4. of] kl/kf6L c‰ rln/x]s} 5 . jif{b]lv xhf/f}Fsf] . o.3 af6 36]/ 59 k|ltzt k'U5 .806 / .Qf?9 /fhgLlts bnsf] of]hgf klg efiffs} cfwf/df :jfwLg ef/tdf k|b]z jf /fHo u7g ug]{ ePsfn] b]zsf /fhgLlts cj:yf / dfux¿ Wofgdf /fvL of] cfof]u u7g ul/of] .g\ 1961 df bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hftLo Pstfsf] efjgf k|v/ eof].624 u/L hDdf 369. b. g]jf/L n]vfpg] 19. ] f] 5 624. lnDa".ª\Vof 624.f‰f d~r clgjfo{ agfof] . . hgu0fgfdf k|foM hDd} g]kfnLn] cfˆgf] dft[efiff g]kfnL n]vfPsf] b]lvG5 . k|lqmofnfO{ a'‰/] jf ga'‰/] t/ Pp6f jf:tljstfnfO{ Pp6f lg:kflbt .ª\Vof k'us dft[efiffx¿ ulgPsf 5g\ 119 clg hDd} dft[efiff af]Ng]sf] . jif{ klxnfsf] 66. Pp6f xfFs kfP/ .g\ 1947 kl5 .fdflhs ljsf.'g'jf/ 214. . bf].ª\Vof 371.g\ 1961 csf]{ hgu0fgfsf] jif{ klg lyof] . lnDa" af]Ng] 260.a} hf]8b\ f g]kfnLsf] .TonfO{ ljs[t kfg]{ if8oGq s'g} :t/df ePsf] lyof] . u'?ª. du/. To.fadf g]kfnLefifL s]jn 20 k|ltzt b]vfOPsf]n] bfhL{lnª. du/ af]Ng] 58. uf]vf{nL n]vfpg] 22 hgf 5g\ . g]jf/L OToflb n]vfPsf] eP b.142 36 bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ . .]| sldl6 :jfwLgtfcl3 ul7t lyP . .

b. .x'G5 .2 5 . . bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ 37 . df]7df .g\ 1961 df . . jif{cl3 lxGbLefifL 30. k|ltztdf Tolt b'O{ xhf/sf] s]xL x]/k]m/ 5}g . jif{kl5 66.g\ 1961 df 47.g\ 1971 df 62.446 lyP.240 lyP.g\ 1951 df aª\ufnLefifL 64.3 lyP eg] .8 k|ltzt aG5 . j[l4 k|foM 56 k|ltzt 5 .L b.812 5 .g\ 1941 df 94 k|ltzt ePsf] kxf8jf.ª\Vof 115.172 5 . j[l4 k|ltzt 63.

.ª\s]t lrGx bfhL{lnªdf g]kfnL hflt / hghftLo lrgf/Lsf gofF c8fgx¿ .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful