ISSN 1453-0600


Lajos KACSÓ1, Zoltán István MAROSY2, Ion SIMA3
Abstract: According to studies on crystallization of diamagnetic and paramagnetic solutions it has developed a procedure that supports a controlled crystallization process in a variable magnetic field. Other studies on the crystallization of liquid solutions in electric field highlight the ability of applying the wastewater treatment processes. The magnetic technology highlights the ability of solutions to respond to an external magnetic field and has a great variety of answers. But an intense external electric field changes enough structures in a saline solution to be able to notice the arrangement and grouping of crystallization centers. Using two experimental devices manufactured in our laboratory we performed several additional studies. A parallel between the two answers - electrical and magnetic can give us enough clues on how to operate with the matter in order to obtain maximum benefits of technology. Keywords: magnetic field, electric field, aqueous solutions, salt, technology

Experimental hypothesis - crystallization in a magnetic field The influence of magnetic field on some crystallization parameters of zinc sulphate - copper sulphate solutions and water were investigated in a series of experiments by A.M.B. Freitas, and F.J.G. Landgraf, University of Sao Carlos and Technology Research Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The solutions were exposed to magnetic fields with different intensities, up to a maximum of 0.7 T. There were noticed important differences between diamagnetic and paramagnetic solutions, which shows that magnetic field may alter the structure of crystallization of aqueous solutions depending on the material. Similar results were reported the researchers Mitsuo Ataka and Etsuko Kataoh in Japan, with the difference that they used high-intensity magnetic field. Their study is based on the desire to find appropriate ways in which different salts crystallize in a mixture of substances, in order to separate one product from another product. It was found that exposure to such magnetic field increases the MgSO4 nucleation rate. It was also noted that the presence of a magnetic field in a CaCO3 solution supported the formation of precipitation, a decrease of nucleation, crystal growth and changes in the morphology of rainfall.

Covasna County Medical Devices Center, Sfantul Gheorghe, Romania,; 2 Ecological University of Bucharest, Romania, e-mail:; 3 Prof., PhD, “Lumina” University, Bucharest, Romania. 67


time and power) as well as the influence of external environment on the final form of salt crystals.J. the limits of perception of the solution used (comparing the frequency used. depending on the collision type that the particle into the beam suffers. The effective presence of magnetic field changes the inner crystalline structure of diamagnetic solutions. Early experimental studies of the effects of very high voltage discharges on substances were made by Loeb and Meek (1941). Experimental hypothesis . The experimental model allowing the study of discharge forms consisted of a device producing a very high voltage pulse between two electrodes with plane parallel surfaces of 1 cm² at a 68 .forced crystallization by electric discharge The current study is based on electrical discharges of moderate intensities (approximately 20 kV of applied voltage) between a spark gap and a small volume of 5% saline solution. Freitas and F. a device similar to that of A. but do not act on paramagnetic solutions.M. chemical bond type and strength of impact of the electron beam. either by a single act of interaction. highlighting phenomena being important for different substances or other parameters such as time of exposure. This gives us an idea that one can study the phenomena of structuring and layout of aqueous solutions even at low magnetic intensities. The pathway length is thus directly proportionate to the initial degree of ionization in the substance.B. Linear energy transfer increases as the particle velocity decreases towards the end of the path.Lajos Kacsó. The types of processes are the scattering and absorption. Particles completely lose their energy of motion (sometimes totally) by absorbtion. The direction of excitation and orientation depends on reaction rate and characteristics of the solution where is produced lightning.7T. generating secondary electrons. Zoltán István Marosy. Secondary electrons generate excited molecules and ions over a distance of about 1μm around the primary ion. causing an exponential action. In order to highlight the concrete way of salt solutions crystallization and at the same time to perceive changes when using of different magnetic environments.3T or 0. the secondary electron beam attenuates its speed as it enters the substance. or by more. Landgraf researchers was used. which in turn cause ionizations and excitations around the trajectory of original particle. namely an attenuation map. Ion Sima According to those studies it was noted that there is not a marked difference between the phenomena of crystallization at 0.G. Primary electrons dissipate energy in small groups (approximately 102eV). Interaction between electric discharge and substance generates charged energetic particles (electrons or heavy particles ions). Through various processes of interaction with the substance. Scattering can be elastic or inelastic. We have also developed a series of experimental studies to clarify the working features of the device. Starting from this hypothesis it was developed a working procedure for crystallization of water with 5% salt solution.

reorientation effect in liquid can be achieved. The two coils (B1. Molecules in the liquid have dipolar momentum which is oriented parallel to the applied electric field. (L1 and L2). which is a computer that generates the working protocol. As the molecular dipoles are placed parallel or perpendicular to the axes of the molecules. d. being called „dynamic dispersion”. B2) are related to the electronic device that generates the magnetic field. The device AQUA is in fact the device for charging the solution from receiver R. the electrical signal which generates magnetic field necessary to study the subjected sample.6 kV. By applying an external electric field. Landgraf works indicates that the device is relatively simple.Influence of Magnetic or Electric Environment on the Structure of Aqueous Solutions with Salt distance of 1 cm. The CP cable is connected to the control system (SC). and is connected to AC cable. Each switch has one working LED which nominalizes the working in different study specific phase shift. opening and closing switch (Ki). with the need for a system of easily controllable electrical signal playback.B. 69 . Heilmaier. which came from the feeder TA and programming cable CP. connected to CR network cable. e.G. B2). Atmospheric pressure was 760 torr. they have positive or negative dielectric anisotropy. the two loading coils (B1. and appears in both DC and AC current. Repeated analysis indicated that using a pulse train of a certain frequency. b. contains network transformers for the operation of the device. the phenomenon was discovered in 1968 by G. It has three fuses to protect the entire assembly. It contains the electrical device of apparatus. The TA device . and the discharge voltage was 31. Freitas and F. The work has the following components (fig.a feeder. and CA cable to the AQUA device. Operation of coils are controlled as the phase shift wave by the switches K1 and K2 for each coil separately. two LEDs (La and Lb) to check empty or load operation. coil power being controlled by the RP switch (control power) of the device AQUA. with stopper and brown colored (to protect from light). 1): a. c.J. the voltage at which electric discharge occurs is significantly reduced. Description of Aqua Magnetic LP – 01 device The studying of the A. Container R is pharmaceutical glass of 20 ml.M.

V mA 220 V Fig. The screen is made of two glass surfaces of the same size. Simplified scheme of the system is shown in fig. between which put 0.2. Zoltán István Marosy. The schematic diagram of the device IKEL PL-1 The device has the following components: 1.Lajos Kacsó. 2. Start / Stop button. 70 . Ion Sima 220 V CR Ki R SC B1 La Lb B2 TA L1 L2 RP K2 Fig. Network Connection Plug. Basic layout of the experimental device AQUA LP – 01 CA K1 CP Description of the PL-01 lightning IKEL device IKEL PL-01 device has two main parts: the high voltage source and the screen able to view electric discharge. and a thin layer of copper as electrode.9% saline as a leader agent. The construction unit of study is simple and allows great freedom of movement. 2.1.

7. 11. Saline solution as the leading agent of electric potential. Anode. Plexiglas etc. 18. Material of Study Studies have focused on highlighting the differences in the crystallization of water solution with salt (5-10% NaCl) under static magnetic field and lightning. 20. Grounding plug connection and on working screen. Screen Protectors – at the bottom. 10.distilled water with salt. Input voltage button.distilled water with salt subjected to electrical discharges of medium intensity. Material that sealed the middle of the screen where is filled with saline water for electric potential distribution. KV voltage regulator. crystallized (ADE noted. 14. Spark gap with various forms of peak. Electric discharge of the sample studied. 8.Influence of Magnetic or Electric Environment on the Structure of Aqueous Solutions with Salt 3. c. 5. crystallized (ADM noted). Sample 1 . 16. kept in 100 ml pharmaceutical glass. High-voltage cable for linking to the the spark gap. b. Voltmeter. and then using graduated pipettes four drops of this solution are drained in Petri dishes. 19. 4. 17. 15. denoted ADS. stored on the pharmaceutical-type blades 15 x 70 mm. 13. 71 . Sample 2 . with polarity (. 9. This w ay it has been studied following types of solutions: a. kept in Petri dish with a diameter of 90 mm. Different samples of water drops for study. The final study is based on observation through the microscope of the crystallization pattern of salt solutions. Milli-ampermeter. Protective screen made of glass. Electric discharge button. subjected to a weak intensity of magnetic field. Then they are dried to a constant temperature of 30ºC. 12. Glass slide on which a drop of solution studied is arranged./ +). Method study for samples of 5% salt water in a magnetic field Aqueous salt solution is loaded into the AQUA for a specified time.distilled water with salt. Earthen plug spark gap. generally link to the ground. Control . Electric discharge between the spark gap and the sample studied. 6.

b and c).01 and 0.02 ml. The 4x. being used Ulead Video 7 SE program. The pulse train is kept for 5-10 seconds. In conclusion. The digital magnifying capacity is 10x zoom. It meets the specific cubic form and successive layers are distinguished very difficult (fig. Highlighting the results through a microscope Final analysis for of WMD and ADE samples is made by the means of a microscope and digital camera. The analysis is done through a microscope. the actual magnifying of salt crystals in this study was conducted between 40x (for the 4x objective) and 100x (for 10x objective) digital and optical. in neutral medium in terms of electric and magnetic The first session of the study aimed to highlight how the crystallization occurs in a neutral environment. The system is equipped with a minicamera with a PC specialized software. Photos by the microscope. At most crystals peaks of the bases can be seen. Crystallization solution of distilled water and 5% neutral salt in terms of electric and magnetic. while maintaining maximum brightness offered. Mini-camera has the ability to make pictures at a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels. Ion Sima Study method for 5-10% salt water samples subjected to electrical discharge An ADS sample is placed on a glass slide using graduated pipette. a pattern which gives crystals fine features. 10x and 10x eyepiece microscope facilities were used for viewing and studying. The amount of sample is between 0. 3. but enough to reveal the effective characteristics of shape and structure. They seem to be compact and sometimes bright sides. Zoltán István Marosy. To record the result of observation it has not been applied other forms than those provided by digital camera to imaging. (a (b (c Fig. 3 a. while the water evaporates and in force crystallized salt remains on the slide.Lajos Kacsó. We have recorded these forms of crystallization to create a studying base. Study on the crystallization process of a solution of distilled water and 5-10% salt. Sample is placed the slide on the table of IKEL device and an electrical discharge of about 15 to 20 kV is triggered. Their shape and arrangement are refined structure and without mistakes. Distilled water has a special crystallization. enlargement 100 x 72 . keeping 4x or 10x objectives.

zoom 40 x The crystalline structuring of water salt solutions through electric discharge Using the experimental device IKEL we have conducted a series of experiments by various lightning. 5). (c (b (a Fig. 5 b and c). Photos by the microscope. Salt structures formed in the North magnetic field (a) are different from the arrangement in South magnetic field (b and c). Crystallization of distilled water and 5% salt solution under static magnetic field. with straight edges and size of crystals as large as about 0. Crystallization of distilled water solution with salt 5% under static magnetic.1 mm for one side of the base of crystallization (higher than in neutral medium crystallization).7 . b and c). 4 a. All non-crystallizable amorphous mass of ADM is ordered and arranged to shape of tree branch. there are often areas of specific fractal arrangement without being tied to a specific crystallization center (fig.Influence of Magnetic or Electric Environment on the Structure of Aqueous Solutions with Salt Highlighting differences in crystalline structure of water with salt solutions in static magnetic field For the next study was considered a sample of distilled water with 5% salt in a static magnetic field of 0. The structured salt crystals in a magnetic field (ADM) has a significant difference between the linking areas in the crystals . Photos by the microscope. 5. Inside the whole mass is formed structures that are like the branch of a tree and shows a visual diversity (fig. which is not noted where crystalline structures of ADM loaded in Northern static magnetic field (fig. Experimental outcomes indicated that the 73 . enlargement 100 x Both neutral and magnetic environment environment is specific cubic shape of crystallization. Is there a permanent connection between two crystals and it was noticed that if crystallization was made in a South magnetic field. 4.5 mT. (c (b (a Fig.called amorphous zone.

Different stages in the crystallization of solution 10% salt in distilled water and from a lightning Photos by the microscope. 6a. 6 b). Ion Sima phenomenon of electric discharge occurs starting from 9 kV. forming multiple links between them (fig. According to the theory of electrical discharge in liquid. and while the directions of electric discharge are not well ordered and parallel as can be seen in fig. Analysis of samples with discharge at higher voltages (of the order of 16 to 20 kV) having a higher concentration of saline solution (approximately 10%) and an exposure time of about 10-15 seconds. the ions in solution tend to be oriented in the direction of electric current flow. Through repeated studies. Crystal dimensions vary little. One can observe the brightness and random ordering of the structured forms (fig. enlargement 100 x For the beginning. 6). allowing different forms of structured deposits. Zoltán István Marosy. The acqueous solution is spread on the plate surface. Between those two areas there is an area distinguished by the fact that the shift of crystallization forms not strictly comply with specific cubic form in fig. (a (b (c Fig. There are several ways to download and crystalline forms are elongated. (b (a (c Fig. with small semi-cristallized debris around. provides a transition between the two areas where the relationship forms between cubic crystals to grow significantly. 6c. zoom 40 x Also in areas that small electrical discharge was triggered. the terminal voltage and exposure time. 6c (Fig. thereby generating lines of crystallization (fig. 7. 6b). 7a). analyzing the relationship between the concentration of salt in water solution. the transition from elongated forms without central crystal to germination crystal structure is achieved as shown in Fig. crystallization of cubical shape can appear. Crystallization of distilled water and 5% salt solution after a lightning Photos by the microscope.Lajos Kacsó. shows that the shapes may vary 74 . 6.

Comparing the results between crystallisation in magnetic medium and electrical discharge The pattern of crystallization for water solutions with salt in different environments . by increasing the exposure time and at a lower voltage.7c. by combining the three variables it was find the exact distribution of these parameters for the remaining shape after the electric discharge is presented as in fig. According to surveys by the two experimental systems. showing a significant increase in the area that contained the form of "tree branch. similar forms. zoom 40 x One can notice the increase of arrangement forms in non-crystallized areas under electrical discharges. can easily notice the structural similarities (Fig. enlargement 100 x Fig. we can see that the growth directions of crystallization forms comply with a certain pattern. Photos by the microscope.Influence of Magnetic or Electric Environment on the Structure of Aqueous Solutions with Salt sufficiently hard to find an optimal (fig. As illustrated cubic crystal is clean. Crystallization under magnetic field indicates an increase of exposure time without increasing the magnetic field strength. the variation forms is greater even if a small change in a working voltage. 7b). When lightning.magnetic and electric ." The forms are diverse and show that ions in solution have sufficient energy to create lines of orientation and structuring.for analysis of electric discharges in liquids. Crystallizing of 10% salt solution in distilled water from a lightning Photos by the microscope. The differences arise because orientation in magnetic field is achieved only if the ions in solution are free and in constant motion.shows. This is due to specific properties of salt solution. without breaks or disharmonious increases. 9. 8 and 9). Finally. In the case of crystallization under magnetic field one noted any significant differences at higher magnetic field variations. for an optimal measure. but not large enough to create new germs of crystallization. whole. Unless significant differences between the sizes of the crystals. AQUA – for the magnetic structuring and IKEL . Fig. Crystallizing 5% salt solution in distilled water under static magnetic field. 8. 75 .

crystallization in solutions is very similar for large modifications in the magnetic field as well.. Studies developed in our country are in the direction of research designed to discover the mechanism of self-structuring. Magnetic field effect on crystals. Nr. that can be seen under a microscope. Chemical Physics. Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House. Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Bucharest. Even if the field strength is 0.H. Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing House. Usher. A first step in this direction is to use a simple and effective way to purify waste water. Nenitescu. p. Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House. Landgraf. Tube International March. Freitas and F.. Quantum Physics. Under electrical discharge the size of the basic crystal does not exceed 0. ISBN 973-86211-7-8. M.. thereby improving the classical methods of industrial water ecology. Chemical and Instrumental Analysis. Bucharest.J. 34. Technol. Vol. Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing House. The same result was also noted in the experiments of the current study. 1979.B. 1239-1244. Grimes. where we consider we can bring a significant contribution. There are notable differences in the size of crystals. Influence of Magnetic Field on the Kinetics of Crystallization of Inorganic Salts diamagnetic and paramagnetic.. Lorentz. [4] [5] [6] [7] 76 . FL. E. General Chemistry. Wichmann. FJG.M. Ion Sima Conclusions 5% NaCl solution in water activelly meets an external magnetic field. Nývlt. Discharges ranged from 15 to 25 kV. E. electro methods in biology.. Bucharest.Lajos Kacsó. The presence of even weaker magnetic field has changed significantly the inner organization in the saline solution studied. Bucharest. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Dumitrescu. Academic Direct Publishing House. 1983. S.01 mm. 1983. Over this voltage discharges distorted too much salt crystals and observations had no basis of comparison with the structures resulting from crystallization under magentic field. Res. Landgraf. In the case of crystals grown in a magnetic field the size of the base is about 1 mm. AMB. 2004. Bucharest. Crystal. The structuring of 10% NaCl solution in distilled water under electric discharge presents a similar behavior as in the case of magnetic field. Electronography.D. Jantsch. Zoltán István Marosy. 1988. According to studies by A.G. Freitas. Giulietti. IV.5 mT we can say that there are changes in internal structure. C. 1972. I. 1999. J.M.

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