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Leveraging potential benefits of augmentation in employee training

Mike SchraederVOL. 41 NO. 3 2009, pp. 133-138, Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 0019-7858 j

j PAGE 133


Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine potential strategies for improving employee training through utilization of principles associated with augmentation. Design/methodology/approach The paper builds on a brief summary of literature related to training and augmentation, to identify possible strategies for improving employee training by not only meeting, but also exceeding their expectations relative to the training. The paper is not based on any types of empirical assessments, but is purely conceptual in nature. Findings This paper shows that flexibility, active participation, an environment conducive to learning, networking and interaction can be effective strategies. Practical implications The strategies offered in this paper should be insightful in guiding organizations in their efforts to improve employee training. Originality/value By viewing employees as internal customers and applying principles of augmentation to employee training, the paper offers novel insight into possible strategies for improving the quality of employee training experiences.

Employability, skills and talent management in Zhejiang Province Xiaoxian Zhu and Paul Iles
Salford Business School, University of Salford, Salford, UK, and

John Shutt
Leeds Business School, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report on a three-year PMI2 project for the British Council in 2008, one of seven to develop and strengthen partnerships with Chinese institutions in employability and entrepreneurship. Involving a partnership between Leeds Metropolitan University England and the Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, China, the aim has been to analyse the Hangzhou and Zhejiang economies and examine current Chinese company requirements for skills and talent and their implications for teaching and learning and graduate supply. This was intended to strengthen the existing partnerships at a civic level between Leeds and Hangzhou and the successful MAin Trade and Finance run by the two universities. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on preliminary interview studies in China of Hangzhou companies in different industrial sectors to analyse the skill and talent needs of such companies, their demands for graduate talent in particular and their views about the adequacy of the supply of that talent from local and national universities. Findings The paper clarifies the relationship between talent demand and supply in China, especially with regard to graduate talent, and presents an original analysis of the skill needs of the Hangzhou economy. Originality/value The paper suggests ways in which universities in Zhejiang and China generally could strengthen their engagement with businesses over talent demand and supply, and how they could develop courses and programmes that more effectively bridge the gap between universities and businesses. Keywords China, Private sector organizations, Skills, Graduates, Management effectiveness

Integrating knowledge management into organizational learning

A review of concepts and models

Kit Fai Pun and Marcia Nathai-Balkissoon
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

Purpose This paper aims to review the concepts and constructs of some common models and frameworks advocated for knowledge management (KM) and organisational learning (OL) in literature. It sets forth a critical enquiry towards the integration of KM and OL practices and their relationship with the concepts of the learning organisation (LO) and chaordic organisation/enterprise (CO/CE). Design/methodology/approach A literature search of KM and OL was conducted through the use of multiple ProQuest databases spanning the period from 1996 to 2009. This paper reviews 18 studies, focusing on recognition of major KM and OL approaches and contributions adopted in industry. Besides, a host of 14 KM and OL models and frameworks is used to identify various important considerations in practice. Findings Many researchers and practitioners have been attempting to integrate the theories of KM and OL into organisational practice. A considerable number of them are concerned largely with information systems and technology. Conceptual knowledge transfer, knowledge acquisition and creation, and learning models underlie much of the work being done in the field. Some studies have forwarded the call for systems integration and organisational effectiveness. Systems approaches, culture, and the LO and CO/CE concepts are among the most popularly cited factors for the development of a holistic model. Research limitations/implications A close relationship between KM and OL has emerged during the past 14 years, with applications related to LO and CO/CE emerging slowly in the past decade. Further research is needed to expand the integrative relationship through the development of explicitly stated theories and models with empirical evidence. Originality/value There is a need to integrate the theories of KM and OL with the OL concepts to make them more comprehensible, better aligned and applicable to specific fields of work and to best management practice. Keywords Knowledge management, Learning organizations, Integration

REFLECTIVE PRACTICE Re-examining the training side of productivity improvement: evidence from service sector

Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia, New York, USA
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review past and current research on the productivity problems and how to alleviate it by appropriate training. Design/methodology/approach The article presents the collective results of two experiments, a grocery store chain, and a top outsourcing provider to show the higher levels of productivity can be achieved by proper training methods. Findings The results of two experiments specify that businesses should incorporate proper training techniques in order to increase their productivity. If such an approach to generating high levels of productivity contingent on training is implemented, we expect that business should harvest the benefits. Research limitations/implications Ideally, the experiments reported on should be extended to comprise a measure of the amount of employer-provided on-the-job training and training costs. Originality/value This research contributes to the current training and productivity literature by emphasizing, to both human resource practitioners and policy makers, inadequate investment in workforce training is related directly to poor employee. The results have offered practical implication

to organizational training. Keywords Training, Productivity rate, Workplace training, Workplace Paper type Case study International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management Vol. 56 No. 8, 2007 pp. 744-757 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1741-0401 DOI 10.1108/17410400710833038

UK managers conceptions of employee training and development

Almuth McDowall
Psychology Department, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, and

Mark N.K. Saunders

School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Purpose The first purpose of this paper is to review the practical and theoretical distinctions between training and development in the organisational psychology and human resource development (HRD) literatures. Then the paper seeks to investigate how managers responsible for the training and development function conceptualise these activities in practice, the factors that guide their decision making, how they evaluate the outcomes and the extent to which they perceive a relationship between training and development. Design/methodology/approach Taking a critical realist perspective, 26 interviews were conducted with UK managers and analysed through thematic coding using template analysis. Findings Managers conceptualisations of training and development vary. Formal training is prioritised due to a perceived more tangible demonstrable return on investment. Perceived success in training focuses on improvements to job-related skills, whereas success outcomes for development are more varied and difficult to measure. Managers consider that training and development are more valuable when combined. Research limitations/implications There is a need for further process-driven research to understand the interrelationship between training and development and to develop methods that can be used by organisations to evaluate both. This necessitates going beyond methods currently in use

and including both qualitative and quantitative measures. Practical implications Managers may take a more proactive and directive role in facilitating development than the literature suggests; consequently, their role needs to be considered more actively in HRD learning strategies. Originality/value This is one of the first qualitative studies to explore the conceptualisations of managers responsible for training and development, highlighting the inter-relationship between training and development and the factors guiding decisions regarding these activities. Keywords Training, Individual development, Managers, Decision making, Training evaluation Paper type Research paper Journal of European Industrial Training Vol. 34 No. 7, 2010 pp. 609-630 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0309-0590 DOI 10.1108/03090591011070752

Variations in evaluative repertoires

Comparing employee perspectives on training and development in Germany and Russia
Katharina Pernkopf-Konhausner and Julia Brandl
Interdisciplinary Unit of Management and Organisational Behaviour, Department of Management, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria
Abstract Purpose While it is acknowledged that societal context matters for employee expectations on training and development, the complexity of this relationship is still little explored. This paper aims to study which higher-order principles employees of a German and Russian company use to justify their views on beneficial training and development in order to identify how evaluative repertoires differ between the two settings. Design/methodology/approach Building on interviews conducted in two professional services firms in Germany and Russia, the paper identifies patterns in the repertoire that employees use for evaluating training and development activities at each research site. Findings The findings reveal that employees working for the German company predominantly use the industrial principle for justifying their views on training and development. In contrast, employees in the Russian company apply market, industrial and domestic principles with a tendency for long-term employees more often to justify their views using the market principle. Research limitations/implications The case comparison points to variations in the evaluative repertoire that the paper explains with the societal context of Germany and Russia. By examining evaluative repertoires, companies learn what employees expect from training and development. Originality/value Applying convention theory, the paper introduces a promising, but so far neglected approach for linking employee expectations with societal context and for comparing boundaries between people across different settings. Keywords Evaluative repertoire, Principles of justice, Training and development, Convention theory, Episodic interviewing, Employees attitudes, Employees development, Germany, Russia Paper type Research paper Personnel Review Vol. 40 No. 5, 2011 pp. 589-606 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited

0048-3486 DOI 10.1108/00483481111154450

Workplace learning evaluation: a conceptual model and framework

Richard Paul Griffin
Abstract Purpose This paper seeks to address current limitations in approaches to training evaluation by presenting a conceptual model of work-based learning and an associated evaluation framework. Design/methodology/approach The model and framework presented in this paper are based on a critical review of current approaches to learning evaluation and insights from learning transfer research and programme theory. Findings This paper sets out a conceptual model of workplace learning based on five elements: a pre-learning stage, the trigger (need) for learning, the learning event, application of learning and the impact of learning. A linked criterion evaluation framework is also described. It is proposed that this provides a scientifically robust but practitioner friendly framework for workplace learning evaluation. Practical implications While most organisations wish to evaluate the effectiveness of their investment in employee training and development, few do. One of the barriers to effective learning evaluation is the failure to ground approaches in a contemporary and comprehensive model of workplace learning. The model and framework set out in this paper aim to assist evaluation by addressing this gap in a practitioner friendly way. Originality/value This paper sets out a novel, flexible and comprehensive conceptual model of workplace learning along with an innovative approach to training evaluation that addresses limitations in existing approaches. It is hoped that this will contribute to the debate on appropriate evaluation methods and assist practitioners to undertake evaluation in a more credible manner. Keywords Training evaluation, Workplace learning, Training Paper type Research paperPAGE 172 j INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL TRAINING j VOL. 43 NO. 3 2011, pp. 172-178, Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 0019-7858 DOI 10.1108/00197851111123631

HR transformation and shared services

Adoption and adaptation in Swedish organisations
Anders Boglind, Freddy Hallsten and Per Thilander
School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Go teborg, Sweden

Purpose This paper seeks to compare Ulrichs model of HR transformation/shared service organisation (the three-legged stool) with the empirical evidence from the research. The aim of the paper is to describe the journey from theory to practice of HR transformation in organisations as they adopt and adapt the model. Design/methodology/approach An institutional frame of reference is used for case studies of seven Swedish organisations. The respondents in the 192 interviews are HR professionals, line managers and other stakeholders. Findings All seven of the organisations adopted the HR transformation as a standard blueprint. Management consultants played a leading role in this process. HR service centres were established, the local HR staffs were reduced radically, and the remaining role, the HR business partners, took on lesser importance. During the adaptation process a variety of solutions resulted, some of which were innovations.

Research limitations/implications Because of the small sample size, the generalisability of the results is somewhat limited. Practical implications The results may useful to both researchers and practitioners, whether they are involved in the study or in the re-organisation of HR. It is not easy to imitate a theoretical model or a best practice model without taking the translation process into consideration. Originality/value Previous studies have not examined how HR transformation/shared service travels in different organisations using this number of interviews in in-depth research. These results show that achieving the desirable HR organisation depends on the translation and interpretations of the concepts in the local context. Keywords Human resource management, Organizational change, Sweden Paper type Research paper Personnel Review Vol. 40 No. 5, 2011 pp. 570-588 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0048-3486

The growing concept and uses of training needs assessment

DOI 10.1108/00483481111154441

A review with proposed model

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, and

Rashid Ahmad Khan

Faculty of Management, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan

Purpose This paper aims to review the relevant literature on training needs assessment (TNA) with an objective to provide users/beneficiaries of TNA with the understanding of its growing concept, multiple uses (outcomes), and valuing these uses (antecedents). Design/methodology/approach To conduct the literature review on uses of TNA, the authors used the systematic search comprising four stages: selection of appropriate search terms such as training, needs assessment, needs analysis, training needs assessment, and training needs analysis; carrying out search in established databases such as EBSCOhost, Emerald, JSTOR, SpringerLink, and Wiley-Blackwell; initial sample filtering (relevance-based); and further sample filtering (access-based). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the forward and backward linkages between TNA and nine human resource management and development areas is proposed for further examination. Findings This paper highlights training plans, goal setting, employee development, managing change, career development, knowledge, skills, and attitude, learning motivation, cost effectiveness, and performance appraisal as nine major human resource management and development areas revealing different uses of TNA. This gives an appropriate place to the expanding view of TNA. Practical implications This paper offers important implications for human resource professionals. Their learning about multiple uses of TNA can help them attain comprehensive solutions of varied organisational problems. Originality/value This paper attempts to make a significant contribution towards understanding the growing concept of TNA by expanding the long-established way of looking at it through increasing its potential effects and subsequently enhancing its purposes and uses for both training and non-training initiatives. Keywords Training, Assessment, Training needs Paper type Literature reviewJournal of European Industrial Training

Vol. 35 No. 5, 2011 pp. 439-466 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0309-0590 DOI 10.1108/03090591111138017

Aligning leadership development for general managers with global strategy: the Bristol-Myers Squibb story
Marjorie Derven and Kristin Frappolli
Abstract Purpose This paper aims to describe an innovative, blended learning approach to global general manager (GM) development at Bristol-Myers Squibb that encompasses the career lifecycle from pre-promotion, on-boarding and ongoing development for GM incumbents. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study of a leadership development initiative that included executive sponsorship with ongoing guidance and direction from a General Manager Advisory Council, who ensured that the learning solutions were relevant, high impact and supported on the job. The approach helped global GMs build networks of support and learning through peer coaching, leveraging the diverse and complementary skills these leaders bring to their roles. Findings Based on their diverse backgrounds, it is essential to use multiple learning approaches to GM development and avoid a one size fits all mindset. Blended learning, selective use of classroom instruction and social networking tools were combined to create a comprehensive curriculum that supports organizational strategy and builds the leadership pipeline at Bristol-Myers Squibb. Originality/value This case study will help other learning professionals who are charged with developing leaders of leaders on a global scale. Keywords Managers, Leadership development, Peer mentoring, Globalization, Curriculum development Paper type Case study PAGE 4 j INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL TRAINING j VOL. 43 NO. 1 2011, pp. 4-12, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 0019-7858 DOI 10.1108/00197851111098108

Innovative training in designing corporate identity

Yoram Mitki and Ram Herstein
Abstract Purpose To present the role of innovative training in the design and assimilation process of a new corporate identity. Design/methodology/approach The article is based on a description of the design process of a new corporate identity and its assimilation by a hotel chain management company. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews with members of the companys management, namely its CEO, marketing manager and human resources manager and five hotel managers. In addition, written material was analyzed, including business and operational reports. Findings The innovative training approach, which is based on continuous involvement of all organization members, is an effective mechanism for designing, building and adapting corporate identities in an era characterized by significant changes in the business-marketing environment. This

approach enables the company to rapidly assimilate the new identity and improve business results. The active involvement of internal stakeholders during the formulation stages of the organizational vision, and later, when determining the training mechanism for its assimilation, contributes to the satisfaction of both employees and clients, minimizes employee turnover, and enhances the organizations reputation. Originality/value This article illustrates how innovative training assists organization managements in designing and assimilating new corporate identities. It differentiates between supportive training and innovative training, indicating both the connection between innovative training and organizational learning and the contribution of the employees in implementing the corporate identity. Keywords Training, Corporate identity, Workplace training Paper type Case study PAGE 174 j INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL TRAINING j VOL. 39 NO. 3 2007, pp. 174-179, Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 0019-7858 DOI 10.1108/00197850710742289

Leadership development training transfer: a case study of post-training determinants

Yabome Gilpin-Jackson
Wray Consulting Group Inc., Vancouver, Canada, and

Gervase R. Bushe
Management and Organization Studies, Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand what contributes to transfer of soft-skill, leadership training. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents a literature review resulted in five broad factors that may influence transfer of leadership training. These were used to guide a qualitative, exploratory study. Interviews were conducted with 18 participants of an extensive, soft skill oriented leadership development program, along with peer observers. Where possible, quantitative analyses are used to test and confirm qualitative findings. Findings The results showed substantial transfer of training and suggest that actual utilization of newly learned skills is influenced differently than judgments about the value of the training. The greatest inhibitor to transfer appeared to be fear of breaking cultural norms and the most important remedy, the number of other managers who receive the training. In particular, having ones boss take the same training was strongly associated with post-training utilization. Some kinds of social support, like encouragement and verbal praise, were associated with positive judgments of the training but not with utilization. Instead, observing others use the skills and being able to coach one another was the kind of support that effected utilization, which depended on colleagues and bosses also receiving the training. Research limitations/implications As an exploratory case study, the study lacks a large sample and the kind of methodology that could prove the validity of the findings. Practical implications A number of implications for training managers wanting to ensure their leadership development programs have real impact are discussed. In particular, the study points to a need to plan for rapid diffusion of the training and for cultural change processes in parallel with leadership development courses. Originality/value The paper meets a need for empirical investigation of factors associated with transfer of soft skills into the workplace, as called for by researchers like Cheng and Ho. It identifies differences in what impacts judgments of value versus what actually impacts transfer. It also identifies how changing leadership behavior is as much a cultural intervention as a change in skill sets. Keywords Leadership development, Training, Skills, Canada

Paper type Case study Journal of Management Development Vol. 26 No. 10, 2007 pp. 980-1004 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0262-1711 DOI 10.1108/02621710710833423

Leaderships impact on employee engagement

Differences among entrepreneurs and professional CEOs
Nancy Papalexandris and Eleanna Galanaki
Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece

Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify similarities and differences between the leadership practices of managing entrepreneurs and professional CEOs and to investigate how these impact on their immediate subordinates satisfaction, commitment, motivation, and effectiveness (engagement). Design/methodology/approach A multiple-respondents survey, aiming at CEOs and their immediate subordinates, was conducted. Factor analysis, correlations and moderated regression analysis were used in order to reach conclusions. Findings Two leadership dimensions are found to be most influential: being a good manager/mentor and articulating vision. Although good manager/mentor characteristics prove crucial for both types of CEOs, the effect of vision articulation on subordinates is moderated by the type of company the CEO is leading. No significant differences are found in the leadership style that the two types of CEOs adopt, except for their calmness and self-possession, which is lower among entrepreneurs. Practical implications The findings raise questions regarding the differences in subordinate expectations from owners CEOs, as opposed to professional CEOs; and point at certain characteristics which could be developed in order to enhance leadership effectiveness in both groups of top managers. Originality/value The study underlines the importance of sound vision development and articulation in entrepreneur-run firms, as it appears that people working for such firms expect more direction from the Head. It is also sustained that good management and mentoring are essential in any kind of firm, in order to develop an effective, committed and motivated top management team, which will bring corporate success. Keywords Leadership, Entrep Leadership & Organization Development Journal Vol. 30 No. 4, 2009 pp. 365-385 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0143-7739 DOI 10.1108/01437730910961685

Ethics and corporate social responsibility integrated into knowledge management and innovation technology

A case study
Fatima Guadamillas-Gomez and Mario J. Donate-Manzanares
University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain
Abstract Purpose The main purpose of this paper is to offer an analysis of how firms could integrate ethical values and corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives into its corporate and business strategies, especially in relation to its knowledge management (KM) strategy, technological innovation and human development. Design/methodology/approach A model for the strategization of ethics and CSR i.e. their integration into a firms strategies is put forward in this paper. In addition, this model is evaluated through a case study of a Spanish innovative company, Indra. Data were generated based on interviews with various managers involved in the development of CSR, KM and corporate strategies. Findings The paper provides evidence of the efforts this company is making in order to connect CSR initiatives with competitive advantage through the development of intangible assets such as human capital and innovation capacity, for which KM is an essential tool. Research limitations/implications The case study is limited to one company in order to go deeper into the strategization of CSR process. Future studies will focus on a larger and more diverse sample of firms. Practical implications Important factors of influence, which have been observed in this process, have been extracted from the case study, such as the necessity of promoting the companys ethical principles through its corporate culture, the human resources practices which encourage the access to and the transfer of knowledge, and relationships with its stakeholders that allow the creation of knowledge, innovation and human development. Originality/value The paper provides a model of integration of ethics and CSR into the companys strategy through four stages: establishment of CSR vision, diagnosis of CSR problems, development plan of CSR development, and communication. This model can provide a roadmap for managers in other firms in order to formulate and implement a CSR plan in accordance with the companys strategies and mission. Keywords Corporate social responsibility, Ethics, Corporate strategy, Knowledge management, Spain Paper type Case study Journal of Management Development Vol. 30 No. 6, 2011 pp. 569-581 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0262-1711 DOI 10.1108/02621711111135170