|

N SERIES

| | Introductory Catering Theory and Practice

W Benn

N4

INTRODUCTION

© Future Managers 2013
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, electronic, mechanical,
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ISBN 978-1-77581-079-7 
First published 2013

FutureManagers
Published by
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PO Box 13194, Mowbray, 7705
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E-mail: info@futuremanagers.net
Website: www.futuremanagers.net

Contents
Module 1 – Recipes
1. Measuring................................................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1 Units of measurement................................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Measuring apparatus..................................................................................................................................... 2

1.2.1 Measuring spoons............................................................................................................................ 2

1.2.2 Measuring cups................................................................................................................................. 3

1.2.3 Measuring jugs.................................................................................................................................. 3

1.2.4 Scales measuring weight.................................................................................................................. 3
1.3 Measuring techniques................................................................................................................................... 4

1.3.1 Liquids............................................................................................................................................... 4

1.3.2 Flour................................................................................................................................................... 4

1.3.3 Sugar................................................................................................................................................... 5

1.3.4 Shortening......................................................................................................................................... 5

1.3.5 Methods to measure shortening..................................................................................................... 5
1.4 What is a recipe.............................................................................................................................................. 5

1.4.1 Definition of a standard recipe....................................................................................................... 6

1.4.2 Recipe layout..................................................................................................................................... 6

1.4.3 Ingredients list.................................................................................................................................. 7

1.4.4 Non-critical ingredients................................................................................................................... 7

1.4.5 Semi-critical ingredients................................................................................................................. 7

1.4.6 Critical ingredients........................................................................................................................... 7

1.4.7 Layout of ingredients....................................................................................................................... 7

1.4.8 Order list............................................................................................................................................ 8

1.4.9 Method............................................................................................................................................... 8

1.4.10 Additional information.................................................................................................................... 8
1.5 Recipe forms................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.5.1 Standard............................................................................................................................................. 8

1.5.2 Action ................................................................................................................................................ 9
1.5.3 Descriptive......................................................................................................................................... 9
1.5.4 Narrated........................................................................................................................................... 10
1.6 Adjustment of recipes for cooking ona large scale................................................................................. 10
Module 2 – Apparatus
2. Apparatus............................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.1 Large apparatus for food preparation....................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Small apparatus............................................................................................................................................ 14
2.3 Knives and cutting equipment................................................................................................................... 16
Module 3 – Cookery terms
3.1 Basic cooking and kitchen terms............................................................................................................... 20
3.2 Suggestions: Practical ................................................................................................................................. 23
Module 4 – Food groups
4. Eating for health.................................................................................................................................................... 26
4.1 The five basic food groups ......................................................................................................................... 26

4.1.1 Purpose and advantages of each group....................................................................................... 26

4.1.2 Consumer issues............................................................................................................................. 28
4.2 Nutrients that occur in each food group.................................................................................................. 28

4.2.1 Proteins............................................................................................................................................ 28
4.2.2 Fats.................................................................................................................................................... 30

4.2.3 Carbohydrates................................................................................................................................. 31

4.2.4 Vitamins........................................................................................................................................... 31

4.2.5 Minerals........................................................................................................................................... 34

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4.3



Basic meal planning.................................................................................................................................... 37
4.3.1 Factors influencing meal planning............................................................................................... 37
4.3.2 General rules for planning economical meals............................................................................ 39
4.3.3 Types of menus............................................................................................................................... 41
4.3.4 Menus for different meals.............................................................................................................. 44

Module 5 – Food products
5.1 Knowledge of food products...................................................................................................................... 48

5.1.1 Understanding food labels regarding nutrition.......................................................................... 49
5.2 Knowledge of purchasing........................................................................................................................... 52

5.2.1 Buying Food.................................................................................................................................... 52

5.2.2 Where to buy food.......................................................................................................................... 52

5.2.3 Criteria when purchasing food..................................................................................................... 52
5.3 Purchasing.................................................................................................................................................... 52

5.3.1 Meat and offal................................................................................................................................. 53
5.3.2 Game................................................................................................................................................ 58
5.3.3 Poultry.............................................................................................................................................. 59

5.3.4 Fish and shellfish............................................................................................................................ 61

5.3.5 Dry goods........................................................................................................................................ 61

5.3.6 Fresh and frozen vegetables.......................................................................................................... 62

5.3.7 Convenience products................................................................................................................... 62
5.4 Guidelines when purchasing...................................................................................................................... 63

5.4.1 Quality-conscious manufacturers................................................................................................ 63

5.4.2 Who determines the standards of convenience foods............................................................... 63

5.4.3 How to add convenience foods to your menu............................................................................ 63
5.5 Knowledge of receiving foods and goods................................................................................................. 65

5.5.1 Receiving food................................................................................................................................ 65

5.5.2 Organising the stores..................................................................................................................... 65

5.5.3 Duties and attributes of stores personnel.................................................................................... 66
5.6 Storage of food............................................................................................................................................. 68

5.6.1 Description of terms...................................................................................................................... 68

5.6.2 The importance of correct storage methods............................................................................... 68

5.6.3 Factors influencing choice of storage method............................................................................ 68
5.6.4 Processing........................................................................................................................................ 69

5.6.5 Principles of storage....................................................................................................................... 69

5.6.6 The storage of foods....................................................................................................................... 69

5.6.7 Principles of storage and corresponding reasons....................................................................... 69

5.6.8 Storage life of a few foods kept in a refrigerator and freezer.................................................... 70

5.6.9 Types of stores................................................................................................................................. 72

5.6.10 Storeroom procedures.................................................................................................................... 75
Module 6 – Cooking methods
6. Cooking methods.................................................................................................................................................. 82
6.1 Classification of cooking methods............................................................................................................ 82

6.1.1 Moist heat........................................................................................................................................ 82

6.1.2 Dry heat........................................................................................................................................... 82

6.1.3 Combination................................................................................................................................... 83
6.2 Moist-heat cooking methods..................................................................................................................... 83

6.2.1 Boil................................................................................................................................................... 83

6.2.2 Stew.................................................................................................................................................. 84

6.2.3 Poach................................................................................................................................................ 85

6.2.4 Steam................................................................................................................................................ 86

6.2.5 Simmer............................................................................................................................................. 88

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6.3 Dry-heat cooking methods ....................................................................................................................... 88

6.3.1 Baking.............................................................................................................................................. 88

6.3.2 Frying............................................................................................................................................... 89

6.3.3 Shallow frying................................................................................................................................. 91

6.3.4 Grilling............................................................................................................................................. 92
6.4 Combination cooking methods................................................................................................................. 93
6.5 The effect of heat on food in each food group......................................................................................... 94
6.5.1 Proteins............................................................................................................................................ 94

6.5.2 Sugars and starches........................................................................................................................ 94

6.5.3 Fats ................................................................................................................................................... 94

6.5.4 Fibre.................................................................................................................................................. 94

6.5.5 Other changes................................................................................................................................. 95
6.6 Effect of different cooking methods on food substances........................................................................ 95
6.7 There are several reasons for cooking food.............................................................................................. 97

References.............................................................................................................................................................. 98

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vi

Module 1

Recipes
After completing this module, you will be able to:
• Measure ingredients
• Interpret recipes
• Adjust recipes for cooking on a large scale

Module 1

1. Measuring
1.1 Units of measurement
The main units of measure associated with food are volume, mass, temperature and pressure.
When measuring dry ingredients or liquids, volume or mass may be used.
Although more accurate to measure dry ingredients by mass, they may be measured by
volume because:
• It may be more convenient to measure in volume.
• Accurate are scales required, especially to measure small amounts, and may not be available.
Volume and mass are never the same, but sometimes they may be similar. For example:
• 250 ml milk = 1 cup
• 250 ml sugar equals 200 g = 1 cup
• 200 ml flour = 100 g = ¾ cup
• 12,5 ml cream = 1 tablespoon
• 5 g salt = 5ml salt = 1 teaspoon
• 500 mg pepper = 1 ml = ¼ teaspoon (pinch)
Reasons for measuring ingredients
• Guarantees correct consistency and texture.
• Repetition of the recipe with the same results.
• Bake the dish every time at the correct temperature.
• Use the correct equipment to ensure the same result.
• Accurate measuring of the internal temperature of food can prevent poisoning.
• Measuring includes not only ingredients but also involves the oven temperature and the size of
your cooking equipment.
• Exact measurement of ingredients for cooking is necessary to obtain a successful product
every time.
• Following exact measurements helps for a smooth performance of the cooking process.
Cooking measurements are very important. If you are serious about the art of cooking, you must
be aware by now that you need to know the different conversions and measurements you need to
ensure food safety and success.
Types of ingredients that can be measured:
• Liquid: milk, water, juice, wine, oil
• Dry ingredients: flour, sugar, castor sugar

1.2 Measuring apparatus
1.2.1 Measuring spoons
Measuring spoons
Usually used for measuring very small volumes like spices and
seasonings. Measuring spoons contain the following sizes:
• 1 ml
• 2 ml
• 5 ml
• 12,5 ml (or sometimes 10 ml or 15 ml)

2

Figure 1.1 Measuring spoons

Recipes

1.2.2 Measuring cups
Measuring cups can be used for measuring both liquid and dry
ingredients.
Measuring cups contain the following sizes:
• 25 ml
• 50 ml
• 100 ml
• 250 ml

Figure 1.2 Measuring cups

1.2.3 Measuring jugs
Various sizes of measuring jugs may be found. Most of them have a
volume scale printed on the jug so that smaller amounts can also be
measured. Measuring jugs usually have a lip to make pouring easier.
Usually used for measuring liquids.
The sizes of measuring jugs include:
• 250 ml
• 500 ml
• 1 litre
• 5 litre

Figure 1.3 Measuring jug

1.2.4 Scales measuring weight
In large institutions, most ingredients are measured by weight because
it is faster and more accurate. Accurate scales are therefore of great
importance. Portion scales can be used for both measuring ingredients
and for portioning food.
Types that are readily available are:
Spring-balance scale
It works on the principle of a spiral spring which is pressed
down by the mass of the object.

Figure 1.4 Digital scale

Container for ingredients
Base of scale
Needle which registers mass

Figure 1.5 Spring-balance scale

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Module 1

Figure 1.6 Balance scale

Figure 1.7 Hangingscale

Balance type
Usually used in bakeries and it works with mass pieces. One pan holds the ingredients and the
other one holds the mass pieces.
Hanging scale
Measure the volume of liquid

1.3 Measuring techniques
Not only is the correct measuring apparatus necessary for accuracy but also the correct
measuring technique.

1.3.1 Liquids




All liquids as well as melted shortening, oil and syrups are measured in a standard measuring
jug placed on a level surface.
Fill the measuring jug to the desired level and then bend or stoop to read the measure at eye
level.
The bottom of the meniscus (curved surface of the liquid) should be level with the desired
measure on the jug.
If you don’t bend and hold your eyes at eye level, you are likely to make a parallax fault (this
means misjudging the volume by looking at it from an angle).
If syrup or honey is to be measured, the measuring cup, spoon or jug must be heated with
boiling water in order to prevent the liquid from sticking to the jug. It may also help to grease
the measuring cup with butter before measuring the sticky liquid.

1.3.2 Flour



Flour tends to get compacted during storage and therefore many recipes call for sifted flour.
A measured cup of unsifted flour weighs more than a measured cup of sifted flour. The
additional flour included in each cup of measured unsifted flour could destroy the balance
among the ingredients and will result in a low-quality product.
When measuring flour, it is important not to tap the cup while filling or levelling off. Tapping
will pack the flour and cause more to be used than required.
An alternative method is to sieve the flour directly into the cup until the cup overflows. The
excess is removed with a straight-edge spatula.
A cup of flour measured in this way may weigh less than a cup of sifted, spooned flour.

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Recipes

If the flour is coarse, you need only to stir it in the container and spoon it into the cup for
measurement. Whole grain flour and meal are coarse and are not sifted prior to measuring.
They are stirred to remove any lumps that might have formed.

1.3.3 Sugar












Granulated sugar should be stirred before measuring because granulated, castor


(powdered) and brown sugars tend to pack and form lumps during storage.
The sugar should then be spooned lightly into the cup until it is overflowing – it must now be
levelled with a spatula. Powdered sugar packs more solidly than granulated sugar and should be
sifted before measuring.
Brown sugar should be lightly packed into the measuring cup and then levelled. This is because
of its sticky nature. Measured brown sugar will retain the shape of the cup when removed from
the measuring cup.
Lumpy brown sugar should be broken up with a rolling pin or forced through a sieve before
measuring. It can also be steamed in the top of a double boiler until the moisture returns and it
can be handled easily.
Free-flowing brown sugar is poured or spooned into a measuring cup and made level. A cup of
free-flowing brown sugar weighs ¼ less than a cup of regular brown sugar.

1.3.4 Shortening
Solid fat at room temperature traps less air when packed
and is easier to measure than cold fat, which is very firm.
Solid fats and shortenings are packed into a graduated cup
measure and levelled with a spatula. A flexible scraper
works best to transfer fat from the measuring container.

1.3.5 Methods to measure shortening

Figure 1.8 Shortening

Measuring it with measuring spoons or cups
Method mostly used in the kitchen, but it is important to remember the following with this
measuring method:








Use soft fat.
Compress the fat carefully in the measuring cup.
Use the correct size measuring cup (don’t try and use a 250 ml cup which you fill ½ when 125 ml
are needed).
Never melt fat to measure it (unless the recipe asks for melted butter) because it is more dense
than solid fats.
The measuring cup can be rinsed with water to make margarine easier to come out of the
cup again.
Oil is usually measured in ml or litres.

1.4 What is a recipe
A recipe is a set of instructions used for preparing and producing a certain food, dish, or drink. The
purpose of a recipe is to have a precise record of the ingredients used, the amounts needed, and the
way they are combined.
1. The recipe name tells you what you’ll be making. Sometimes the author will include personal
information on the recipe.

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Module 1

2. There are three components to a recipe. The first is the list of ingredients, and the second is the
amount of the ingredients.
3. The third is the preparation instructions. A well-written recipe will list all ingredients in the
order they will be added in the preparation instructions. Most well-written recipes will spell
out pan size, cooking temperature, and how much of each ingredient to use. However, you will
find some poorly written recipes that use abbreviations.
4. Some recipes will include variations for the recipe and also how to store your prepared dish.

1.4.1 Definition of a standard recipe
A standardised recipe is a well established formulation written in a set pattern.
The amounts and proportions of the ingredients and procedures of combining them will constantly
produce a highly acceptable product and yield and a given number of portions of a particular size.
A recipe is considered to be standardised for a food service operation only when it has been:
• tested
• evaluated
• adapted for use
• repeatedly prepared under the same carefully controlled conditions, with consistent results,
by the food service operation, to meet their objectives effectively.
Standardisation of recipes includes the standardisation of the:
• format
• ingredients: type, form and grade
• equipment and utensils
• work procedures and handling techniques
• temperatures and times
• total yield in weight, volume and/or number of portions, portion size in weight, volume
and/or count,
• portioning and serving procedures (instructions).
Any substitution or changes may naturally affect the quality and quantity of the final product.
These should be done with great caution.

1.4.2 Recipe layout
To make recipes easier to read, they should be written in point form with step-by-step instructions.
Instructions should be easy to read and set out in order. The two main parts of a recipe are:

• an ingredient list and
• a list of instructions (or a method).
For any recipe, it is essential to keep following points in mind:
• Ingredients (dry and liquid) must be accurately weighed and measured to achieve
the right results.
• The method of preparation should be carefully followed.
• Oven temperatures and shelf position for baking recommended by the recipe should be followed.

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Recipes

1.4.3 Ingredients list
The ingredients form the base of your recipe.
No matter how carefully you follow the instructions, the recipe will not be a success if you do not
use the correct amount of ingredients.
Experienced chefs often do not measure carefully, but they have a vast amount of experience.
Until you have accumulated enough experience to be able to judge the proportions of ingredients
by sight, or learn which are the important ingredients, you should measure all ingredients carefully
and properly.
How carefully you should measure will depend on the ingredients being used.
They may be grouped as:
• non-critical ingredients.
• semi-critical ingredients.
• critical ingredients.

1.4.4 Non-critical ingredients
Quantities of some ingredients in a recipe may be varied quite considerably with no effect on the
success of the recipe; these ingredients may be also be left out from the recipe.
Examples
Vegetables used for stews or used in a mirepoix. Green pepper in Chicken à la King may be reduced.

1.4.5 Semi-critical Ingredients
These ingredients may not be left out of the recipe. When amounts of semi–critical ingredients are
changed, the recipe may still be a success but there will be a difference in the flavour.
Examples
Curry powder, flour in a white sauce, or white wine in a Sole Véronique.

1.4.6 Critical ingredients
The proportion of critical ingredients cannot be changed without affecting the success of the recipe.
Examples
Cakes with too little baking powder will not rise, as well as the wrong amount of yeast when
making bread.

1.4.7 Layout of ingredients





Should be written in order of use.
Amount of ingredients should be listed and metricated, grams or millilitres.
The kind of product required should be clearly stated e.g. white sugar or brown sugar.
Substitutes for ingredients may be given.
Some ingredients require early preparation, e.g. boiled egg/warm milk/boiling
water/whipped cream.

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Module 1

1.4.8 Order list








Compiled according to the ingredients list.
All the ingredients need to be written on one form.
Ingredients must be grouped, e.g. meat, dairy, dry goods, special commodities, fruit
and vegetables.
Fruit and vegetables can be ordered by mass, bunch, each (count).
Groceries can be ordered in the unit you buy them.
Full description of the ingredient must be on the order sheet to prevent you from receiving the
wrong item.
If you are familiar with the name of the supplier, the ingredients must be listed under their name.

1.4.9 Method







Method must be given numbered in point form, step by step.
Steps should be listed in order which work is required.
Use short sentences and clear directions that must be followed.
Use catering terminology. (Cooking methods, mixing techniques, pre-preparation techniques.)
Use the best and fastest method to complete the dish.
Specify baking times and temperatures.
Give the size of the baking pan and casseroles.
It is helpful to add the amount of servings or portion sizes.

1.4.10 Additional information






Recipe yield: until the recipe has been tested, the recipe yield should only be used as a guideline.
Size or capacity of the suggested serving container: very useful to have with baking products.
Garnish and accompaniments. This is optional, but enhances the prepared dish.
Storage instructions: for example – the dish can be frozen or keep at room temperature
Serving suggestions: on rice for example, with mash.
Possible substitutes: butter or margarine.
Variations: Muffins for example, banana/carrot/blueberry/choc chip.

1.5 Recipe forms
1. Standard form: All the ingredients are given first and then the method follows.
2. Action form : Narrative action is combined with the listed ingredients.
3. Descriptive form: Each ingredient is followed by the necessary modifications for example diced
carrots.
4. Narrated form: The amounts of the ingredients are included with the method.

8

Recipes

Standard form
Berry Smoothie
Makes 4 × 125 ml, enough for 4 servings.
1

medium banana

800 ml

berries

125 ml

whole milk

125 ml

white cranberry juice or apple juice
pinch table salt

15 ml
5 ml
3

granulated sugar
lemon juice
ice cubes

Line rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper.
Peel and cut the ripe banana crosswise into eight pieces.
Arrange banana and berries in single layer on baking sheet.
Freeze fruit until very cold, but not frozen, about 10 minutes.
In blender, puré cold fruit, milk, juice, salt, sugar, lemon juice, and ice until uniformly smooth, 10 to
15 seconds.

Action form
Berry Smoothie
Makes 4 x125 ml, enough for 4 servings.
Line rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper.
Arrange 1 medium banana and 800 ml berries in single layer on baking sheet.
Freeze fruit until very cold, but not frozen, about 10 minutes.
Blend, purée cold fruit, 125 ml milk, 125 ml cranberry or apple juice, pinch of salt, 15 ml sugar, 5 ml
lemon juice, and 750 ml ice until uniformly smooth, 10 to 15 seconds.
Taste for sugar and lemon; if desired, add more sugar or lemon and blend until combined, about 2
seconds longer.
Serve immediately.
Per serving
Cal. 120; Fat 1,5 g; Sat fat 0,5 g; Cholesterol 5 mg; Carbohydrates 28 g; Protein 2 g;
Fibre 4 g; Sodium 85 mg (Calculated with 50% strawberries and 50.

Descriptive form
Berry Smoothie
This recipe yields 4 servings of 125 ml each.
1
ripe banana, peeled and cut into circles
800 ml
fresh berries washed and drained
125 ml
whole milk, chilled
125 ml
chilled cranberry or apple juice

Salt to taste
15 ml
granulated sugar
5 ml
freshly squeezed lemon juice
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Module 1

Method
Line rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper.
Spread the banana and berries in single layer on baking sheet.
Freeze the fruit until very cold, but not frozen.
Mix all the ingredients in a blender until smooth
Serve.

Narrated form
Berry Smoothie
Line rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper. Arrange 1 medium banana and 800 ml berries
in single layer on baking sheet. Freeze fruit until very cold, but not frozen, about 10 minutes. Blend,
puré cold fruit, 125 ml milk, 125 ml cranberry or apple juice, pinch of salt, 15 ml sugar, 5 ml lemon
juice, and 750 ml ice until uniformly smooth, 10 to 15 seconds.
Taste for sugar and lemon; if desired, add more sugar or lemon and blend until combined, about 2
seconds longer. Serve immediately. Makes 4 × 125 ml, enough for 4 servings

1.6 Adjustment of recipes for cooking on a large scale
Make the conversions
Most main dish recipes will double or triple easily, but baking generally doesn’t scale well due to the
precise ingredient measurements needed to create the chemical reaction required for baking to turn
out properly.
Determine how many times you’ll need to multiply the recipes in order to gain your required
serving amount.






If possible, make your recipe amount conversions in pencil beside the actual recipe. If a recipe
calls for 240 ml of flour, then you should write in 480 ml for twice the amount of flour.
Continue this through the whole list of ingredients and amounts, except for spices.
You can round an item up. If the recipe calls for 1 egg and you’re multiplying your recipe by 1,5,
then you’d end up with 1½ egg, round this up to 2 eggs.
When doubling a recipe that includes spices and alcohol: only multiply these ingredients by
1,5 or you risk overpowering the recipe with their assertive flavours.

Scaling a recipe up
Means that you will need extra ingredients.
This holds true for the main ingredients such as proteins, vegetables and starches.
Make a list of the amounts of each ingredient you need after scaling the recipe.
Don’t worry about buying exact amounts of spices; dried spices will keep quite well in a kitchen
pantry for months.
Suggestions for practical – in groups
Dishes prepared from recipes written in different forms.
Dishes prepared from standardised recipe.
Convert any cake recipe one-and-a-half times and prepare.

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