Public relations (PR) is about managing reputation.

This career field aims to gain understanding and support for clients as well as to influence opinion and behaviour. PR officers use all forms of media and communication to build, maintain and manage the reputation of their clients. These range from public bodies or services to businesses and voluntary organisations. They communicate key messages, often using third party endorsements, to defined target audiences in order to establish and maintain goodwill and understanding between an organisation and its public. PR officers monitor publicity and conduct research to find out the concerns and expectations of an organisation's stakeholders. They then report and explain the findings to its management.

Typical work activities
A public relations (PR) officer often works in-house and can be found in both the private and public sectors: from the utility and media sectors to voluntary and not-for-profit organisations. Some PR officers may be based in consultancies. The role is very varied and will depend on the organisation and sector. Tasks typically involve:

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planning, developing and implementing PR strategies; liaising with colleagues and key spokespeople; liaising with and answering enquiries from media, individuals and other organisations, often via telephone and email; researching, writing and distributing press releases to targeted media; collating and analysing media coverage; writing and editing in-house magazines, case studies, speeches, articles and annual reports; preparing and supervising the production of publicity brochures, handouts, direct mail leaflets, promotional videos, photographs, films and multimedia programmes; devising and coordinating photo opportunities; organising events including press conferences, exhibitions, open days and press tours; maintaining and updating information on the organisation's website; sourcing and managing speaking and sponsorship opportunities; commissioning market research; fostering community relations through events such as open days and through involvement in community initiatives; managing the PR aspect of a potential crisis situation.

which comes from an understanding of human nature and the imaginative ability to put sense and enthusiasm for the job. He must be able to avoid any complaint from outside about the company. A main thing. then the relations are kept by the following ways. He must be bold and capable of taking leadership and responsibility of the company. Once a good repo is struck between all the chains of the company. The employees. Though the company usually has no direct contact with the consumers but certainly through the middlemen. 1) CONSUMER RELATIONS: Most important thing for the company is a consumer as they are the people who decide the business for the company. structured and calibrated. He must be able to gain people's confidence.PERSONAL QUALITIES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS OFFICER A public relation officer will certainly do some writing. Technical details are also important things. This is also one type of public relations. . This is a very important task. That means he must be a master in the communication art. His standard of integrity is high. PUBLIC RELATIONS IN GOVERNMENT Representatives of the people form an assembly. Keeping good relations with the consumers is very necessary for the company. which come across in a PRO’s selection. His facts are people's eyes. dealers and retailers are there in between the company and consumer to strike the chord between the consumers and the company. This explanation should prove beyond doubt that leadership is one of the most important quality in determining your ambition to be a successful Public Relations Officer. The main functions of these elected people are nothing but maintain Public Relations. Some important points regarding machinery and production are known to the PRO. his style of speaking and presentation are the most important trademarks. The people are divided into following groups or categories as per the company's or organization’s relations. to edit house journals. The price of the commodity is also decided by taking in account general public opinion and obviously general market strategies and combinations. or to write company brochures or sales literature. which have been prepared and executed according to public wants and desires. which is done by the representative of the people. Before launching a product in the market a survey is done and according to the needs and wants of the people. The government recognizes the people as the masters and these masters keep the people informed about the policies of government and plans. He must be having full knowledge of the firm where he is working. The dealers. If employed by a large firm he may be asked to write a speech for his chairman. like the wholesalers. ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS An organization has to keep relations with several groups to create and maintain a favorable image about the organization in the minds of the people. He must be good journalist. He will have to draft letters and draw up reports for his clients. EDUCATION: A PRO must be educated. He is almost bound to have to prepare press releases and has to write some articles. which is important for PRO is that he must be able to satisfy people. The consumers. as he has to make reports of the programs. as he has to perform all the very important duties. A good Public Relations officer has the ability to marshal facts to summarize the important points and then to express himself clearly in both writing and speech. During the interview. The community. The shareholders or Proprietors. the product is designed. As far as educational qualification is concerned diploma in public relations is a must.

and above all should be attractively and precisely written and framed with graphs. company history & background. The heading should be distinct from ordinary business letter heading but should not be so designed and worded that it looks like an advertisement. The presentation prepared should be simple. Therefore. address and telephone number of the sender being printed distinctly but discreetly at the foot of the sheet. An employee should not get bossing but he must be working under control. it is essential for manufactures to keep good relations with dealers as they are taking the product in bulk and also interested in maximizing the profits. Because bossing is the thing. ACTIVITIES OF PRO Writing is the main activity of PRO and he has to be a master in writing seminars. by giving delivery of product on time. which earns a bad reputation for the company in workers minds and naturally affects his work. awards are given to the employees. Bonuses and incentives are also provided to the workers but along with this more things are given to employees to make good relations with them. dealers. To avoid loss to company it is necessary for a manager to look upon this bossing matter from the initial stages itself. . 2) DEALER RELATIONS: Dealers are working as a bridge between manufacturers and consumers. etc. a well for general villagers or school for students. by doing his advertisement. which makes good relations. A good dealer relations can only be promoted if the manufacturer is fair in his relations in following fronts. selected by the PRO. and similarly there are many types of public relation activities that are done. If employee's relations are good then company will always be in good profit and no disputes will arise in the workers and managerial staff. A typical presentation method is given below. second part of public relations start. Shareholders naturally expect the prices of their shares to rise in the market as then only they can make a capital profit when they decide to sell the shares. For their excellent performance in work. which are named as Community Relations. He therefore naturally expects a reasonable return on his investment keeping in view the risk he is taking by investing his money in the organization involved. which are to be done by manufacturers to make strong relations. Thus good shareholder relations cannot be built up if the company is not fair to them in the declaration of dividends in particular. A product from manufacturer is first sold to the dealer and then it reaches to the consumer. Proper information about the product. He could have invested this money outside in Banks or in government securities.Now. The information may be given by the dealer or by public relations during garnishing of public complaints and suggestions. and policies are explained to the consumer. A Company building a meeting hall for general public. consumers. so that the story predominates. lucid. 3) EMPLOYEE RELATIONS: A Company gives many facilities to the employees who are working for the company. In this way consumer relations are kept and organized by the company. 5) COMMUNICATION RELATIONS: There are many members of community like shareholders. The amount of dividend also affects the price of the share in the market. such are the community activities done by a company. A Public Relations Department should ideally receive complaints and suggestions from the people or customers who are directly coming to the company. employee. The best news and headlines should be at the top and must be neat and simple. clear to understand. which is a very important task. summaries. Thus community relations activities must be geared to actually satisfy the needs of the needy and not just be triggered to procure glorification for the company or perpetuation of the owner's name. 4) SHAREHOLDER RELATIONSHIP: A shareholder or proprietor is a person who has invested money in the organization. the name. To appreciate the dealer’s work and to inspire him to sell are the main things. etc. director's speeches and has to make reports of presentation for the news. By giving credit facility.

Continuation should be clearly started at the foot of the complete copy and the top of the following sheet. This is followed by most newspapers. But in case of big figures they should not be spelt fully e. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM FOUR STAGES: There are four stages in public relations program. Capital letter should be restricted to proper names such as surnames. That fact finding revealed that one of the fields where the staff miserably failed was in letter writing. ranks and position as a general managing director do not need capital letters. It was then noted that there were lots of dark patches in the organization and it was company's staff. it was discovered that their products were losing the market. 1 lac. There was no intense competition from other products. But at one stage. Let us discuss these steps one by one.The first paragraph should not be indented. 5) Nothing should usually be underlined. the following points should be considered very carefully: Does the news content of the occasion warrant bringing busy journalists and others from their offices to your venue? Would a news release suffice? Is the date sufficiently advanced to allow your guests to print the story? 3) Is the venue easily accessible? The press material should be simple such as a brief news release and a well-captioned picture. . Length of the news should be 200 to 300 words in case of reports but it should contain all the important points regarding the matter. A committee of experts was set up to screen every letter written by the company to their clients over a specific period. to their great surprise. 10 millions etc. RECEPTIONS & FACULTY VISITS: A news conference is an informal assembly. Other style should not be used. An internal survey was subsequently carried out. Subheading should not be used unless the story refers to more than one item and sub heads help to identify them. All copy for the press should be typed on machine and checked afterwards. the second is organized planning. nor do materials such as steel or polythene. All succeeding paragraphs should be indented. company names and geographical places. Any public relation campaign has to begin with the appraisal of the problems of an organization and also the attitude of the public. which was responsible for the falling sales. supported by a sample if that is feasible. Notary should be completely in caps. Another side should be kept blank. 6) Figures should be spelt out one to nine. A report should be written on one side of the foolscape paper only.g. 1) FACT FINDING: It is an informal research to find out the problems of an organization. The first stage is fact-finding. Each of these four steps is important to the successful implementation of a Public Relation Campaign. flight or voyage. NEWS CONFERENCE. the third one is effective communication & the final is objective evaluation. A market survey was conducted. In organizing these public relation events. perhaps called at a short notice so that statement may be given to reporters and question's answered. But it is generally better to write separate stories about each item. Here is an example: For years everything was well with food products manufacturing company. A news reception is more formal and organized occasion when there is a program of activities such as demonstration ride.

Before submitting a plan for the approval it should be examined with the following checklist. The ultimate aim of a public relation campaign is to make the people adopt an idea or a product. In adopting such ideas. In adopting this new hybrid variety a farmer has to pass through four stages. meeting should be held with top management when the plan is not only discussed but also finally approved. There are several methods of fact finding such as personal contacts. there are again four steps. steps were taken to improve public relation letter writing by the staff and in a relatively shorttime business picked up. so as to convey the message to the target audience. It is the foundation to public relation planning & identifying discrepancies. which is to be introduced in the country. For this a presentation. the farmer develops interest in the idea and seeks more information on the new strain for his consideration. it can be safely assumed that the idea and campaign would be finally adopted. Eg: The department of agriculture has evolved a new strain of hybrid paddy. For this a communication program has been designed in such a way as to make the farmers adopt the new variety of paddy seeds. 4) Trial: The farmer actually puts the idea into practice on a small scale in his farm. the fact-finding survey pointed out this vital defect. opinion surveys.It was then discovered that over 80 percent of the letters that were sent out to people should not have been written at all in the first instance because they lacked the communicative touch and went off without influencing the people towards their products. CHECK LIST: What is the problem? How is the problem going to be solved through a public relation campaign? Is the cause worthwhile? What is the object of the proposed public relation campaign? What are the costs involved in the campaign? Who will execute the campaign? What media will be used? Will it be continuous in the application? Is it going to be beneficial both to the organization and the public? Having satisfied with the checklist the P. media will be press. etc. media reports. 2) Interest: Having known to its existence. television. mail analysis. To remedy the situation. The media used for communication for each stage must be suitable. For creating the necessary awareness. Till the interest stage.O. etc. 2) PLANNING PROGRAMS: This is the second stage of laying plan and programs for satisfactory solution of the problems.R. the advertisement must be repeated by the . can submit a comprehensive public relation project for the approval of the management. 3) COMMUNICATIONS: This is a third step in which the public relation program approved by management is put to action through various media of communication. If the idea experimented by the farmer is successful. news print. radio. local advertising. 1) Awareness: The farmer learns of this existence of the hybrid paddy. This is the result of public relation campaign. 3) Acceptance: The farmer makes a decision to try the new variety in his own farm. So. which was not known to him earlier. Fact-finding can be used for different purposes. Meeting with the executives and officers at the organization can also be a part of fact-finding programs.

sample surveys through mail questionnaire. film. It has been defined as "The art of dealing with the people in the masses. what was their reaction? Did it arouse a new interest? Did they understand? Usually every medial has an association. We can also say that it is an unpaid form of advertising. radio. etc. websites. The propaganda technique. A system of review of public relations activities is therefore indispensable. press clipping services. etc. the public relations campaign would have achieved its desired objects. ADVERTISING: Advertising is the business of selling goods & services & ideas by inducing people to want them or it is a paid form of publicity. The study team employs various tools to evaluate the impact of the planned publicity. double talk. information from different publicity media units concerned. mails. Other tools include reader interest surveys of newspapers and magazines. television. Quantitatively. Unless public relation activities are evaluated. While their boundaries may well overlap but yet differs in the technique of their approach. For example. COMMUNICATION IMPACT: The impact of the message passed on to the audience can be found out by the communication or by direct meeting with the people. PUBLICITY. Its chief function is to gain public attention for clients. include deliberate lies. Public Relation is not advertising. PUBLICITY: Public relations and publicity are not two different branches but are the two aspects of the same things. The exact opinion of the audience can be taken by this process. exaggeration. It is also a three-stage program. which includes inviting written memoranda from the public. publicity. The public relations officer must know the distinction between these activities. Panchayat Samitis and village panchayats and villagers. legislators." For acceptance & trial stages personal approaches or group discussion is a good and great media 4) EVALUATION: Public relation is a long and a continuous process. readability tests. Its impacts can’t be judged by the number of press releases dispatched or by the number of exhibition of public relation works. The advertising media are newspaper. It is to be determined by the degree of impact a given message has produced on the public concern and the extent of its reaction to it. AUDIENCE RESEARCH: If the message has reached the target audience. it may be difficult for the management to assess the effect of public relations on the public. etc. representatives of public. which conducts surveys on the impact of its program.same medias because as the saying goes. It is also a process of making something known. omission of facts. presidents and members of Zillah Parishads. if the hybrid paddy has been adopted by the farmers. public relations cannot be measured but effectiveness can be measured by watching reaction of the people. The definition given by Gobbles is "It is a deliberate & guided campaign to induce people for the acceptance of given idea. PROPAGANDA AND ADVERTISING There is confusion between public relations. PROPAGANDA: Public relation is not propaganda." It is the end that matters in propaganda and not the means. distortion of facts. prejudiced appeals. outdoor publicity. internet. Public relation deals with individual publicity with the people in a mass while dissemination of information to the people in the mass is distinct from individual publicity. propaganda and advertising. No regard is given to the public opinion in propaganda and it always seeks to serve its own selfish end. radio and television audience research. AUDIENCE COVERAGE: It shows size and type of target audience reached or covered. discussions with centre & state ministers and the officials concerned. In propaganda false information and sinister motives often enter. twice remembered and third implemented. they should be distinguished from each other and not to be confused. "Once forgotten. . To have a clear and precise idea of public relations.

3. Therefore. things and places. A majority opinion is not sufficient to constitute public opinion. Incalculable: A wide reading habit and curiosity for forceful words.MEANING OF PUBLIC OPINION: According to Bertrand R. 10. Check out list for organizing public meetings: 1) PLACE & TIME: A convenient place and a time suitable to the audience should be selected. Have an infinite capacity for taking pains & doing hard work. Venue of the function may also be published in the "Engagement" column in the newspapers. it is simply majority or a minority opinion. For public opinion to be aroused there must exist an issue or question about which members of the groups have affirmative or negative views. why people hold attitudes and their role in the opinion for mind process. Advance publicity through press & other media should be very useful. 7. together with an ability to conceptualize situations and understand public moods. To truly express public opinion. This would facilitate to pick and choose the right type of speakers appropriate for the occasion. Nurture a good imagination with lively inquisitive mind & carry a sense of humor. Develop good organizing ability and ability to make friends at all levels of society and business. 2) AUD1ENCE: The actual filling of the place with the type of audience for whom the speech is intended is another important factor. Canadian. 9. 4. Public opinion is usually expressed after controversy. 2. Instill in yourself a sense of curiosity about people. OPINION FORMATION: The basic objective of public relations is to influence public opinion. which concerns the welfare doctrines and value system of a group. 3) PANEL OF SPEAKERS: The PRO must maintain a panel of speakers whom he can invite to address meetings. The public opinion emanates from an individual’s opinion of members of a group whose views are subjected to the influences exerted by the group until a consensus is reached and is expressed as the public opinion. Be honest & sincere. Accurate: A flair for writing and public speaking with an ability to communicate ideas effectively. The public meetings are arranged to discuss or decide policies or to change some policies of the organization and for declaration of new things concerned. 5. 6. Public opinion is not simply the opinion of a majority of a group. HOW GOOD SHOULD BE A GOOD PRO? The Ten Commandments for a good PRO: 1. The opinion must be representative of the group as a whole though the minority may not have it and they feel bound by conversion and be feared to accept the group’s opinion and submit ungrudgingly to the majority. Develop ability to persuade people by wise reasoning. . dispute and debate over some controversial question. the belief must be unanimous. 8. HOW TO ORGANISE PUBLIC MEETINGS: Arranging meeting is a task of PRO. For this invitation should be extended to those who are interested in the speech. Personal contact will go a long way in getting a good gathering. which develops from the attitudes of individual comprising the public. "Public opinion is an expression of a belief held in common by members of a group or public on a controversial issue. A badly timed meeting is almost as bad as organizing no meeting at all. Gain adequate knowledge at all mass media. Be cheerful and courteous. it is important to understand the meaning of attitudes. These are the important qualities that a good PRO should have in his repertoire. Otherwise.

He should be equally at ease whether writing or talking. 4." 5. printed words. 1. film. He should be able to communicate effectively. Make sure public address system depends on the audience. 10. PRO should see that the press representatives are provided with all facilities for reporting the speech by marking a separate block with proper sitting arrangement. He should be a man of many tastes. Institutional training in public relations would be a very desirable qualification. public relations called as "Communication Skills" in educational field. 6.4) TALKING POINTS: There is no harm in providing talking points to speakers. 5) OTHER MEDIA: Other media such as press. . Writing & editing of news items. Too many speakers might spoil the meeting. He should have a pleasing personality and carry the initiative & drive. film. following qualities are necessary to be PRO. press. He should be proficient in oral and written communication. Distribution of pamphlets and other printed literature relating to the meeting will be an added attraction. He should be intellectually sharp. understanding & ability to utilize various media of mass. Good university degree. QUALIFICATIONS OF PRO To be a PRO in public undertaking organization requires the following minimum qualifications. the press should be invited. 5. ability to write scripts and commentaries for films and broadcast. Lengthy speeches should be avoided. exhibition. 4. 7. 3. He should have flair for writing. To get good coverage of the function. audiovisual programs etc. Finally a common qualification prescribed for recruitment as a PRO is a degree with a diploma in journalism. radio. Personality to communicate effectively with a variety of people inside and outside the organization at various levels 3. Speeches alone may not attract the audience. Hence. there is a need for minimum & well-informed speakers. advertising. will achieve its purpose. A copy may also be circulated to the pressmen at the time of function. An exhibition preferably based on theme of the function may also be organized. preferably in humanities. 2. Experience of working in an advertising agency. effectively conveying the message to the intended audience. 6. 9. songs & drama. may also be used as complementary to make the meeting more interesting 6) PROGRAM: The Program in order of events should be typed and placed on the table for conducting the meeting. 2. He should be a generalist in terms of capabilities and a specialist so far as public relations is concerned. the speech. as the main ingredient of oral communication publicity. It will add slice to the function if some cultural program or film shows are arranged at the end of the meeting. Speeches should always be delivered in such a way as to appeal to the audience. etc. communication viz. If all the above conditions are fulfilled. features & articles. 1. They require a degree holder PRO but other than this. He should essentially be a "go together. printed material. Capacity for sustained hard work and ability to handle different human and organizational problems. Persons who want to be in public relations set up should have the quality of leadership & skill to handle creative writers and artists and get the best out of them Some special requirements are however required by some organizations. 8.

Liaison on government & other bodies. . Organizing internal communications within organization making house magazine as an effective communication channel. PUBLIC RELATIONS POLICY Develop and recommend corporate public relation policies. seminars and other functions. speeches and radio scripts. fostering equal employment opportunity and cooperating in urban improvement programs development of community understanding of company problem and needs. 9. Improving public relation awareness among the staff members of the company. 10. 11. developments & execution of promotional product publicity campaigns GOVERNMENT RELATIONS: Maintain liaison with appropriate government units at local. 2. 7. STOCKHOLDER RELATIONS: Communication between company and shareholders and also between investors in general. booklets. Projecting favorable image of the organization among internal and external public. Writing press releases. Along with his degree certification. 5. direct program designed to promote the company point of view in legislative matter. Editing and producing house magazines and other company obligations. 8. etc. COMMUNITY RELATIONS: Plan community contacts performance and or co-ordination of corporate good neighbor activities including compliance with environment protection standards. provide not only to top management but also to other department & division. 4. reference letters are also given importance by experienced advertising agencies or other reputed organizations. development of acceptance of company among investors by broadening the exposure of company policies and financial results in the investment community. It also depends upon efficiency and working. Planning and staging of annual meeting of stockholders and appearance before meeting of security analysis. 6. report trends in government affecting the company. developing & executing public relation and advertising campaigns. Planning.EXPERIENCE OF PRO: For a junior PRO experience is the most important factor. Liaison with the press. Organizing exhibitions. institutional advertising. preparation of annual report. dividend cheques. AGE: The age of PRO usually is from 30 to 40 years. articles. contribute public relation viewpoint in formulation of corporate decision. public relations literature and special events. SALARIES: The pay scale of PRO depends upon the organization where he works. Carrying out publicity work for promoting sales of the company products. 3. quarterly reports. Collection of information and other publicity material. PUBLIC RELATION PROGRAMMES: Institutional promotional program designed to build corporate acceptance among key publics. state and national levels. CORPORATE PUBLICITY: Announcement of new products through editorial channels of communication media. advice as needed to help prepare for direct corporate appearance before investigating bodies or legislative hearing. experience and qualification of PRO FUNCTIONS: The major functions of PRO are as given below: 1.

EMPLOYEE PUBLICATIONS: Prepare and publish employee magazines. donation requests. outings. easy to attack the others and thus make the problem worse. Keeping the message simple and straightforward. conduct of employee. f. easy to highlight a small section of it. easy to destroy. d. Hard to love. b. That it must be a deal in truth rather than in deception and that it must seek to clarify the issue of our times rather than confuse them. 14. 15. seminars. 6. 5. when keeping quiet is difficult but right. Packaging the communication appropriately. Hard to build. 3. easy to find faults. newspaper. 4. Remembering for drama not making this communication unnecessary drab and common place. and solicitation for approval drives. 11. easy to nurse a grudge. Hard to give. etc. Hard to be magnanimous. WHAT A PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONAL SHOULD KNOW? A good public relation professional should know the following points: 1. 2. easy to take. Remembering the vital importance of continuity. easy to break of. he should believe in the inalienable right of those with opposing view points to present their cases also for he has to realize that his right to speak can be assured only if the guarantee exists for all including those whose causes are unpopular.CORPORATE DONATION: Develop policy for company contribution process. Should try to elevate his audience rather than degrade them. easy to ignore. easy to generalize. easy to bluster. 7. Hard to be patient. Taking a time to listen to public opinion. 2. bulletins. management communications. and exhibitions all aimed at guest reception activities. 13. Hard to see the whole picture. 4. not overdressing it or making it too extravagant. It is hard to listen. . 8. g. e. Hard to steadfast. Not overselling or exaggerating. Hard to co-operate with others in an attack of a common problem. Should concern himself and not with the manipulation of people but with their continuing enlightenment. Hard to say "sorry". 12. While he may undertake to present one point of view for public consideration. Hard to agree. easy to be stubborn. easy to doubt the motives of others. h. easy to talk. 3. GUEST RELATION: Plan tours. c. Hard to negotiate. Hard to speak up. administer company foundation. Hard to appreciate the detail. Should recognize that sound public relation comprises polices and deals as well as words. MAKING OF A PUBLIC RELATIONS MAN The making of a successful Public relations professional consists of the following: 1. 9. easy to hate. 10. Insisting on truth and full information. Trying to be positive & constructive in every aspect of communication. and that his communication should be addressed to reason & judgment rather than to emotion & prejudice by: a. Hard to forgive.

. he must approach his task in reverence. Should believe that the democratic process must prevail in the market place as well as in political and economic affairs.5. Should believe that the public interest takes precedence over the interest of those he represents and he should conniver his function as being to assist in conforming the interest of those he represents to the interests of the public when the two do not coincide. 7. Should recognize that the consequences of his action are affected in the minds of men and because the human mind has immeasurable potentials for good and for evil. 6.

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