6.1.
INTRODUCTION
The recent grouzh in the use of power electronics has cauxd a greater
dHareness on power quality. Voltage sags. swells and harmonics can cause an cqulpment to fail or shut down. and also create huge current imhalanccs ujhich could blow fuses or trip the breakers. These etyects can he v e y expensive fbr the customer. ranging from minor quality variations to production downtime and equipment damage. Utilities are interested in keeping their customers satisfied and also keeping them online and drawing kilowatts. creating more revenue for the utility. All of this Interest ha? resulted in a variety of' devices designed for mitigating power disturbances \uch as voltage sags. One class ol.the device is the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (INK).
technique where the load voltage is assumed to be inphase with the presag voltage
t i ~ rthe DVR control. N.A Samara et al. 11361 have incorporated the
I N K into a
dlstrihution network and analyzed the perfkrmance of D V K for highly sensitive tndustrial loads hased on reactive power compensation. Alexander Kara el al. 11371 have presented the technical aspects of designing a dynamic voltage restorer t meet o
tile stringent requirements of voltage dips mitigation with respect to the magnitude of
\oltage dip, fault duration. permissible line voltage deviations and response time.
S
W.Middle Kauff et al. [I381 have proposed that almost d l voltage disturbances are
%\socialed with some degree of phase shifi for .wries custom power devices. Poh ('hlang Loh et a . 11391 have presented the implementation and control of a high l rollage dynamic voltage restorer for compensation of utility voltages using a multilevel inverter topology. John Godsk Nielsen el al. (1401 have proposed different
phase jump technique for very sensitive loads. Hyosung Kim et al. 11411 have exploited various operation modes and boundaries such as inductive operation.
capacitive operation and minimum power operation as an effective and economic solution to overcome voltage sags. Chris f i t m
statespace matrix method for computation of the phase shift and voltage reduction of the supply voltage much quicker than the fourier transform or a phase locked loop (PLL). F. Jurado et al. [I431 have proposed a neural network control strategy for protection of sensitive loads from the effects of voltage sags. In this chapter, PSO based approach identifies the required value of phase advancement angle corresponding to minimum energy injection from the energy storage element of the DVR such as a capacitor or a banery. The proposed PSO based energy optimization method is tested using a case study for a balanced 3phase system. The energy stored in the DVR after implementing PSO technique is lesser than that of conventional inphase voltage injection and phase advance compensation methods.
6.2.
Into a distribution line. When connected in xries between a source and a load. the
DVK can control the voltage applied to the load by injecting a voltage of arbitrary
amplitude. phase and harmonic content into the line. This enables the voltage seen by the load to be compensated to a desired magnitude in the face of upstream d~sturbances. The DVR is capable of supplying and absorbing both real and reactive power. In many cases, small disturbances can be restored through the exchange of reactive power only. For larger disturbances, it is necessary for the DVR to supply real power
to the load. The reactive power exchanged is generated by the inverter without any
energy storage devices. The real power exchange requires energy storage. Therefore, the DVR should be provided with a storage device in the form of a battery or a capacitor bank. When the line returns to normal following a disturbance, the stored energy is replenished from the distribution system by the DVR.
Fig. 6.1. Scbemntie block dingrnm of power distribution system compensated by a DVR
A schematic diagram of the DVR incorporated into a distribution network is
shown in the Fig. 6.1. V, is the supply voltage, VI is the incoming supply voltage hefore compensation. VZ is the load voltage after compensation, Vdvr is the series ~njectedvoltage of the D V R and 1 is the line current. Dynamic voltage restorer consists of an injection transformer in which the secondary winding of the transformer
IS connected
modulation inverter bridge is connected to the primary of the injection transformer and the energy storage device is connected at the dclink of the inverter bridge. The inverter bridge output is filtered in order to mitigate the switching frequency harmonics generated in the inverter. The series injected voltage of the DVR, Vdvr. is synthesized by modulating pulse width of the inverterhridge switches. The injection
ofanappropriate Vdvr. the face of upstream voltage disturbances demands a certain in
6.3.
As was recognized by many researchers. the compensation correction capability of the restorer concentrates to improve the voltage quality by adjusting the boltage magnitude. wave shape, and phase shift during the occurrence of voltage sag.
~xtensivelyused in present DVR control is the w called inphase voltage inject~on technique and phase advance compensation techn~quc.
6.3.1.
InPhase Voltage Injection technique In this technique the load voltage is assumed to be inphase with the presag
boltage by injecting AC voltage in series with the incoming three phase network [I 351
and [144]. This strategy is applied to both halanced and unbalanced voltage sags.
Ilowever, this method does not take into account the phase shifl of the voltage d~sturbances. Therefore the power needed to inject from the D V R energy storage unlt Into the distribution system was maximum. Hence this technique does not take into account the minimization of the energy required to achieve a required voltage
restoration. For sags of long duration, this could result In poor load ridethrough
capability.
The steady state active power injection from the D V R when using the inphase boltage injection technique is given [77] as follows.
Similarly, the steady state reactive power injection from the D V R when using the inphase voltage injection is given [77] as follows,
adjustment in load voltage advance angle a. One major advantage of the proposed scheme is that less real power needs to be injected from D V R energy s t o r q e unit into the distribution system. Compared to the conventional inphase injection method, the phase advance compensation scheme permits the D V R to help the load ride through more severe voltage .sags. However. the advancement of load voltage advance angle u at the beginning of compensation as well as the restoration of phase angle at the end of sag must he carried out gradually in order not to disturb or interrupt the operation
of sensitive loads.
6.3.2.1.
I. D V R Power Flow
If P,, and P, are the input power from the source and the load power. , , respectively [SO]. then
Po,
=3
v, I Cos (Q)
be the real power supplied by the DVR, then from (6.3) (6.5) and
Let Pd,
Pdvr
= Pout  P,n
pdvr = 3v21c=
( e )
C
VI
v,,
I,
c m
(0
 m +
sl)
(6.6)
Q,, x ~ , , l , ~ i n ( @  a + G , ) =
VJ
(6.7)
Q,=Q,
Q.
From (6.6) and (6.10) it is obvious that the control of real power and reactive p)wer exchange between DVR and distribution system
IS
The real power and reactive powers suppl~edby the DVR depends on the of nature of voltage disturbance expenenced as well as the dlrmt~on the DVR injected \.oltage with reference to the presag voltage. Pdvr depends on the advance angle a for a gven 6 and VI, as shown in Fig. 6.2. Based on the values of n used, the minimum ~ a l u e P,jw can be negative. This impl~es of that the real power 1s bang absorbed by
L)VR However, there is no technical and economical advantage hy operating this way
during the sag period, the DVR should be exporting energy to support the load instead
cf drawing more power from the source A negatlve Pd,, may cvcn aggravate the sag
sltuatlon. A larger energy storage facility will be requ~rcdto cater for the absorbed power for no obvlous technical advantage
The possibil~tyof operating at Pdw = 0 during sag 1s an Interesting proposition. The following analysis is therefore carried out to explore thls possibility by determining the corresponding value of load voltage advance angle a for such an
operation [80].
V,, 1, Cos ( O a + 8 , ) = 0
Y = C V , , S I ~ ( S , ) ,then, following some
(6.1 1) simple
Let
X=CV,,COS(S,),
~v,Icos@)C
v,
V,,I, Cos(Q,  a + 6 , ) = 0
(X'+Y:l0' =
[i..
IV,,COS(&,)
1;+ !.,
x~,,~in(fi,)
I;]"
Hence.
where p = tan'(y/x), it can be seen from the expressions already shown that
, is for balanced sags. p = 8 and G , the optimum value of phaw advancement angle for
minimum power operation. The necessary condition for the existence of a, , is given by
(6.22)
Thus, voltage correction with zero power injection is possible only if the condition imposed by the above equation is satisfied.
If the voltage :eg is so severe that equation (6.22) cannot he sat~sfied, then the optimum value of load voltage advance
a =0 .
settlng dPd, /d
Pd,
= 0.
Z V , , S I ~ ( O  ~ += 0 ) ~,
The corresponding DVR ~njectionreal power requirement under a , control ,, strategy is given as
pz
:
6.4.
PROBLEM FORMUI.ATION
The proposed work aims at minimizing the objective function designed to opt~mize energy injection from the energy storage element of the DVR such as a the capacitor or a battery. The mathematical model is changed to the following generalized objective function which is [80] given as,
(6.25)
P and P, are the input power from the source and the load power. ,
respectively.
Subject to L,oad voltage advance angle constraint, in which h a d voltage advance angle (a) during each compensation strategy should be wlthin the permissible range
1. Input the parameters of the system such as three phase voltage magnitudc and angles, supply side voltage angle () tlme durat~onof voltage sag, 6. load side power factor angle (0) number of iterations. and
2. Specify the lower and upper boundaries of load voltage advance angle (a).
power flow (Tp,,) and the power from DVR (P,,,,) for each particle.
5. Compare each particles evaluation value.
Pdvr,
violates its position limits in any dimension, set ~ t position at the proper s limit.
9. Each particle is evaluated according to its updated position. If the
evaluation value of each particle is better than the previous pbest, the current value is set to be pbest. If the best pbest is bmer than gbest, the value is set to be gbest.
10. If the stopping criteria is satisfied then go to Step 12. 1 I. Othmrise, go to Step 4.
12. l k particle that generates the latest gbcst is the optimal value.
The result of the analysis for the proposed PSO based phase advancement compensation (PSOPAC) strategy is illustrated with the following case. Under the proposed PSOPAC method, DVR uses the power h m the sourceside healthy phases to minimize active power supply h m the stored energy source. As an illustration, consider a singlephase sag occuning in a balanced three phase system where the postsag voltages are (lLO0,lL  12O0.0.4L  240" ). respectively. Assume a 2MVA, 0.85 (lag) power factor load at 22 KV. The load power factor angle can be readily evaluated and is found to be 31.78". Under presag conditions. each phase supplies 566.7 KW. During inphase injection technique. power supplied from the phases is 566.7 KW. 566.7 KW, and 226.6 KW, respectively, while the LWR will supply the balance power of 340 KW. The sourceside input power for the three phases with the phase advancement compensation is 666.6 KW. 666.6 KW. and 266.6
KW. respectively. and hence the remaining 100 KW is supplied from the DVR
storage device. The reactive power obtained from the DVR is 210.671 KVAr al the load voltage advance angle a value of 151.7833'. Therefore. from the above results it is clear that with the PAC method. the healthy phases of the source provide more energy thus reducing the energy storage burden on the DVR storage device. However. there is a significant increase in reactive power supplied by the IIVR. A reactive power of 1054 KVAr is supplied by the DVR with the PAC scheme while 210 KVAr is supplied with inphase injection technique. The results of the analysis shown above are considered for the typical arrangement as shown in Fig. 6.1 where the sensitive load is assumed to have a power factor of 0.85 lag and the presag load volIage and current are at 1 p.u. The volIage sag is considered as 60% sag on any one phase of the three phase system. The simulation p a m e t e r s considered for the above test case are shown in Table 6.1
Using the proposed PSO based PAC scheme. it can be seen that the DVR can restore the voltage sag by reduced real power. Here the real power supplied from
DVR is 99.906 KW for a balanced sag level of 60 %. It is observed that the amount of
real power obtained in three phases are 666.71 KW. 666.71 KW. 266.68 KW.
respectively, and the total power supplied to the load is 1600.1 KW. The corresponding value of optimized energy is 832.551 1 Wanhours. The optimum phase advance angle obtained using the proposed method is 151.7883'. The reactive power from DVR is 1053.6 KVAr and the line current is 52.48638 A. Hence the proposed PSO based PAC scheme finds the optimum phase advancement angle which is almost close to that of the angle found by the conventional PAC scheme. This indicates the correctness of the proposed method.
Parameters
Values

Population Size
.
Vm'"
180
2.0, 2.0
Table 6.2. Comparison of results with PAC and InPhase injection scheme
Injection Scheme
1
1
P ~ I
566.699KW
226.679 KW
266.682 KW
1 I
Energy
2811491 Watth

833.375 Wanh
832.551 I Wanh
From the above comparison it is clear that PSO based PAC scheme requires minimum power for a 60 % voltage sag in any one phase lasting for 30 ms for a input boltape of 22 KV and saves around 94 W. Based on the ahove analysis. it can he seen that the amount of storage energy can he reduced. thus resulting in a more economical restorer in terms of a more compact design. It is evident that the energy saving from the proposed method is significantly better than other conventional methods.
Generations
Fig. 6.3. <'on\ ergenre characteristics of I'SOPA<' scheme for singlephase sag
llliccting a voltage habing phase ad~ancmmnthith respect to the source voltage. A lli.\\ I'SO based PAC' scheme ia p r o p ~ x dfor I)VR to idcntifj the required phase dligle advancelncnt correspnding to minimum energ? injection. The prolx~sed nl..'lhod is tested and is simulated for a 3 phase load with halanced single phase sag ~rlil a considerable reduction in the stored energy has been achieved using the Pl,'p)sed scheme. The proposed scheme finds application in improving power quality
"1 11 1:
distribution systems. 'Through analysis and theoretical verification, it is shown that proposed scheme is suprior when compared to conventional techniques in the
In!lo\\;ing aspects.
i. More reasonable performance measure compared to conventional inphase voltage injection and PAC scheme. ii. Energy supplied from the DVR to correct a given voltage sag is reduced when compared to conventional techniques.
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