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History of Psychology
There is a timeline in the front and back covers of your textbook. If you have a chance, look at it, but dont worry about memorizing all those dates. This isnt a history course. However, there are a few key dates and players youll need to remember. (These are here in the notes.) I Pre-scientiﬁc Psychology (enlightenment philosophy) (nature vs. nurture) A Plato (387 B.C.) i. Believed knowledge was innate (born within us) ii. Suggested that the brain was the seat of mental processes iii. The mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies. B Aristotle (335 B.C.) i. Denied the idea that knowledge is innate; Rather, it grows from the experiences stored in our memory. ii. Believed that the heart was the seat of mental processes. C Rene Descartes (1596-1650) i. Viewed mind as body as interactive machines, responsible for both voluntary and involuntary behaviors. ii. Ruled out organs other than the brain as locations of mental functioning. iii. Innate ideas and personality traits. iv. Published A Discourse on Method. D John Locke (1632-1704) i. Opposed notion of innate ideas - all ideas and knowledge comes from experience and reﬂections. ii. Mind and personality are a blank slate at birth (tabula rasa) iii. Published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding which stressed empiricism over speculation. E Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) i. Knowledge and personality are a product of both inborn dispositions and experience. F Franz Joseph Gall (1808) i. phrenology - the belief that the shape of a person’s skull reveals mental faculties and character traits. G Phineas Gage (1848) i. Suﬀers massive brain damage when a large iron rod accidentally pierces his brain leaving his intellect and memory intact but altering his personality. H Paul Broca (1861) i. Discovers area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is critical to the production of spoken language (now called Broca’s area).
I Carl Wernicke (1874) i. Shows that damage to a speciﬁc area in the left temporal lobe disrupts ability to comprehend or produce spoken or written language (now called Wernicke’s area). II Founders of Scientiﬁc Psychology A Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) i. Founded ﬁrst psychology research lab (Leipzig, Germany in 1879). Founder of modern scientiﬁc psychology (using scientiﬁc methods) ii. New research methods - introspection, psychophysical measurements (test sence) and reaction times. B Stanley Hall i. First psychology lab in the U.S. (Johns Hopkins University 1883) ii. First American Psychology Journal (American Journal of Psychology - 1887) iii. First president of the American Psychological Association (1892) C William James i. Published Principles of Psychology, the most inﬂuential textbook in the history of psychology (1890). ii. Harvard University philosopher and psychologist. D Sigmund Freud i. Founder of psychoanalysis. ii. First to study the role of childhood in adult personality. iii. Wrote The Interpretation of Dreams(1900), which was the ﬁrst psychology book that was geared toward the layman. iv. Developed concept of the unconscious mind. E John B. Watson i. Founder of Behaviorism ii. Said psychology should focus on behavior, not the mind or the unconscious. F Charles Darwin (1895 - Origin of Species) i. Theory of evolution inﬂuenced study of human behavior - evolution of human brain. ii. Led to the belief that we can learn about humans by studying animals - there are biological connections between species. G Margaret Flay Washburn i. First woman to receive a PhD in psychology (1894). H Mary Whiton Calkins i. Finished all the requirements for PhD from Harvard, but the school denied her the degree. ii. First woman elected president of APA (1905). I Ivan Pavlov i. Published many studies on conditioned reﬂexes (1906) ii. “Salivating dog experiment” J Jean Piaget i. Developmental psychologist who studied his own children. ii. Published The Language and Thought of the Child (1923).
Early Approaches to Psychology
I Structuralism A Founders: Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Bradford Titchener, G. Stanley Hall B Summary: attempted to deﬁne makeup of conscious experience by breaking it down into objective sensations, subjective feelings, and mental images. The mind functions by creatively combining these elements. II Functionalism A Founders: William James, John Dewey, inﬂuenced by Darwin B Summary: address way in which experience lets us function more adaptively in our environments, supplements introspection with behavioral observation in lab. Says adaptive behavior patterns are learned and maintained (habits), maladaptive ones drop out. III Behaviorism A Founders: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, inﬂuenced by Pavlov B Summary: says speculation about stream of consciousness (esp. of lower animals) is inaccurate, to be a real science psychology most focus on only observable behavior. Studies responses to stimuli, conditioning, and eﬀects of reinforcement. IV Gesalt Psychology A Founders: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koﬀka, Wolfgang Kohler B Summary: says human nature cant be understood by behavior alone, and perception cant be broken down into units. Perceptions are wholes that give meaning to parts, and we tend to observe separate pieces of information as integrate wholes (integrate separate stimuli into meaningful patterns). Learning is not only responsive and mechanical, but can be active and purposeful especially when trying to solve a problem, which is accomplished by sudden ﬂashes of insight. V Psychoanalysis A Founders: Sigmund Freud B Summary: people are driven by deeply hidden impulses, unconscious processes (especially primitive sexual and aggressive impulses) are more inﬂuential than conscious thought in determining human behavior. Since impulses and desire to be good are in conﬂict, the underlying forces of personality are psychodynamic. Did research by interviewing patients (psychoanalysis) rather than in a lab.
Major Contemporary Theoretical Approaches to Psychology
I Psychodynamic (Freudian) A Major theorists: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler B Stresses the role of internal drives, desires, and urges, which aﬀect behavior in ways individuals are not even aware of. Psychodynamic theories are interested in the conﬂicts between animalistic urges and desires and the norms of behavior expected by society. C Important Concepts: Unconscious mind, id-ego-superego, the importance of early childhood development, defense mechanisms, inferiority complex, collective unconscious. II Behaviorism and Social Learning A Major Theorists: John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura B Stresses the role of the environment, experience, and learning on behavior (nurture view). Describes observable behavior through the environmental inﬂuences that shape them. C Important Concepts: Stimulus-response relations, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning, modeling. III Cognitive A Major Theorists: Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Wolfgang Kohler, Noam Chomsky B Stresses the role of mental processing, language, and memory on behavior. Studies the way information is received, processed, and stored by organisms. Important Concepts: theory of cognitive development, language acquisition device, insight learning, gestalt principles of organization C Important Concepts: theory of cognitive development, language acquisition device, insight learning, gestalt principles of organization IV Biological A Stresses the role of genetic and biological factors in personality and behavior. Focuses on the structure and function of the nervous system and endocrine system, role of neurotransmitters, and function of chromosomes. B Important Concepts: drug therapies, psychosurgery, psychogenetics V Humanism A Major Theorists: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers B Stresses the human capacity for free will and self-actualization. It describes the need of the individual to become more self aware and make conscious decisions about their lives. Stresses the need for positive self esteem and societal acceptance. C Important Concepts: self-actualization, unconditional positive regard, hierarchy of needs, client centered therapy, self concept VI Sociocultural A Stresses the role of the cultural environment in the shaping of personality. Focuses on how cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors vary from society to society and must be taken into consideration when trying to understand, control, or predict behavior. B Important Concepts: cross-cultural psychology, multi-cultural psychology
Research Designs in Psychology
I Descriptive Research - researcher systematically records what he/she observes without directly manipulating the variables. **Descriptive research can never prove cause and eﬀect. It can only indicate a correlation** A Naturalistic Observation i. Subjects are observed in their natural environment ii. Research does not interfere or inﬂuence the subjects in any way. B Case Studies (Freud) i. In depth studies of an individual or a group based on interviews, tests, and observation. ii. Data is usually collected over a long period of time. C Surveys i. Questionnaires that ask people about their behaviors, opinions, or attitudes. ii. Questions must be unbiased; Results are dependent on the honesty of the respondent (which is helped by making the survey anonymous.) iii. Framing Eﬀect - One can get diﬀerence answers depending on how a question is asked. D Psychological Testing i. Formal sample of a persons behavior, attitudes, or abilities. Can be written or performed, administered primarily by psychologists (ex. IQ tests, SATS) ii. Requirements A. Standardization (test administered and scored in a consistent manner, have norms with which to evaluate results) B. Reliability (extent to which test produces consistent results) C. Validity (test measures what it claims to measure.) II Experimental Research - method where the researcher controls the variables and manipulates one variable to examine its eﬀect on another variable. **This is the only type of research that can indicate cause and eﬀect.** Prefer this method of research when possible. III Correlational Research - method where the researcher detects naturally occurring relationships and assesses how well one variable predicts another. **Does not specify cause and eﬀect.**
Important Terms in Psychology Research
Hypothesis: a testable prediction about the relationship between two or more events or characteristics. Variable: an event, behavior, or characteristic that is measure and controlled in a scientiﬁc manner. Experimental Method: research that manipulates one or more variables, while controlling others, to determine the eﬀects of these variables. Independent variable: the variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine its eﬀect on another, dependent variable. Dependent variable: the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable; the variable whose eﬀect is being studied. Confounding variable: a variable whose unwanted eﬀect on the dependent variable might be confused with that of the independent variable. (A common confounding variable is order eﬀects. To avoid this, one can use random sampling of subjects.) Experimental condition: the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Control condition: the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the eﬀect of the treatment. Subjects: participants in a scientiﬁc study. Random Sampling: the assignment of subjects to experimental and control conditions so that each subject is likely to be assigned to one condition as to another. Random Sampling roughly equalizes the two groups in age, attitudes, and other characteristics. Subject Bias: the tendency of people who know they are subjects in a study to behave in a diﬀerent manner than they normally would. Experimenter Bias: the tendency of those conducting a study to let their expectations alter the way they treat their subjects or analyze their data. Double Blind Study: a study in which neither the subjects nor the persons measuring results know who has received the treatment. Single Blind study: a study in which the subject doesnt know whether or not they have received the real treatment but the researcher does. Placebo: an inert substance or condition administered as “treatment” that has the appearance of being genuine and is administered to the control group. Placebo Eﬀect: experimental results caused by expectations alone; any eﬀect on behavior caused by the administration of the placebo, which is assumed to be an active agent by the participant. (Just believing you are getting a treatment can boost your spirits, relax your body, and in some cases, relieve your symptoms.)
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