U.G.C.

ACADEMIC STAFF COLLEGE
MYSORE UNIVERSITY MANASAGANGOTHRI, MYSORE.

99TH ORIENTATION PROGRAMME FROM DATE: 15-02-2013 TO 14-03-2013

SUBMISSION OF PROPOSAL FOR MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECT
ON

“The Participation of Women in Panchayat Raj Institutions – A Study at Selected Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka”
Submitted to,

The Director
UGC – Academics Staff College Manasagangothri, Mysore – 570006 Submitted by,

Sri. M. D. PUTLAKAR M.A., M.Phil.,
ASST. PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE BABA SAHEB AMBEDKAR DEGREE COLLEGE HARIHARA, DAVANAGERI DIST.

Annexure - I

FORMAT FOR SUBMISSION OF PROPOSAL FOR “MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECT”
PART – A
1. Broad Subject 2. Area of Specialization 3. Duration 4. Principal Investigator: I.Name II.Sex III.Date of Birth IV.Qualification V.Designation VI.Address: a. Office Dept. of Political Science Baba Saheb Ambedkar Degree College Harihara, Davangeri Dist. Davangere University. b. Residence Harihara. 5. Co-Investigator(s): I. II. Name Sex III. -do-do-doVidyanagar ‘A’ Block, Sri. M. D. PUTLAKAR Male 01-06-1966 M.A., M. Phil., Asst. Professor of Political Science Political Science Women Participation in Politics 18 months.

Date of Birth -

Teaching and Research experience of Principal Investigator: (a) Teaching Experience (b) Research Experience UG: 20 Years. (Please mention the name of affiliating University in case of college) 8. please give the following information: NO ii) Age at the time of Superannuation: iii) Whether employed or not: 7. In case of a retired teacher. VI. Qualification Designation Address - -do-do- a. V. Name of the Institution where the project will be undertaken: (a) Department (b) College/University Political Science Baba Saheb Ambedkar Degree College. Whether the University/College/Institution is approved under section 2(f) and 12 B of the UGC act? No 9.IV. Office b. Residence i) Date of Superannuation: -do-do- 6. PG: NO Nil (c) Year of award of Doctoral Degree: (e) Publication: Papers: Published: Accepted: Communicated: NO Books: Published: Accepted: Communicated: (d) Title of the thesis for doctoral degree: Nil (Please enclose the list of papers & books published and /or accepted during last 5 years) 3 . Harihara Davanagere University.

a large numbers of studies have been initiated by different scholars on participation. Available literature on participation indicates that with the growth of development studies the concept of participation has received scholarly attention. In the late 1970s and early 1980s. empowerment and self reliance. interaction. The term participation has generally been conceived as the involvement of the people in the affairs which affect them. In recent years. It is accepted both as a value as well as a means to improve performance.PART – B PROPOSED RESEARCH WORK 10. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has defined participation from a broader perspective that. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). influence. multilateral agencies such as United Nations Educational. It has been used in terms of involvement.Introduction: The term ‘participation’ is a widely used concept and interpreted differently by different scholars. In India. ‘Participation’ is viewed either as a goal to achieve a milestone or set targets or it is seen as a means to achieve the goal. This body of literature on ‘participation’ helps us to understand the concept of participation. and has to be understood in the context in which it is being used. International Labour Organization (ILO) and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) also began to put emphasis on popular participation in development projects and programmes and thus the concept “of the people by the people and for the people” took a concrete shape. The need of people’s involvement in development and community projects was highlighted by them as a pre-requisite for the success of micro level development programmes. i. especially a more equitable . “participation is a collective sustained activity for the purpose of achieving some common objectives. self-help. the concept of ‘popular participation’ was promoted both by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the 1950s and 1960s. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).Project Title: “The Participation of Women in Panchayat Raj Institutions – A Study at Selected Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka” ii. It is a performance oriented concept.

Role and Rationale of popular participation: The term ‘participation’ has assumed such importance in present era because it is seen as closely related to the goal of development and social change. participation is a process in which people and communities co-operate and collaborate in a development project and as an end. committing time and resources. participation is seen as the empowerment of individuals and communities in terms of acquiring skills. implementation and evaluation and the present work look at the topic of research from this perspective. United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) defines participation as active involvement in decision making at every stage starting with the identification of problems to the study of feasibility. Participation allows people to influence the definition of programme objectives. According to him. Clayton has considered participation as both means and an end. People may in some cases have complete and direct control over these processes in other cases the control may be partial or indirect. passive participation. participation implies involvement of people in the process of decision-making. From the development perspective. values and context. According to United Nations Human Development Report. Further we often notice that many prefixes such as active participation. and 5 . knowledge and experience. participation means that people are closely involved in the economic. implementation and evaluation. Oakley has argued that participation can enhance the efficiency of development by reducing time and saving resources. cultural and political processes that affect their lives. Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) has considered participation as a voluntary contribution by people in any of the public programmes but the people are not expected to take part in either shaping the programme or criticizing its contents.2 United States Agency for International Development (USAID) defines participation as the active engagement of people in sharing ideas. as a means. real participation. social. This implies that the term ‘participation’ does not convey much unless it is understood with respect to given objective.distribution of the benefits of development”. effective participation are used and added to the concept of participation. planning. In the context of Panchayati Raj Institutions. making decisions and taking action to bring about a desired development objective. developed participation.

voting behaviour and electoral process. The central issue of popular participation has to do with power exercised by some people against other people and by some classes against other classes. So. . participation in political sphere involves framing of policies and decisions and effective control over implementation of the same. Politics is generally understood as an exercise of power. Participation in political process has been subject of abiding interest in political science since the days of Plato. Aristotle defined citizen as one who takes part in the administration of justice and holds office. The behavioural revolution which rejuvenated the academic discipline of political science in fifties and sixties of 19th century. participation leads to democratization. According to Kaushik. In recent times. equality. The declaration of French Revolution of 1789 also says that all citizens have right to take part personally or by their representatives in the formulation of law. Marx argued that universal participation is a means and an end of the manifestation of human freedom. It intends to empower people to take more control over their lives. In the context of voting behaviour. equity and human rights. to ensure participation we find both government and nongovernmental organizations have taken legal and institutional steps all over the world.increases people’s commitment and project effectiveness. a good number of scholars have been initiated studies on the concept of political participation. Political participation means involvement of people in the process of exercising power. Participation is a necessary ingredient of every political system. Participation increases self-reliance of participants by giving them opportunities to move from passive dependence to active interdependence. reverse existing situation and brings out necessary social changes so as to promote a better social order. Besides. The term participation implies redistribution of power in a powerless society. the term ‘political participation’ has acquired new and more dynamic connotation. good governance. a sense of deprivation always comes into picture. Participation in a political process preserves equality and justice. concentrated on the study of political behaviour. According to Sushila Patni. A society in which a substantial part of the population is denied any participation whatsoever. participation in political process can be considered as the involvement of people in any form of organized activity that affects or seeks to affect the power relationship.

campaigning activity. socio-economic factors and political factors. (g) publicly expressing a political opinion to convince others. Milbrath and Goel add protest and communication to these modes mentioned by Verba and Nie. (f) contacting a public official. co-operative activity and citizen initiated contacts. such as marches. But slowly and gradually this type of participation is gaining ground in many developing countries of the world. Protest activities. which relate individuals to polity.Means and methods of political participation: In a democratic society there are various means and methods through which people can participate in political process. it exerts a pressure upon the leaders and is called as the blunt instrument of control over the government. Schonfeld has mentioned ten types of activities which are often cited in the literature of political participation. Contesting election is considered as the highest and most serious form of political participation than the other modes of political participation. Campaign activities require much initiative and have more collective effect upon decision making process than voting. (d) attending political meetings or rallies. Since vote determines who holds elective office. These include (a) holding public or party office. strikes and other such direct actionswhich are called as unconventional method of political participation. Voting is considered as the simplest political activity which does not require much information and motivation as do most other political activities. (e) making financial contribution to a party or a candidate. Membership in political party or voluntary organization is the co-operative mode of political participation. Verba and Nie have mentioned four means of political participation which include voting. ( i) voting and (j) expressing oneself to political stimuli. rallies. This mode of participation requires much initiative on the part of citizens. (h) partaking in political discussions. (b) belonging to a party or other political organization. Psychological factors refer to the degree to which citizens are interested in 7 . Such factors are identified by Centre for Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) studies which can be categorized as psychological factors. (c) working in an election. generally considered as unhealthy for democracy. Factors of political participation: Political participation is a complex phenomenon and depends upon many factors.

settled residents. unavailability of resources. Generally participation of women in political process implies the degree of equality and freedoms enjoyed by women in shaping and sharing of powers and value that is given by society to the roles which their male counterparts enjoy. age. occupation. by their very nature. Participation tends to be higher among better educated. residence etc. family background. Political participation depends on an individual’s political stimuli. absence of commitment. These include individual’s knowledge. Furthermore. sex. the dominant ethnic and religious groups. Women’s participation in political process: The above factors have a great impact on participation of women in political process. individual’s personal characteristics and individual’s social characteristics in which the individual finds himself. unwillingness. assume importance. political inheritance. members of the high occupational and income groups. urban dwellers and members of voluntary organization. it has generally been noticed that education. attitudes and personality. race. rigidity in programmes restrict people’s participation in political processes. As far as socioeconomic factors are concerned. supporting political groups. a centralized political system that lays less emphasis upon local mechanisms for administration and decision-making can greatly reduce the potential for authentic participation. that the nature of political environment within a particular State will have a strong influence on the potential for meaningful participation. Political participation of women does not mean only women’s participation in electoral and administrative processes. therefore. Besides. Centralized governments encourage centralized administrative structures which. It can be seen. income. people with political family background. communicating with legislators. are major obstacles to people’s participation. political participation varies in relation to various factors which have been summarized by Milbrath in the following words. In brief. many other factors such as backwardness.and concerned about politics and public affairs. disseminating political views and opinions among the electorate and other related activities. it includes the whole range of voluntary activities which has a bearing on the political process including voting. The lack of leadership and organizational skills. religion. middle aged. But also. consequent inexperience in running projects or organizations leaves people incapable of responding to the demands of participation. . values.

Africa. In 1979. Various International Organizations. paving the way for women to take part in industrial productivity and economic activities and thus bringing a change in their roles in society. a large number of institutions and research centres have been established to broaden the scope of analysis of women’s participation in political process. the position of women in political arena started taking a new turn. the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (UNCSW) was set up as a permanent body of the Economic and Social Council. New Zealand became the first country to enfranchise women in 1893. America. In the later part of the 19th century when the idea of ‘equality of the sexes’ took shape in Western Europe and North America. Industrial Revolution spearheaded movements for democracy. During this period. Australia and Canada provided the voting right to their women counterpart in 1908. women’s struggle for more political space in decision making arena started getting recognition. However. Government Organizations and Non Governmental Organizations took initiatives to promote women’s status in society. in most of the Middle-East countries women are yet to gain equal suffrage. the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination 9 . Finland became the first European country to enfranchise women in 1906. In recent times. With the voting rights granted to women in most countries of the world. For example. With the advent of feminism in USA in 1960s the concept of participation of women in political process (not only in voting but also in other political activities) took a new direction. In later decades. Subsequently. Suffrage Movement and demand for political rights of women brought a new era for women’s participation in public space. the General Assembly of United nations adopted the Convention on the Political Right of Women which stated that “Women shall be entitled to hold public office established by national law on equal terms with men without any discrimination”. women got universal suffrage in almost all the countries of Asia. political and economic activities and remained confined to the four walls of their family lives. equality and social justice. and Latin America. women achieved voting right in 1920 in USA and 1928 in UK. women had a secondary status in society throughout the world. After a continuous struggle for equal political rights.Until the dawn of Industrial revolution. women were enfranchised by the Weimer constitution of 1919. They were not granted to take part in social. Slowly and gradually. importance of the concept of participation of women in political process has significantly increased among political thinkers and researchers.55 In 1952. In Germany. Europe. in 1946.

training and operational activities in the area of women and development.Against Women (CEDAW) was adopted by the General Assembly of United Nations. especially in ministerial and other executive bodies. Globally. International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW). took initiative to provide institutional framework for research. and have made little progress in attaining political power in legislative bodies or in achieving the target endorsed by the Economic and Social Council of having 30 per cent women in positions at decision making levels by 1995. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The CEDAW also highlighted the participation of women in politics. along with the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985) launched a new era in global efforts to promote the advancement of women by opening a worldwide dialogue on gender equality. whether developed or . Women’s worldwide representation in politics also shows an unsatisfactory picture. International Labour Organization (ILO). In most of the other countries. United Nations Human Development Report has pointed out that there are only twelve countries where women held 33% or more seats in the parliaments. Though in recent times a large number of strategies and measures have been taken to promote women’s political status around the world. research and programmes aimed at women's advancement and participation in development. The Conference called upon governments to formulate national strategies and identify targets and priorities in their effort to promote the equal participation of women in political space. The Conference. it defines what constitute discrimination against women and sets up an agenda to end such discrimination. yet women in almost all the countries continue to be under represented and marginal in political decision making bodies. many other organizations such as United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD). Despite the widespread movement towards democratization in most countries. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles. Besides. By the end of the United Nations Decade for Women (i. The fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 also took plan of actions empowering women to take part in politics and decision making process. institutions dealing with the promotion of policy. women remain invisible at various levels of government. in 1985).e. only 10 per cent of the members of legislative bodies and a lower percentage of ministerial positions are now held by women. 127 Member States had responded by establishing some form of national machinery. The first World Conference on Women was held in 1975 in Mexico City.

Marjorie Lasing points out that woman as compared to man are less politically efficacious. but on the other hand they lag behind in enjoying power positions and occupying prestigious political offices. Pakistan. Bangladesh. Angus Campbell finds that average American women are lower in political efficacy. women are less involved in politics. Especially in a 11 .L Goel finds that as compared to men. but in reality women of Bangladesh don’t have meaningful participation in political process. on one hand Indian women cast their votes in large numbers. Various studies conducted in different parts of world have shown that as compared to men. women everywhere have a secondary political status. lower in political involvement and less in political concept formation than the average male. opportunities for female leadership have been rare. take part in agitational activities. women have very negligible impacts in political process all over the world. women’s presence in the political process is marginal and low. reveals the fact that. They are less likely to take interest in politics. participation of women in political process is essential to attain the goals of development and to share the fruits of development equally among people. But all of them get into politics through their family connections.64 According to Anuradha Bhoite. In a society.developing. to discuss politics to attend public meetings and to influence decisions. But despite the prominence of several women leaders in the region. less politically interested. it is an international experience that despite loud proclamations of constitutional equality between men and women. have less political information and are less likely to participate in politics. A study conducted in 43 countries on women’s political engagement. the few women who enter politics seldom enjoy political power or are involved in decision making bodies. Rounaq Jahan indicates that since 1960 a large number of women have been leading either governments or opposition in four South Asian countries (India. According to Niroj Sinha. All of them have either husbands or fathers or other relatives’ already in politics which provide them with readymade network of communication and support. Regarding Indian women M. A statistical study conducted by Herbert Tingsten on electoral behaviour and party attitude of women shows that women nowhere make use of their vote to the same extent as the men do. Khursid Jalal points out that though the women of Bangladesh have political and legal rights like any other developed countries. Sri Lanka).

Women constitute half of the world’s population but are hardly visible in the arena of politics. and dirty. identify internal and external conditions and factors that facilitate or hinder women to participate in political process. participation of women in political process has a great significance to preserve democratic values. women also face cultural constraints on their mobility. Elections have also become very complicated. Social factors are also important which effect women’s participation in public spheres. in the true sense of the term cannot be established. they are left with little time to participate in politics. universally women’s political participation is viewed as inevitable to deal with various social problems and to improve women’s status. Political atmosphere is also considered as one of the deterrents which create an unfavourable condition for women’s participation in political processes. In a present day modern society. Therefore women want to keep themselves away from politics. yet the level of women’s participation in political process is low and marginal all over the world. democracy. With the primary roles as mothers and competing domestic responsibilities and care work. analyze strategies adopted around the world to promote women’s political representation in politics. it is an urgent need to investigate the conceptual and material bases of women’s historic exclusion from the formal arena of politics. Psychological factors are also responsible for women’s low political participation. In some of the countries. it is realized by all that without equal participation of both men and women in all spheres of lives and levels of decision making process. Therefore. Political processes have . A woman better understands women’s problems. Therefore unless women participate in political process. Politics is a very risky game. The mechanisms of sex segregation is used to restrict their mobility. violent. Women find it difficult to participate in politics due to limited time available to them because of their dual roles in the productive and reproductive sphere. their problems cannot be solved. particularly in South Asia.democratic society. ‘feelings of efficacy’ and above all they regard politics as their respective sphere. while women are generally unfortunate in these matters. Women’s participation in political process is essential to solve various social problems related to women. Though. Generally men are more psychologically involved in politics because they have more ‘sense of civic duty’.

criminalization are the various causes for which women are not interested to enter into public life. Besides. Women in all over the world face some peculiar problems which are totally unknown to their male counterpart. women are good voters but not good candidates. Gender equality is a pre-requisite for effective participation of women in strengthening the democratic values. strategies and models.not only become complicated but many decisions are also made behind the scenes. It is not only the incapacity of women to join in politics but men also do not encourage them. proper information and patronage are the various causes for which women are not able to take part in political activities equally with their male counterpart. casteism. backwardness. illiteracy. training. the atmosphere of growing violence. many other reasons account for women’s diminished role in political area. money in some way or the other has played an important part. The cost of election also put hindrance as few women have own income and hardly they own productive resources. corruption. Further. Power games are controlled by monetary deals. India as one of the largest democratic country of the world with women constituting about half of its population. character assassination and unscrupulous struggle for power. Male domination on politics and political parties and culture of formal political structure hinder women’s political participation. The nature of political process is also an important factor for inclusion or exclusion of women in politics. Men like to retain their monopoly in power. Further it has to be noted that much of the political participation today requires information. This keeps women out of political activities. unhealthy living condition. Political parties do not regard women candidates as much capable and efficient winning candidates as the men candidates. For political parties. In the present political situation where corruption has become a phenomenon in politics. The larger democratic framework and level of democratization also effect women’s political participation. Lack of political skill. the idea of equal participation of both male and female 13 . have been a serious deterrent to women’s participation in political process. Secular democracies in Europe and also in some developing countries have crated relatively more space for women’s participation in politics as compared to countries where religious orthodoxy has been shaping politics and democracy. Poverty. knowledge and exposure to the various experiments. Political processes have become expensive.

If development implies popular participation. Though political representation is just one aspect. Significance of the study: The significance of the study is to be considering Women’s participation as an essential pre-condition for the success of development programmes. in any development effort. The number of women in leadership positions at the local. implementation and at all levels of administration locally.planning. district and national level still does not commensurate with their numbers in society. Economic development and political empowerment are seen to be linked and inseparable. In contemporary period most of the states have become development state which prefer equal share of both male and female in political power structure and equal participation in decision making arena. The need and potentiality to get women represented must be realized. yet it is a crucial one in empowering a hither to disadvantaged and excluded group like women through organized deliberative process. It is now an urgent need of all nations to increase women’s participation in all areas of development. For the productive use of human resources. This will open up avenues for further inclusion of women in many other fields of socioeconomic and political significance. regionally. It is now understood by all that women have a positive role in the development of all nations and therefore women should be involved at all stages of development process from the beginning. Karnataka). This attention must be devoted to empower women to have an impact on development decisions. both by government and nongovernmental organizations. there could be no development in the absence of the active participation of women. Participation of women in political processes is required to facilitate women empowerment and to bring equality between advantaged and disadvantaged groups. and political participation remains elusive to most of them. * Review of research & development in the subject:    International status : National Status : National (India. . attention should be given to the role women play and the role women could be play in development. who constitute almost half of the total population. Women have been marginalized because of several socio-economic constraints. nationally and internationally. village.in political processes has gained immense socio-political significance. Women are still left on the periphery of the political processes.

ample use was made of current electronic documents through the internet. marital status. 4. party affiliation of members. support of party. To study the role of women as elected members at the various levels of activities of Zilla Panchayat. 3. family structure. To study about the participation of women is seen in terms of their involvement in the process of decision making. relevant journals and published and unpublished papers. A wide range of literature was used. First Year b. Due to the nature of the subject under discussion. (v) Year-wise plan of work & targets to be achieve: a. Financial Assistance required: i) Research Associate/ Project Associate/ Project fellow: Research Associate 15 . -Nil- (vi) Details of collaboration. implementation and evaluation. economic background of family will play an important role with regard to women’s participation in Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka. 2. including books. some other factors like education. 5. To assess the facilitate empowerment of women and to bring equality between advantaged and disadvantaged groups. (iv) Methodology: The methodology followed in this study has been mainly a literature study. political affiliation of family. Second Year : One to Three chapters (field work) : Four to Six chapters. To analyze the participation of women as elected members in selected Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka.(iii) Objectives: 1. if any intended : 11. To reveal that apart from 33% reservation for women provided by 73 rd Amendment Act.

ii) Sl. 7.00 25000. . scheme of support for research or from any agency? (If so. 10000/. 4.00 Total 150000.p. 2.00 Estimated Expenditure 15000. 5. whether the thesis was submitted & accepted by the University for the award of degree: (A summary of the report/thesis in about 1000 words may please be attached with the application) g) If the project has not been completed. Books & Journals Equipment.00 50000. Item Hiring Services Field work & Travel Chemicals & glassware Contingency (including special needs) Honorarium to retired teacher @ Rs.00 40000. Minor.m. 1. 3. 6.00 12. if needed • Almera • Stationary • Digital camera • Laptop • Miscellaneous 20000. please state the reasons: 13. please indicate) a) b) c) d) e) f) Name of the agency from which the assistance was approved: Sanction letter no. & date under which the assistance was approved: Amount approved & utilized: Title of the project for which assistance was approved: In case the project was completed. Whether the teacher has received support for the research project from the UGC under Major. whether the work on the project has been published: If the candidate was working for the doctoral degree. No.

c. I/ We shall abide by the rules governing the scheme in case assistance is provided to me/us from the UGC for the above project.I. Name of the agency Year Started Total Completed Equipment/infrastructural facilities obtained - - - -Nil- b. I/ We shall complete the project within the stipulated period. e. are available in the department/ college. Any other information which the investigator may like to give in support of this proposal which may be helpful in evaluating. such as furniture/spare etc. General physical facilities. To certify that: a. the commission may terminate the project immediately and ask for the refund of the amount received by me/ us.a. If I/we fail to do so and if the UGC is not satisfied with the progress of the research project. d. Institutional & Departmental facilities available for the proposed work: Equipment: Other Infrastructural facilities: 14. Details of the project/scheme completed or ongoing with the P. The above research project is not funded by any other agency. 17 . The University/ College is approved under section 2(f) and 12(B) of the UGC act and is fit to receive grants from the UGC. b..

b. Co-investigator c) Registrar/Principal (Signature with Seal) Place: Date: .Name & Signature: a) Principal Investigator b) a.

 Patni. Hyderabad. and J. Nie. Dhaka.). Women Political Elite: Search for Identity.  Verba. Kim.  Sinha. Sidney.  Oakley.References:  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). enforced on July 7. Political Behaviour. Herbert. Jaipur. Sushila (ed. 1978. Projects with People . 1994. 19 . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).O.S. Niroj (ed. New Delhi.135. Sushila.The Practice of Participation in Rural Development. Article-3. Peter Oakley and Brian Pratt.  Tingsten.N. N. Chicago.  Centre for Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP): “People’s Participation in Rural Development”. Printwell. 2003.  Milbrath. 1998. 1994.  Kaushik. Andrew. L. Ltd. 1991.  Clayton. Cambridge University Press. New York. Empowerment of Women in PRIs: A Study in Six Select States. P. Lester W. International Labour Organization. Participation and Political Equality: A Seven Nation Comparison. Political Participation: How and Why do People Get Involved in Politics? Rand McNally Publishing Company. and M. New York.H. 1963. Human Development Report. Women in Indian Politics: Empowerment of Women through Participation. NIRD.  Convention on the Political Rights of Women.T.. Goel.  National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD). Women’s Participation in Politics.). New Jersy. Vikash Publishing House Pvt. 1993. 1993. Gyan Publishing House. Geneva. 193 U. 1954. Cambridge. 1984. Empowering People. New Delhi. A Guide to Participation. 1977.. The Bedmister Press.

/Opportunities-and-Challenges-of-Women ..org/.. www.unwomensouthasia.

wikipedia.iwraw-ap.org/wiki/Women_in_government 21 .pdf  en. www.org/aboutus/pdf/FPwomen_and_pol_pax.

ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Academics/course.pdf  www../hrge_08..serudsindia. www.du.org/sponsor-rural-women .

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