You are on page 1of 12

# Chapter 4.

## Feedback Control System Characteristics

Goal: to learn concept of system error signal
# error control

sensitivity of system # transient performance of feedback system disturbance rejection cost of feedback

## 4.1 Open- and Closed-Loop Control Systems

* Idea of feedback utilize error signal to achieve desired system response results in a closed-loop
Figure 4.1 #? error

* Comparison of open and closed loop system - open loop: generates output in response to input w/o feedback

R ( s)

- closed loop: measures output, compares it with desired output, and feed the difference to actuator

## * Error reduction in closed loop

# .

E a ( s) = 1+ G (1s)H( s) R ( s)
1+ G ( s)H( s) 1

## 4.2 Sensitivity of Control System to Parameter Variations

In practice, process

G ( s)

OL:

R ( s)

G ( s)+G ( s)

Y ( s)+Y ( s)

CL:

R ( s)

T:

system TF,

G:

## G S = lim0 T( s)/T( s)) = T T = ln T G ( s)/G ( s G ln G

process(plant) TF

* system sensitivity

OL: CL:

## s S = T ( s)/T(( s)) = 1 # T=G G ( s)/G s 1 S = T ( s)/T(( s)) = 1+ GH( s) G ( s)/G

3

* sensitivity of CL system

G S T = T T = 1+1GH G G
) S T = T ( s) H = 1+GH((ss) H H( s) T GH S T = S T S G , = parameter G
* for accurate control
# H=feedback gain

of G

GH( s) GH( s)

# G

## 4.3 Control of Transient Response of Control Systems

Def. transient response = response of system until steady-state is reached One of control purposes improve transient response (ex, too slow response, too much overshoot, ...) Solution

## Ex. motor speed control system

Figure 4.13

ig. 4.7

V a ( s)

K1 G ( s)= s+1
1

( s)

# K1 tau1

OL:

va ( t)= k2E

( t) =K 1k2E (1- e

- t / 1

## Let's try feedback control

Figure 4.14(a)

CL:

r ( t)= k2E

( t)

k2E 1- exp ( -( K a K tK 1 )t ) Kt 1

]
100)

Figure 4.15

Ka KtK1 =

## 4.4 Disturbance Signals in a Feedback Control System

disturbance = unwanted input signal that affects system's output Ex. DC motor with load torque disturbance
Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8

( s)=

D) s

## 1 E ( s) = d ( s)- ( s) = Js+ b +( K K /Ra ) T d ( s) m b

-1 Js+ b +( K m K b/Ra ) T d ( s)

(let d ( s) = 0 )

## 1 lim e( t)= lim sE( s) = lim s Js+ b +( K K /Ra ) D s t s0 s0 m b = b +( K DK /Ra ) =- o ()

m b

CL (feedback control)
Figure 4.9

Figure 4.10(b)

## K 1 a G 1 ( s)= K R K m , G 2 ( S )= Js+ b , H( s)= Kt + K b Kt a a

# K 8

( E ( s) = - ( s)= 1+ G (G)2Gs)( s) H( s) T d ( s) 1 s 2

E ( s) G1 H T d ( s) 1

if

G 1G 2H( s) 1

lim E ( t) = lim sE ( s) = s K R a K D t s0 aK m t s

= K R aDK = - c () aKm t

comparison

R aD K a K mK t = R a b + K m K b c () = D K a K mK t o () b + K mK b/R a
Figure 4.11

## typically less than 0.02

steady-state error = error after transient response has disappeared *

e ss

in OL

R ( s)

*

## e ss = 0 if G (0)= 1 . But G (0) is usually large

in CL

if

G ( s)

changes,

e ss = 0 /

e ss

E c ( s)= R ( s)- Y ( s) = 1+ 1 ( s) R ( s) G

(with

H( s) = 1 )

10

Ex.

e ss e ss

is small when

G (0)

is large

G ( s)

changes

e ss

compare

e ss

when

G ( s)

changes from

and
K

K s+1

to

K + K s+1

K =-0.1 )
1/101

11

## 4.6 Cost of Feedback

increased number of components and increased complexity loss of gain: OL

G ( s)

-> CL

G ( s)/(1+ G ( s))

introduction of possibility of instability Q: Why control? Let's just make A: Not realizable since

G ( s)

G ( s) = Y ( s)/ R ( s)

equal to 1.