Transparent Transistor Author(s): Alexandra Goho Source: Science News, Vol. 166, No. 22 (Nov. 27, 2004), pp.

339-340 Published by: Society for Science & the Public Stable URL: Accessed: 28/11/2009 12:57
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The researchersdescribetheir in a timely fashion.' Cancer Research Center in Seattle. "We're says recommending. and voltage is applied. In a new study from Europe. healthy blood cells.increasing the amount of light reaching the ture a computer display that you can not viewer's eyes. 2004 VOL. Such circuitry could find its Anasetti of the Moffitt Cancer Center in way into computer displays in car Tampa. isn't amenable to large-scale manufactur- Transparent Transistor See-throughcomponent for flexibledisplays NOVEMBER 27. Moreover. Marrow transplants precisely matched to a patient'sblood characteristics can be remarkably successful. On the otherhand. ing donors. 166 339 .Umbilical Bounty Cordblood shows value against leukemia In two studies comparing treatments for z adults with leukemia. Ofthe otherpatients. many scientists have eagerly awaited hard evidence of the technique's benefits. since the first cord-blood transplant took place in 1988. That's part of the reason why. such high performance. a numFor ber ofgroups in academiaand industryhave created electronic components out of organic materialsfor flexible computer displays (SN: 1/31/04. 150 mismatched cordblood transplants.a transparent semiconductor material out blood transplants from donors who were of indium gallium zinc oxide.S.The method that the researchers such visions with the creation of a trans. Eliane WWW. transparent circuitry lights up to reveal a map of the city and could make existing displays brighter by directions to your next destination." says John Rogers of the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Both research groups found that cord blood. doctors can wipe out nearly all the malignant marrow cells. Scientists in ods for mass production presents a techniJapan have taken a major step to fulfilling cal hurdle. "Thisopens says Ted A. plastic. it carries mature immune cells that can make trouble by attackinga recipient'stissues. After 3 years. In a U. The two studies appear in the Nov.Huitema of Philips Research Laboratories row and cord blood seem to balance out. that if a patient doesn't have gallium zinc oxide goes onto plastic at room a matched marrow [transplant available] temperature.the indium at this point. was slower than marrow to develop into a full complement of blood cells. 67). causing graftversus-host disease. umbilical cord blood contains predominantly naive cells. p. "Thatwould melt the leukemia patients.parent transistoron a plastic substratewith host disease than mismatched marrow is.devisingmethonly see through but also roll into a tube and slip into your coat pocket. these survival rates aren't significantly difHosono attributes his material'ssuccess to the greater mobility of electrons when a ferent. which aren'tyet programmedto attackforeign tissue. Statistics indicate that no significant difference between the 26 percent of the mismatched cord blood recipients and the 20 percent of the mismatched marrow recipients who survived. Leukemia occurs when marrow cellsthe stem cells for blood-become cancerous. Although unrelated and nearly all mismatched and other research groups have previously for 584 similar patients who received mar. On the other hand. Louis in Parisand Hideo Hosono and his colleagues at the her colleagues compared the outcomes for Tokyo Institute of Technology developed 98 leukemia patients who received cord. study. That's because marrow delivers more than just nascent blood cells. prototype transistors made cord-blood recipients and 42 percent ofthe from his team's new material are 10 times marrow recipients were alive and free of as conductive as the silicon transistors disease. Or pic. sayshematologistJuliet N. But their potential in adults has been less clear. SEPPA "Thispaper is exciting. ORG Gluckmanof Hospital St. she says. the authors note.formance was not so good. Gooley of the Fred Hutchinson up a range of new applications. Barkerofthe Universityof Minnesota in Minneapolis. "Thearea of flexible electronics has attracted a great deal of attention overthe last fewyears. their colleaguesassessed 367 matched-marrow transplants.the Netherlands. -N. 35 percent of patients getting matching marrow were alive.made transparent circuitry.used to deposit the transistors on plastic parent transistor deposited on plastic. 36 percent of the In contrast. clearing the way for an infusion of donated marrow that can make new. scientists find that a transplant of umbilical cord blood offers a viable option for people who don't have a well-matched bone marrow donor. with its small number of stem cells. windshields and other curved surfaces. even a slightly mismatched marrow transplant is fraught with risks. However. then proceed with cord new materialin the Nov. Cord-bloodtransplants in which the donor and recipientaren'trelatedor fully matched have shown success in children. none of these materials is transparent. After 2 years." instance. because a single umbilical cord contains only about onetenth as many blood stem cells as the typical bone marrow transplant does. "their perrow transplantsfrom unrelated-but-match.fewerthan a third find an acceptable match. who are small and resilient. Laughlin. Depositing standardsilicontransistorson Laughlin says the findings open the way plastic is nearlyimpossible since the process for cord-blood treatments in some adult requires much heat. As in all new technologies." says Edzer The pros and cons of mismatched mar. 25 Nature. That makes NOW YOU SEE IT Transparent transistors cord-blood recipients more vulnerable to on a sheet of plastic can be seen only at infection after the transplant. adds Rogers. in Eindhoven. However. both studies show that "This is the first time I've seen a transmismatched cord-bloodtransplantsare less apt to spawn acute attacks of graft-versus. Only about 20 percent of leukemia patients have a sibling donor who's a good match. blood." says Hosono.and 83 mismatched marrow transplants. Laughlin of CaseWesternReserveUniversityin Cleveland." Huitema. says hematologist Mary J. In addition to providing a host of speImagine a car windshield that suddenly cialty applications. Statistical analysis indicates that used in today's liquid-crystal displays. Fla."she says. Using drugs and radiation. Barker. SC IENCEN EWS. says Claudio certain angles. 25 New England Journal ofMedicine.

a new study suggests. "Ithink the broad idea is the right one. They conclude that it was probablypainted by at least four artists. a visual-cortex areas. N.while an imitator isjerky. discerning an artist's style has neutral faces with less activity in these been in the eye of the beholder."Ithink they horizontally."the scienThe technique employs a process called tists conclude." California."she says. depends on amygdala Taken together. the disease had bands depict details. the perception of fearful objects. agree that the the amygdala uses its connections to farwork is only a first step toward a reliable flung areas of the brain to shape the visual fraud-detection technique. -A.says Jitendra Malik of the University of trials and only to horizontally aligned pairs tent strokes. Each image would produce activity primarily in art world adopt the method. -E. higher-frequency subbands. However. the amygdala display the least activity. they show sparse nique distinguished eight drawings by the activity in these areas. saysTobinMarksof Northwestern University in Evanston. new mathematical tool distills style into an array of statistics as a potential means to Moreover. He notes that it remains to be seen whether the researchers can find a method for making large quantities of high-quality transistors. says study coauthor Hany Farid. "Testing the approach on many more artists will probablyenable us to get a handle on what are the best features for art authentication. such as the percentage of dark portions in a given subband. it's on the rest. Ill.such as layeringdetail onto the Perugino's "Virginand Child with Saints" (top) had spared the amygdala. GOHO see. according to Vuilleumier'sgroup. including fear. exhibit pronounced activity in certain parts ofthe brainthat deal with visual infordiscern true art mation. When looking at faces displaying fearful expressions. a smooth. KLARREICH Feel Neural for Seeing Emotion may mold early visual activityin brain We don't just react emotionally to what we Con Artist z 340 NOVEMBER 27. not clear whether the 72 features the team examined are the most the work. Vuilleumier and his coworkers studied quencywith higher-frequencyovertones. report capturing the texture of an artist's material. 166 SCIENCE NEWS . and 3 cluster in a The scientists used a functional magnetic representation of six areas (bottom). a curator at the Metropolitan with one pairalignedverticallyand the other Now. Through this partnership. say neuroscientist Patrik Vuilleumier ofthe Universityof Geneva in Switzerland and his colleagues. in keeping with historians'opinion that Perugino painted only a portion of the work. In the new study. suggests that at least four artists contributed studied 13 participantswith healthy brains. untroubled surface such as a blue sky ure blood flowthroughout the brains of parWhile the results are interesting. Wavelet decomposition is good at ana." he says."created in the studio ofthe Italian artist Pietro Perugino around the turn of the 16th century. Hosono says that his group is collaborating with an electronics company to develop the a separatetrial. Over many years. The team also animated creatures in the filmA Bug'sLife. in an upcoming Proceedings of the Museum of Art in New York. a computer scientist at Dartmouth College in Hanover. in the rest. Several digital-imaging researchers. consis. What we see is shaped by what we feel. "Enhancedactivation preliminaryfindings are encouraging. he plans to sort out the manufacturing issues and improve the material's long-term stability. says Nadine containeda pairof facesand a pairofhouses. while blades of grass of only two artists isn't enough to make the images on a computer screen. when people with amygdala spot image's low-frequency subbands show the 26 people who had brain-damaging broad strokes. the scientists report in the NovemberNature Neuroscience. an emotion-regulating neural strucScanning program can ture.while higher-frequency subepilepsy. the results indicate that including the study'sauthors. the researchers measured 72 statistical features.Peo16th-century artist Pieter Brueghel the Elder from five imitations attributed to the ple with the most-extensive tissue loss in master until a decade or so ago. wavelet decomposition to breakdown a digYet. Participants were told to pay attention strokes.people with amygital image into a collection of more-basic dala damage recognized the emotion images. Wavelets have been left half of them with varying degrees of used in a wide range of image-processing MANY HANDS A statistical analysis of amygdaladamage.However. called subbands." only to vertically aligned pairs on half the "Amaster might have smooth. while the imitations were significantly different from the Brueghels and from each other. resonanceimaging (fMRI) scannerto measlyzing textures. Only areas 1. a statistician at Stanto fearful stimuli in distant sensory regions \ ford University. the techdamage view fearfulfaces. researchers need to study a much larger sample of either a fearful or a neutral expression.comments David Donoho. The team found that the genuine Brueghels all had similar statistics. People respond to Until now. say. In a recent study. For instance. 2. neurallosses applications. Both faces in a pair showed NationalAcademy ofSciences. 2004 VOL. people with intact brains or with brain damage that spares the amygdala. Just as a musical depicted in faces displaying any of six tone consists of a low fundamental freexpressions. However. Orenstein. he adds. a study ticipants as they viewed a sequence of would show up mostly in the low-frequency subbands. The researchersalso studied the painting "Virginand Child with Saints.

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