Problem Set #4

Short Answer Questions:
1. What is sensation? Sensation is the relationship between physical stimulation and its psychological effects. 2. What is perception? Perception is the study of how we recognize, interpret, and organize our sensations. 3. Define “receptive field”. The receptive field is the area from which our receptor cells receive input. 4. Define “contralateral shift”. Contralateral shift refers to the switch of sensory input from one side of the body to the opposite side of the brain. 5. What are the two types of receptors in the eye and what are their functions? Rods and cones. Rods are sensitive in low light, whereas cones are responsible for vision in bright light and for color vision. 6. What is habituation? Habituation is the process by which we become accustiomed to a stimulus and notice it less and less over time. 7. What is dishabituation? Dishabituation occurs when a change in a stimulus, even a small change, causes us to notice the stimulus again. 8. What is the cocktail party phenomenon? The cocktail party phenomenon refers to our ability to carry on and follow a single conversation in a room full of conversations. 9. What are some Gesalt principles of perception? Proximity, similarity, symmetry, continuity, and closure.

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Multiple Choice Questions:
Correct answers are in bold. 1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a monocular visual depth perception cue? (a) Texture gradient (b) Motion parallax (c) Interposition (d) Opponent process (e) Relative size 2. The five basic gustatory sensations that most animals possess are: (a) bitter, salty, tangy, sour, umami (b) salty, sweet, bitter, sour, umami (c) smooth, grainy, cold, hot, lukewarm (d) grain, fruit, meat, vegetable, fats (e) salty, sharp, sour, bitter, awesome 3. Cats tend to notice slight movements under low lighting conditions with greater ease than do humans; they do not, however, find it easy to distinguish colors. This is primarily due to their retinas containing, in comparison to humans (a) relatively fewer numbers of amacrine cells and relatively more bipolar cells. (b) relatively fewer number of ganglion cells and relatively more osmoreceptors. (c) relatively fewer numbers of cilia and relatively more optic nerve cells. (d) relatively fewer numbers of cones and relatively more rods. (e) relatively fewer numbers of mechanoreceptors and relatively more ossicles. 4. The Gesalt concept of perceptual continuity refers to: (a) our tendency to see objects near to each other as belonging to the same group. (b) our tendency to see objects that are closer to us as larger than objects that are farther away. (c) our tendency to see fluid or complete forms rather than irregular or incomplete ones. (d) our tendencyy to see similar-looking objects as part of the same group. (e) our tendency to see two slightly different images from each of our eyes. 5. Which of these would be the best illustration of Weber’s law? (a) At a sound intensity level of 20 decibels, most people can recognize that a sound of 22 decibels is louder, but at a level of 80 decibels, most people cannot recognize that a sound level of 82 decibels is louder. (b) At an illumination level of 40 lumens, most people can report seeing a light that is polychromatic, but cannot report seeing one that is monochromatic. (c) At a concentration of 100 parts per million, more people can taste a salty stimulus than a bitter stimulus. (d) All auditory stimuli above a certain frequency “sound” as if their frequencies are the same. (e) People cannot attend to more than a few discrete stimuli presented to a fiven sensory modality at the same time.

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