Action Research BY ROB MELTON & JEFF SOWDERS

The Effectiveness of 4MAT Lesson Design
in addressing the needs of at-risk elementary school students
BRIEF SUMMARY
What goes here is an abstract of our results, something like: In their far-reaching international study of the effectiveness of teaching styles on learning, Mr. Melton and Mr. Sowders have discovered that using a planned instructional approach to addressing learning styles benefits students as well as teachers. 4MAT peer coach, helping Mr. Sowders create a new unit using the 4MAT lesson design. Mr. Melton was also involved with the analysis of the data generated by the study.

LITERATURE REVIEW
See attached handout “Teaching to the Learning Cycle.”

INTRODUCTION
This research project represents an attempt to try out Bernice McCarthy’s 4MAT lesson design model over a two-week period in Jeff Sowders’ fourth grade class at Mint Valley Elementary in Longview, Wash., during the spring of 1993, and to evaluate its effectiveness with the teacher and his 28 students. Students are mainly from middle to upper middle class families. This collaborative study was undertaken because Mr. Sowders was concerned that he was not presenting his lessons in a manner that consistently offered each student an equal chance to learn, and a high school teacher, Rob Melton, had the expertise to help Mr. Sowders create a new unit that teaches to all learning styles using Bernice McCarthy’s 4MAT teaching model. The two met in an Action Research class at Portland State University in the spring of 1993. The two researchers conducted this study as a part of the course’s requirements, as well as for personal growth and insight. Participating in the study offered Mr. Sowders a chance to experiment with a different style of lesson presentation and evaluate the usefulness of this method, especially as it relates to helping his students become life-long learners. It was also an opportunity to increase his knowledge of learning styles (Imaginative, Analytic, Common Sense and Dynamic), learning modalities (visual, auditory and kinesthetic), and the role of left brain/right brain functioning (Logical and Creative) in the learning process. Besides teaching the unit on Africa to his fourth grade class, Mr. Sowders was involved in the formation of lesson plans and the analysis of the data generated by the study. Mr. Melton served as the

METHODOLOGY
Mr. Melton provided background information, the 4MAT lesson design worksheet wheel, coaching materials, questions and specific strategies to plan the 4MAT lesson. He met weekly with Mr. Sowder to discuss the plan and implementation of the lesson design. Mr. Sowders found another elementary teacher in his area who he also consulted during the process. Mr. Sowder and his students kept a journal throughout the lesson. Mr. Melton coached Mr. Sowders through a practice 4MAT lesson. Then Mr. Sowders taught a social studies unit on Africa using the 4MAT lesson. Prior to teaching the unit, Mr. Sowders, established the unit goal and objectives, and designed the activities for all four quadrants using right and left brain activities. For this study, we tracked the progress of two students from each of three groups: high achievers (Cori Jo and Jason), low achievers (Jeremy and Deanna), and learning disabled achievers (Jessica and Ken), as determined by their scores from the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, Fourth Edition taken in Fall 1992. Mr. Sowders also designed an appropriate assessment for each quadrant to test how well each student was progressing toward mastery of the unit goal and objectives. Mr. Sowder assigned a grade based on this assessment for each quadrant: ̈ Quad one was based on observation of student interaction in their groups, and on a written response in the student journals. (Type One Learners are primarily interested in personal meaning. Teacher need to “Create a Reason.”)

Critical Issues THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4MAT LESSON DESIGN
̈ Quad Two was based on a picture collage of Africa and a map test. (Type Two Learners are primarily interested in the facts as they lead to conceptual understanding. Teachers need to “Give Them the Facts” that deepen understanding.) ̈ Quad Three was based on a graded composition on some aspect of Africa: “Tell a person who knows nothing of Africa something about it.” (Type Three Learners are primarily interested in how things work. Teachers need to “Let Them Try It.”) ̈ Quad Four was based on a final project of the student’s choosing. (Type Four Learners are primarily interested in self discovery. Teachers need to “Let Them Teach It to Themselves and to Others.”) Students kept a daily journal to evaluate lessons as far as interest level, how successful they felt, which lessons they liked, which lessons they didn’t like, and what they learned. Mr. Sowders also kept a daily journal to note his successes, failures, observations and feelings during the course of teaching the 4MAT lesson. Once the 4MAT lesson and evaluation was completed, we looked at the quadrant grades to determine if learning styles instruction made a significant improvement in their performance as compared to their placement scores. We also discussed Mr. Sowders’ reactions to 4MAT, his students’ reaction to 4MAT, and his reaction to the 4MAT lesson itself. joke, although she participated fully. She completed all assignments, receiving a 100% on the map test, an “A” on the composition, and an “A” on the final project. Her project was exemplary. The project was the report on one aspect of the country. She extended the assignment to include both geography and animal life, making a model of the country with flour paste and painting it. Jason did well in all four quadrants. Mr. Sowders reported that he did not take part in Quad One activities at all: “He didn’t think it was cool to perform there.” He completed all assignments, receiving a 100% on the map test, an “A” on the composition, and an “A” on the final project. Jason seemed to prefer visual information, such the maps and films, said Mr. Sowders.

Low Achievers
Jeremy was a minor participant in the Quad One activity. In Quad Two, Jeremy did really well in the right-brain activity, which was making and sharing a picture collage of Africa. “He was obviously interested in sharing the pictures,” said Mr. Sowders. He had a lot of interest in the maps, but received a “C” on the map test. Jeremy received a “B” on his composition, which was “a really big improvement for Jeremy,” said Mr. Sowders. (It was also a right-brain activity.) Jeremy got high marks for his effort in Quad Four. He and two other boys reported on the cheetah, using an electronic encyclopedia for their information. His report was not plagiarized from the encyclopedia. “He made his best effort here,” said Mr. Sowders. Deanna listened, but did not take part in the Quad One activity. She completed her collage in Quad Two as a part of her work. She received a “C” on her map test. Quad Three, which is guided practice, was her strongest area. She received a “C” on her composition, which Mr. Sowders said is not bad for her. For her Quad Four project, she built a drum out of a small coffee can after being stymied by her first project choice. Her mother helped her, and she timidly reported on her project to the class. She didn’t understand that cutting the bottom off the can would make a better sound, said Mr. Sowder. Quad Three/left brain was definitely her strongest and most comfortable learning style. Although by conventional standards she did not excel, nonetheless it was one of her best efforts of the year, said Mr. Sowders.

ANTICIPATED RESULTS
Our anticipated results were confirmed. We expected Mr. Sowders would benefit from a more comprehensive style of preparation which would result in a more effective presentation of the material for all learners. We predicted the high achievers would do well in all four quadrants, perhaps discovering a favorite learning style in the process. We predicted the low achievers would perform poorly in two or three quadrants, and perform well in one or perhaps two quadrants (their preferred learning style). Furthermore, we predicted that the low achievers would not perform well in Quads One and Two.

OBSERVATIONS High Achievers
Cori Jo did well in all four quadrants. Mr. Sowders reported that she treated Quad One as a

Learning Disabled Achievers
Jessica was disruptive in her group during the Quad One activity. She did not do the collage, she received a score of 3/26 on the map test, and she did not turn in a composition. She did nothing until Quad

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Critical Issues THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4MAT LESSON DESIGN
Four. “When we came to Quad Four,” said Mr. Sowders, “it was like she could be part of the group and be someone. She was the first one done. She started trying to make her drum in the classroom. She did a real good job. It was made of cardboard rolled up, she used cotton sheets for the drum heads, wrapped it with string, and played it just the way they did in the movies.” She did well on the hands-on, tactile type of learning, said Mr. Sowders. Ken did not participate with his group in the Quad One activity. In Quad Two, He “fooled around,” said Mr. Sowder. He received a score of 6/23 on the map test. (More than 50% of the students received at least 20/23 correct. Only five students scored under 13.) In Quad Three Ken received a “C” on his composition, but it was “some of his best work of the year,” said Mr. Sowders. His Quad Four project was on the cheetah. (He was in the group of three with Jeremy.) His report was copied directly out of the encyclopedia. His strongest area was Quad Three, guided practice, and a right-brain activity. One important specific difference, he felt, was the use of a wider variety of media with his students. His favorite quad to teach was Quad Two, because, “it allowed me to present so many different things: the films, the maps, the collage.” He choice indicates his own preference for visual information and right-brain activities. Mr. Sowders’ least favorite to teach was Quad Four, because of the questions it posed about how to evaluate each student. He was specifically concerned about how to evaluate Deanna’s drum project. Perhaps in future projects more specific criteria or standards could be developed. Mr. Sowders believes the right-brain activities worked really well. “The kids liked the maps and the films,” he said.

Student reaction to the 4MAT lesson
Throughout the whole series of lessons, the general student reaction was positive and “pretty enthusiastic,” said Mr. Sowders. “I think these kids really learned a lot.” Jeremy as well as other students learned more than they would have out of the book because of the varied activities, said Mr. Sowder. Other students, like Cori Jo, found something they could really run with. For Jessica, building the drum was truly a highlight of the year for her, Mr. Sowder said. Changes were noted by Mr. Sowders in student involvement, understanding and enthusiasm. Areas where less change was noted were Skills Focus and Creativity.

ANALYSIS
Mr. Sowders observed that generally, the low achievers were weaker in their writing skills than the high achievers. We noticed, however, that three of the four low achievers (Jeremy, Deanna and Ken) did their best writing work of the year during the 4MAT lesson. Why was this? After a careful analysis of the content of the compositions, we noticed that most of the information came from the visual images presented in class. Mr. Sowders used a lot more short movies and visuals, such as the collage and the maps, than usual. Africa is such a big and diverse place that he had a great selection of audiovisual materials available to use in the classroom. These papers were descriptions of what these students had seen. We determined that these students had very strong visual memories, and that feeding this preference actually helped these students learn better. In a post-project interview with Mr. Melton, Mr. Sowders discussed his reactions to 4MAT, his students’ reaction to 4MAT, and his reaction to the 4MAT lesson he created. Mr. Sowders’ reaction to the 4MAT lesson Mr. Sowders said the best general difference he noted from his usual teaching was a much more organized presentation. “I could see more of a purpose for organizing my teaching,” he said. “As a rule, I do most of these things, but I liked having a pattern to follow.”

Mr. Sowders’ reaction to 4MAT
This unit’s greatest strength was the wide variety of media used in Quad Two: film, art, collage, lecture, books, said Mr. Sowders. The unit’s greatest weakness, and the most difficult aspect for him, was his inability to evaluate better than he wanted to, particularly in Quad Four. He felt the need to evaluate each activity, but a lot of them he said he couldn’t evaluate. Mr. Sowders would like to know more about using peer evaluation in the classroom. He also would like to get more in-depth knowledge of 4MAT. The changes needed in this lesson, says Mr. Sowders, include: ̈ Plenty of preparation time is needed to prepare future 4MAT lessons. ̈ More time with journals and writing. ̈ Identify more specifically evaluation criteria for group participation activities.

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Critical Issues THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4MAT LESSON DESIGN
̈ Identify more specifically the evaluation criteria for Quads One and Two. ̈ Develop clear student expectations and criteria for students. ̈ Decide how much evaluation is really necessary. Presenting the information in all four learning styles with fewer evaluation points would make this unit easier to deliver. The most important thing for Mr. Sowders to do now, he says, is go back and read more about 4MAT, and practice with it more. Mr. Sowders found it is most useful to work with another teacher when developing a 4MAT lesson. Having someone to work with was invaluable, he said. Collaborative brainstorming is essential to developing a good 4MAT lesson. While there is nobody in his building who is familiar with 4MAT, Sowders believes anyone in his building could help him brainstorm. The Africa lesson was put together in two weeks time, which wasn’t enough time working by himself, said Mr. Sowders. Ideally he would have someone to work with and about three months lead time to do the research, type up everything, and order films.

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Modifications to the wheel developed by other elementary teachers helped make 4MAT more useful in planning activities. Mr. Sowders also believes that given a longer period of time using 4MAT, more learning styles preferences would emerge. While 4MAT appears to help low achievers learn, it also provides variety for everyone in the class. It also gives the teacher an effective organizational plan to follow.

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Contextual Learning BY ROB MELTON

Lesson Plan Design
for all learning styles using both sides of the brain
INTRODUCTION
Integrating what we know about learning styles and how the brain works with how we teach affords us the best opportunity to begin addressing the needs of all learners in our schools, including “at risk” students. Most instruction in today’s high school is addressed to the analytic learner. Schools validate the way analytic learners learn, but about 70% of our students are not Analytic Learners, according to recent research (Bernice McCarthy 1979, 1983, 1985, 1987). Only the analytic learners get the kind of teaching they need. The other three types are expected to learn in the analytic mode. The process of learning that best actualizes development, the kind of learning that best aids real growth, requires interaction that confronts and resolves. It requires movement from concrete to abstract, from reflective to active. Virtually all students can be successful if they have a chance to learn in their preferred learning style. This article examines teaching to the learning cycle while addressing a person’s modality and brain dominance. Learning style researchers in fields ranging from psychology to management training have devised various ways to break down indidivual learning styles, but it is generally agreed there are two major categories of how we learn (DePorter 1992): First, how we perceive information most easily (modality), and second, how we organize and process that information (brain dominance). A person’s learning style is a combination of how a person perceives, then organizes and processes information. time, unless special care is taken to present it in their preferred mode. For these people, knowing their best learning modality can mean the difference between success and failure. The remaining 7 percent have difficulty learning due to external causes. Knowing there are differences between people begins to explain things like why someone may have problems understanding and communicating with certain people but not with others, and why certain people handle some situations more easily than others. One simple way to discover a person’s preferred modality is to listen for clues in their speech (DePorter 1992). If they make comments such as “That looks right to me,” or “I get the picture,” then they are probably a visual learner. If they say “That sounds right to me,” or “That rings a bell,” they are most likely an auditory learner. If they say, “This is too much of a hassle,” or “Hang in there,” they are probably a kinesthetic learner. By noticing these process words, a person can decipher the modalities of others and play to them most effectively. Matching modalities is a good way to create rapport and an atmosphere of understanding. Knowing the boss is visual means a person is more likely to get their point across if they usual visual materials such as slides and handouts in a presentation.

Brain Dominance
A person’s brain dominance can be either RightMode Dominant (Creative) or Lef-Mode Dominant (Logical). The research of Sperry (1973) and others on rightand left-hemisphere brain functions reveal that the two halves of the brain process information differently, and that both hemispheres are equally important. The right hemisphere sees relationships and connections. It functions in a simultaneous, nonverbal way. It takes in the whole and seeks patterns and spatial coherence. According to McCarthy (1987):
Right-mode activities emphasize process. As such they are open-ended: the result is created by the learner. They require that the learner express her/

Modality
A person’s modality can be visual, auditory or kinesthetic (V-A-K). Even though people can learn in all three modalities to some degree, most prefer one over the other two. About 73 percent are able to learn effectively enough visually, auditorily and kinesthetically that they don’t need any special attention (Grinder 1991). About 20 percent prefer one of the modalities over the other two so strongly that they struggle to understand the instructions most of the

Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
himself. They generally involve modalities other than words and numbers (what we call abstract symbolic), including activities involving auditory, visual and kinesthetic techniques.

TECHNIQUES THAT FAVOR THE RIGHT MODE

The left hemisphere names and classifies. It functions in a linear, step-by-step fashion. It likes clear logic presented without the confusion of ambiguity or paradox. According to McCarthy (1987):
Left-mode activities have an emphasis on product. Generally that product is requested by the teacher through a teacher-directed assignment, with specific guidelines as to how the objectives will be reached. Schools heavily emphasize left-mode activities, and teachers are comfortable with them. Of course, they are easy to evaluate. But when learners are limited to primarily left-mode activities, a valuable part of learning is inhibited, the kind of information processing we refer to as right mode.

McCarthy’s 4MAT model stresses whole brain learning, which she defines as separate right and left mode activities for each type of learners. Those who have developed other teaching models have proposed the possibility of integrated brain activities for each quadrant. For integrated activities to work, teachers must first make sure that all learners are capable of using their right and left brain together. One way to assure that students are using both their brains together is to teach them a series of brain exercises. Brain Gym®, developed by Paul and Gail Dennison, helps learners integrate right and left hemispheres before working on integrated activities each day. Brain Gym is a series of quick and energizing activities that effectively prepares any learner for specific thinking and coordination skills. The Dennsion’s Educational Kinesiology Foundation has done remarkable work with learning disabled and at-risk students using movement exercises that reestablish the natural learning pattern. There are 25 specific movements that can be combined in different ways to focus on specific goals: Reading Skills, Writing and Math Skills, Independent Learning Skills, Personal Ecology Skills and Self Awareness Skills. Dennison (1989) reports that:
When learning is acquired under stress, the lateralized brain recalls only the one-sided (low-gear) aspects of that learning [Logical or Creative]. When this situation is repeated and reinforced, the learning is anchored to stress and the “teachable moment” for integration is lost. Brain Gym movements restablish the natural learning pattern and return automatic, integrated movement to a “high gear” state. …If we rely too much on one side alone, instead

̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈

Patterning Metaphors Mind mapping Visualization Imagery All Forms of Poetry All Fine Arts Modalities: Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic Mixed Modalities Analogies The Use of Paradox Connections of All Kinds Most Forms of Doing Building Role-playing Creative Dramatics Creative Writing Clustering Movement Dance All Synthesis Geometry (probably all mathematical conceptualizing Spatial Relationships of All Kinds Demonstrations Experiments Configurations All Activities in Which Intuition Is Honored —McCarthy, 1987

of two sides together, we place unnecessary and stressful demands upon our whole system. We call this the “switched off” state. …One of the most common reasons that children switch off is excessive involvement in two-dimensional activities (those that involve a flat surface such as TV, video games and reading). If these activities occur before the child has developed the visual skills necessary to shift back to the three-dimensional vision of everyday living, or if they lull him into ignoring his depth perception skills, chronic stress may result. Even under such stress, learning continues. Once this switched-off pattern is learned, it becomes difficult to “unlearn.” The child becomes stuck in a one-sided response. Physical or emotional trauma, lack of water or nourishing foods and excessive exposure to environmental pollutants are among other causes of switching off. Excessive sitting, which interferes with the natural use of back and lef muscles, is another modern

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
challenge to integration. Both activity and relaxation are natural states for muscles. When we cannot access either activity or relaxation, stress results. Piaget’s concrete step (the pre-abstract), which is a stage in cognition where one begins to cognitively see and manipulate the physical world, and confused it with the real, felt gusto and earnestness of whole knowing, affective, gestalt and individually unique. We have misapplied a definition of a cognitive step (albeit a most necessary one) to a process of knowing that is the very lens of personhood itself. Somehow the concrete and active dimensions of knowing have been neglected. Yet without the concrete, without the real, what is there to abstract about?

The Four Learner Styles
In examining the learning styles research of Anita Simon and Claudia Byram (1977), Anthony Gregorc (1979), David Merrill and Roger Reid (1981), Morton Hunt (1982), Gordon Lawrence (1982), David A. Kolb (1984), McCarthy, and others, four styles of learners consistently emerge. Gregorc was the first to develop a model based on his studies that identify two possibilities of brain dominance: concrete and abstract perception, and sequential (linear) and random (nonlinear) ordering abilities. These can be combined into four combinations of clustered behaviors that form a person’s thinking style. Gregorc called these styles concrete sequential, abstract sequential, concrete random and abstract random. Kolb, who developed experiential learning theory, found that it is the combination of how we perceive and how we process that forms our most comfortable way to learn. Kolb calls the four learning styles groups Convergers, Divergers, Assimilators and Accomodators. Kolb’s experiential learning theory provides a framework for beginning to address the needs of all learners. He defines learning as “the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.” The implications of this experiential perspective clearly advocate a process as opposed to content, that knowledge is a process rather than an absolute, that there is a transformation of experience (the person’s reality), and that the learner and knowledge are interconnected. McCarthy collectively refers to them as Imaginative Learners, Analytic Learners, Common Sense Learners, and Dynamic Learners. The problem with traditional instruction, according to McCarthy, is that it fails to take into account the cyclical nature of learning:
Learning is a continuous process grounded in experience. Knowledge is continuously interacting with experience. Equal emphasis is placed on the cycle and the stages of development. Educators have focused on Piaget’s age-related stages (The Ladder) and neglected the process (The Cycle). Educators have accorded the reflective and the abstract processes higher honors than the concrete and the active. [Analytic Learners] are not at higher stages of development because they prefer the separate knowing of theory over the connected knowing of experience. We have misunderstood the meaning of concrete. Many have taken

Within each of the four learning style quadrants, students engage in both right-brain and left-brain activities. All students, whatever their learning styles, get a chance to “shine” 25% of the time. Because each student perceives and processes information in different ways, only one of the four learning styles will be most comfortable for that student, where success comes easily. In teaching to the learning cycle, the teacher’s role changes from Motivator to Informer to Coach to Evaluator/Remediator. All four types of learners are allowed to use their most comfortable learning style at some point during a lesson, and benefit from developing other learning skills as they proceed through the other three learning style quadrants. In 1991, I was teaching a sophomore English class that was not learning well. Traditional solutions failed me. Fortunately, I had the opportunity to participate in an in-service training program to learn how to teach contextual learning. After learning how to preparing a contextual learning unit, I tried using the system to teach Julius Caesar to my sophomore English class. I had each student identify their major learning style and explained that some of them would have to wait until the very end of the lesson to learn in their preferred learning style. Every day, I reminded them where we were in the cycle so they would know we were on course. The results were amazing: Everyone was participating, paying attention, and waiting for their turn to shine. After we went through the entire cycle, I asked them to prepare written responses evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the experiences they had using the four different learning styles. Two responses typify the success of the strategy. One student, Julie Lairson (an Assimilator), said she loved the part of the lesson where I lectured about the basic concepts and explained the structure and historical background of Julius Caesar. “But I really didn’t like the part where we had to act out a scene from the play. That seemed pretty silly,” she said.

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
Another student, Paul Case (an Accomodator), had a different opinion. He said: “You know, Mr. Melton, I hated it when you were lecturing to the class about Julius Caesar, but I learned so much acting in the play. I really didn’t understand anything that was going on until a week before we had to do our scene before the class. All of a sudden I realized I had to be prepared, and I started wondering ‘What kind of costume would Julius Caesar wear? How would he talk? What was his life like? Who were his friends and enemies? How do you stage a death?’” He went on to say he really learned a lot in that week. I couldn’t believe it. Every student had a quality learning experience and felt good about themselves! I was particulary pleased because a good number of these students fit Henry Levin’s definition of “at-risk” students. • classrooms where students are led to the delight of self-discovery • classrooms where alertness is fostered by teaching to all four learning styles using right and left mode techniques. • classrooms that not only honor, but also celebrate the diversities of our students.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES
Major Premises (McCarthy 1987) 1. Human beings perceive and process information in different ways. The combinations formed by our own perceiving and processing techniques form our unique learning styles. 2. There are four major identifiable learning styles. They are all equally valuable. Students need to be comfortable about their own unique learning style. Type One Learners are primarily interested in personal meaning. Teachers need to Create a Reason. Type Two Learners are primarily interested in the facts as they lead to conceptual understanding. Teachers need to Give Them the Facts that deepen understanding. Type Three Learners are primarily interested in how things work. Teachers need to Let Them Try It. Type Four Learners are primarily interested in self discovery. Teachers need to Let Them Teach It to Themselves and to Others. 3. All students need to be taught in all four ways, in order to be comfortable and successful part of the time while being stretched to develop other learning abilities. All students will “shine” at different places in the learning cycle, so they will learn from each other. 4. The teacher moves through the learning cycle in sequence, teaching in all four modes and incorporating the four combinations of characteristics. The sequence is a natural learning progression. 5. Each of the four learning styles needs to be taught with both right- and left-mode processing techniques. The right-mode dominant students will be comfortable half of the time and will learn to adapt to the other half of the time. The left-mode dominant students will be comfortable half of the time and will learn to adapt the other half of the time. 6. The development and integration of all four styles of learning and the development and integration of both right- and left-mode processing skills should be a major goal of education. 7. Students will come to accept their strengths and learn to capitalize on them, while developing a healthy respect for the uniqueness of others, and furthering their ability to learn in alternative modes without the pressure of “being wrong.” 8. The more comfortable they are about who they are, the more freely they learn from others.

KEY GOAL/VISION
All students will develop confidence as lifelong learners, but particularly at-risk students, as a result of teaching to their learning styles with right- and left-mode techniques. When someone is teaching us in our most comfortable style, we learn. But more importantly, we feel good about ourselves. Each of the four different learning styles, and the two halves of the brain, will be taught in rotation. In each of the four quadrants, there will be right-brain and left-brain activities. Schools do not value the sensing/feeling approach (except with very small children); therefore, it is neglected and sometimes downright discouraged. Learning is not all cognitive. It is not all theoretical. There is more to growing up than increasing rationality. Teaching to all learners is a cyclical process. As you complete one cycle, the cycle begins again, with new, richer experiences in ever-widening spirals. Teaching to the learning cycle requires major attitudinal shifts in the way we think and feel about teaching. These attitudinal shifts are necessary in order to produce: • classrooms that give all students an equal chance to learn; • classrooms where student motivation is considered the primary task of the teacher; • classrooms where important concepts form the curricula base; • classrooms where the skills that are taught are related to concepts and have immediate usefulness

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
The nature of humanness is to adapt: adaptation occurs between the learner and the learning, between the self and the group, between actual development and potential development. Of such processes, meaning is made. It is the interaction between the learner and the learning that is important. People both create themselves and are created by their experience through the choices they make and the resulting patterns created by those choices. Teaching to the learning cycle teaches students to learn in all four ways: from experience to reflection to conceptualization to experimentation and back to experience. Because students approach learning from different centers of focus, we must teach to all of them. The learning cycle process is more important than any one segment of the lesson. The movement around the circle includes all learners, engaging them and stretching them, while leading them to expertise in multiple ways of learning. The movement is a constant balancing from subject to object and back again. By valuing all the different kinds of learners, they will begin to develop the skills that do not come to them naturally, without guilt or defensiveness. They will become the best of who they are. We need to go “around the circle” in a spiral form of increasing complexity, granting each the opportunity to refine her/his best style while experiencing and developing alternative styles. In the process of going around the circle, students will be exposed to a variety of teaching strategies, including cooperative learning, concept development strategies, QARs, and many others. The learning cycle is an inclusive model. This is its strength. It does not require that you give up anything. It begins in the classroom, but you can add school-wide reforms and it still works. You could overlay William Glasser’s Quality School (1992), for example, or Ted Sizer’s Essential Schools. It addresses the major concerns of Barbara Means, et al. (1991) in addressing the needs of “at risk” students. Many of the studies used by McCarthy to develop her theoretical model of instruction have been used by others successfully. Bobbi Porter (1992) used the same learning styles research to develop her highly successful SuperCamp program for at-risk students in 1981. Her book Quantum Learning details much of this information in a user-friendly way. “shine” at different places in the learning cycle, so they will learn from each other.

ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE
1. Teachers the must be trained to use the learning cycle in their teaching. 2. Planned Course Statements should be reviewed to identify the key concepts of each course and the learner outcomes, a necessary first step in using the learning cycle. This is one of the most difficult problems teachers face in trying to develop learning cycle lessons. 3. Teachers who are attempting to implement learning cycle lessons need to meet regularly over a prolonged period of time (one year or more) to help each other work out the lessons. A regular weekly time should be set aside for teachers to collaboratively work with each other to develop their lesson plans. The first quadrant, integrating experience with self, is one of the most difficult to create. Teachers need to discuss their ideas with others. The teacher’s role changes from Motivator/ Witness to Teacher to Coach to Evaluator/ Remediator throughout the cycle. Teachers need the support and encouragement to take risks, and to share with others their own successes and failures. Progress is measured in small steps. 4. Planning team members should be available to act as peer coaches throughout the year for teachers who are interested in developing their skill and ability in delivering a learning cycle lesson. Release time would be made available to teachers willing to serve as peer coaches. 5. Students are not separated into groups by learning style because all learners benefit from participating in all the different learning styles. The model presupposes an organic sequence of learning from experience to reflection to conceptualization to experimentation. In this way, all students, whatever their learning styles, get a chance to shine 25% of the time. Writes McCarthy:
If we divide our students into four groups, and teach them only their way, they will be very good in their own quadrants … but they will not develop other learning skills. If the Imaginative Learners learn only how to refine their natural gifts of experiencing and reflecting … they will lack the necessary ability to analyze and try out what they figure out. If the Analytic Learners learn only how to refine their natural gifts of conceptualizing and reflecting …

CONCEPT OF THE STUDENT
Virtually all students can be successful. All students will develop confidence as lifelong learners as a result of teaching to their learning styles with right- and left-mode techniques. All students will

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
they will lack the common sense that comes from doing and experiencing. If the Common Sense Learners learn only how to refine their natural gifts of conceptualizing and experimenting … they will lack the ability to experience life and reflect on what they have learned. If the Dynamic Learners learn only how to refine their natural gifts of experiencing and experimenting … they will lack the organizational skills that come with analysis and reflection. It seems paradoxical, but when we feel good about the way we learn, when we succeed in what we try, we start paying attention to how other people learn. Be begin reaching into other styles.

6. Through simple tests such as those in Porter’s Quantum Learning, students should become familiar with their preferred learning style as well as the basic structure of a learning cycle lesson. Students must know their turn will come in a predictable fashion.

SUPPORTING RESEARCH
This theory is based on the best available research on learning styles and brain hemisphericity research. Ongoing, professional development for teachers is required, both in the use of learning cycle lessons and in the content areas. A cohesive long-range staff development program is needed that appeals to the deepest personal values of professional advancement, deepens understanding of the issues involved in presenting content at conceptual levels, has immediate classroom usefulness, engages a sense of delight, and has the flexibility to be adapted to different school districts, different faculties, different disciplines and different students. Research Background. Piaget (1969) studied how thinking is developed. He approached his study as a biologist. Every living organism contains its own biological structure. This living structure stands in active relationship to its environment and has knowledge of that environment. Piaget’s use of the term “knowledge” is broader than mere intellectual knowledge and includes certain internal principles which manifest themselves behaviorally. These regulate how an organism functions with its environment. In other words, the internal structure and the external function are two sides of the same coin. Piaget identified three levels of internal principles which regulate how an organism functions with its environment. All three levels are part of all human knowledge. There are no neat separations, since they overlap in many instances. In 1971, Dr. David Kolb introduced his experien-

tial learning theory, which is conceived as a four-stage cycle: 1) immediate concrete experience is the basis for 2) observation and reflection; 3) these observations are assimilated into a “theory” from which new implications for action can be deduced; 4) these implications or hypotheses then serve as guides in acting to create new experiences. In other words, the effective learner relies on four different learning modes — Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and Active Experimentation. That is, learners must be able to involve themselves fully, openly and without bias in new experiences, they must be able to reflect on and observe these experiences from many perspectives, they must be able to create concepts that integrate their observations into logically sound theories, and they must be able to use these theories to make decisions and solve problems. It is unlikely that a person’s learning style will be described accurately by just one of the preceding terms. This is because each person’s learning style is a combination of the four basic learning modes. The following summary of the four basic learning style types is based on both on Kolb’s research and clinical observation of these patterns of Learning Style Inventory scores:
Converger. The Converger’s dominant learning abilities are Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation. This person’s greatest strength lies in the practical application of ideas. A person with this style seems to do best in those situations like conventional intelligence tests where there is a single correct answer or solution to a question or problem. This person’s knowledge is organized in such a way that through hypothetical-deductive reasoning, this person can focus in on specific problems. Research on this style of learning shows that Convergers are relatively unemotional, prefering to deal with things rather than people. They tend to have narrow technical interets, and choose to specialize in the physical sicences. This learning style is characteristic of many engineers. Diverger. The Diverger has the opposite learning strengths of the converger. This person is best at Concrete Experience and Reflective Observation. This person’s greatest strength lies in imaginative ability. This person excels in the ability to view concrete situations from many perspectives. We have labelled this style “diverger” because a person with this style performs better in situations that call for generation of ideas such as a “brainstorming” idea session. Research shows that Divergers are interested in people and tend to be imaginative and emotional. They have broad cultural interests and tend to specialize in the arts. This style is characteristic of individuals from humanities and liberal arts backgrounds. Counselors, organization development specialists and personnel

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
managers tend to be characterized by this learning style. Assimilator. The Assimilator’s dominant learning abilities are Abstract Conceptualization and Reflective Observation. This person’s greatest strength lies in the ability to create theoretical models. This person excels in inductive reasoning and in assimilating disparate observations into an integrated explanation. This person, like the converger, is less interested in people and more concerned with abstract concepts, but is less concerned with the practical use of theories. For this person it is more important that the theory be logically sound and precise; in a situation where a theory or plan does not fit the “facts,” the Assimilator would be likely to disregard or re-examine the facts. As a result, this learning style is more characteristic of the basic sciences and mathematics rather than the applied sciences. In organizations this learning style is found most often in the research and planning departments. Accomodator. The Accomodator has the opposite learning strengths of the Assimilator. This person is best at Concrete Experience and Active Experimentation. This person’s greatest strength lies in doing things — in carrying out plans and experiments — and involving oneself in new experiences. This person tends to be more of a risk-taker than people with the other three learning styles. We have labelled this person Accomodator because this person tends to excel in those situations where one must adapt oneself to specific immediate circumstances. In situations where a theory or plan does not fit the “facts,” this person will most likely discard the plan or theory. This person tends to solve problems in an intuitive trial and error manner, relying heavily on other people for information rather than on one’s own analytic ability. The Accomodator is at ease with people but is sometimes seen as impatient and pushy. This person’s educational background is often in technical or practical fields such as business. In organizations, people with this learning style are found in “actionoriented” jobs, often in marketing or sales.

areas, they cam up with almost perfectly parallel learning schemas: • In his book Psychological Types, Carl Jung explored the differences in the way people perceive and process information. He defined four categories: Feelers, Thinkers, Sensors, and Intuitors. • Based on the work of Isabel Myers, Lawrence describes 16 different types of learners formed by the four dimensions of Carl Jung: Extrovert to Introvert, a person’s natural interests; Thinking to Feeling, a person’s values and commitments; Sensation to Intuition, a person’s preference for the concrete or the abstract and Judgment to Perception, a person’s work habits. • Simon and Byram also adapted Jung’s work and formed the following descriptions of four student types: The Feeler Student, The Thinker Student, The Sensor Student, and the Intuitor Student. • Anthony Gregorc, professor of curriculum and instruction at the University of Connecticut, has conducted research into learning styles for many years. His investigative studies support two sets of dualities: concrete and abstract perception, and sequential (linear) and random (non-linear) ordering abilities. The combinations of these two sets manifest themselves in clustered behaviors labeled Abstract Random and Abstract Sequential, and Concrete Sequential and Concrete Random. • David Merrill of Personnel Predictions, a Denverbased firm, is in the field of management training. His work on classifying “social styles” is of great value to educators. Dr. Merrill’s descriptions have evolved over 20 years of study. Merrill has a construct for “social effects of behavior patterns” that covers a spectrum of possible responses. From this construct he has evolved these four descriptions: Amiable, Analytical, Driver, Expressive. • Valerie Hunt is an author, educator and founder of The Creative Movement Laboratory at UCLA in 1967. Hunt’s identification of four “body tension” patterns is striking in its relationship to learning style research: Assister (absorbs reality), Posturer (forms reality), Resistor (Edits reality), Percerverator (Enriches reality). • Bernice McCarthy’s work grew out of a six-year experiment at a suburban Chicago high school. The learning styles she classified are strikingly

And so Kolb found that it is the combination of how we perceive and how we process that forms the uniqueness of our own learning style, our most comfortable way to learn. Kolb’s research represented a breakthrough because it formulated learning style findings into model form. But Kolb’s contribution did not end with the model. He went on to analyze the different types of learners. He notes that our dominant learning abilities are the “result of our hereditary equipment, our particular past life experiences, and the demands of our present environment.” The findings of learning style researchers are strikingly similar. In fields ranging from psychology to management training, researchers have made nearly the same discoveries. Though they worked separately, with different techniques, in different

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
similar to the finds of the other researchers: Type One Learner (Imaginative Learners), Type Two Learner (Analytic Learners), Type Three Learner (Common Sense Learners), and Type Four Learner (Dynamic Learners). All four styles of learning are equally valuable. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. If you’re Type One, Two, Three or Four, that is the most comfortable place for you to be. That is your best learning style. It is evident that researchers from diverse fields are identifying similar strands. Running through the different descriptions of perceiving and processing are many of the same conceptual insights. Kolb’s model is important not only because he has given us parameters for classifying different learning styles, but also because the model presupposes an organic sequence of learning from experience to reflection to conceptualization to experimentation. Research on right and left brain functions began with Dr. Roger Sperry during the 1950s. Dr. Sperry conducted a series of animal studies in which the corpus callosum, a thick nerve cable composed of nerve fibers that cross-connect the two cerebral hemishperes, was severed. The results were amazing. There was no great change in behavior. Their habits, gaits, and coordination remained unchanged following the surgery, but when the animals were trained to do specific tasks, they were found to have two independent minds, each with its own recognition, memory and decision system. In the 1960s, similar operations were performed on a limited number of human patients by two neurosurgeons. A series of subtle and ingenious tests were then devised by Sperry and his associates to find out what was now going on in the two separated hemispheres. As with the animals, two separate minds could be demonstrated. the major findings were (Sperry 1973):
1. The two halves of the brain, right and left hemispheres, process information differently. 2. In the split-brain patient, there seem to be two different people up there, each with his/her favorite ways of processing information, each with a different mode of thinking 3. Both hemispheres are equally important.

they are given in-school time for that process. Teachers are enormously interested in their profession. When teachers talk to other teachers about teaching, significant leaps in professionalism occur. McCarthy et al. (1987) found the research showing that principals are the key to school excellence and school selfrenewal to be absolutely true. Hall, Loucks and their coolleagues at the Texas R&D Center formulated CBAM from Frances Fuller’s work that examined the changing concerns of undergraduate teachers as they moved through teacher preparation. Hall and Loucks expanded these concerns to seven stages that describe “certain perceptions and satisfactions about innovations and the change process. Implicit in the CBAM Model are:
1. Change is a process that takes time and is achieved in stages. 2. The individual must be the primary target. 3. Change is highly personal. 4. Stages of change involve both perceptions and feelings of individuals concerning innovation, as well as their skill in its use. 5. Staff developers need to diagnose their clients’ location in the change process and assess the state of change as they adapt strategies along the way.

The stages of concern about innovation are: Awareness, Information, Personal, Management, Consequence, Collaboration, and Refocusing. For the purpose of staff training, staff would move through the learning cycle, with each stage now labeled for teachers as Understanding, Internalizing, Operationalizing, and Evaluating.

WHAT’S NOT ADDRESSED
While this theory addresses much of the “at-risk” population by beginning to teach to alternative learning styles using right and left mode techniques, it may not directly address the needs of “at-risk” students who speak English as a second language, or have certain learning disabilities, or students who would benefit from a more affective, individualistic model such as Glasser’s noncoercive school. It should be pointed out, however, that Glasser’s Quality School, or Sizer’s Coalition of Essential Schools, or any other school improvement plan, would work well with the learning cycle lesson plan design. Teaching to the learning cycle lesson plan design allows teachers to use a wide variety of teaching strategies regularly throughout the cycle.

IMPLEMENTATION
Staff development is the facilitation of growth. The primary way to help teachers enlarge their instructional techniques is peer coaching, according to McCarthy. Peer coaching seems to work best when teachers choose their own learning partners and when

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE
WORKS CITED
De Bono, Edward. Lateral Thinking. New York: Harper and Row, 1970. Dennison, Paul E. and Gail Dennison. Brain Gym® Handbook. Glendale, Calif.: Educational Kinesiology Foundation, 1989. Dennison, Paul E. and Gail Dennison. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning. Glendale, Calif.: Educational Kinesiology Foundation, 1986. DePorter, Bobbi. Quantum Learning: Unleashing The Genius In You. New York: Dell Publishing, 1992. Edwards, Betty. Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Perigee Books, 1989. Glasser, William. The Quality School. 2nd, expanded ed. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1992. Gregorc, Anthony F. “Learning/Teaching Styles: Their Nature and Effects.” Student Learning Styles: Diagnosing and Prescribing Programs. Virginia: National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1979. Grinder, Michael. Righting the Educational Conveyer Belt. Portland, Ore.: Metamorphous Press, 1991. Hunt, Morton. The Universe Within. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1982. Kolb, David A. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984. Lawrence, Gordon. People Types and Tiger Stripes: A Practical Guide to Learning Styles. 2nd ed. Gainesville, Florida: Center for Applications of Psychological Types, Inc., 1982 McCarthy, Bernice. Learning Styles: Identification and Matching Teaching Formats. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 1979. McCarthy, Bernice. 4MAT in Action. Barrington, IL: Excel, Inc., 1983. McCarthy, Bernice. 4MAT and Science: Towards Wholeness in Science Education. Barrington, IL: Excel, Inc., 1985. McCarthy, Bernice. The 4MAT System: Teaching to Learning Styles with Right/Left Mode Techniques. Barrington, IL: Excel, Inc., 1987. McCarthy, Bernice, Susan Leflar and Mary Colgan McNamara. The 4MAT Workbook: Guided Practice in 4MAT Lesson and Unit Planning. Barrington, IL: Excel, Inc., 1987. Means, Barbara, Carol Chelemer, and Michael S. Knapp. Teaching Advanced Skills to At-Risk Students: Views from Research and Practice. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 1991. Merrill, David W., and Roger H. Reid. Personal Styles and Effective Performance. Radnor, Pennsylvania: Chilton Book Company, 1981. Piaget, Jean and B. Inhelder. The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books, 1969. Simon, Anita and Claudia Byram. You’ve Got to Reach ‘Em to Teach ‘Em. Dallas, Texas: T. A. Press, 1977. Sperry, Roger W. “Lateral Specialization of Cerebral Function in the Surgically Separated Hemispheres.” The Psychophysiology of Thinking. Ed. F. J. McGuigan and R. A. Schoonover. New York: Academic Press, 1973. Von Oech, Roger. A Whack on the Side of the Head. New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1990.

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Lesson Plan Design
for all learning styles using both sides of the brain
THE PROCESS QUESTIONS LEARNERS ASK WHY ARE WE LEARNING THIS? WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME?
• Give them a reason to get engaged • Anticipatory set • Discussion based on personal experiences

Motivate
GROUP EXPERIENCE: Brainstorm, hands on, simulations. Hook students into the content (Right-brain; VisualAuditory, Kinesthetic) GROUP ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE: Discussion regarding the experience (Left-brain)

Inform
FURTHER EXPLORATION OF CONTENT: Group experiences, media to provide images; teacher helps provide (Right-brain; V-A-K) TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS: Lecture, reading, textbook, teacher directed. (Left-brain)

WHAT IS IT WE ARE SUPPOSED TO LEARN? WHAT DOES THIS INFORMATION MEAN?
• Give them information, goals, concepts to be applied • Present as the authority • Reflection to digest facts

Coach
REVIEW CONCEPTS: Worksheets, writing to reinforce new concepts. (Leftbrain) STUDENTS USE INFORMATION: Stories, drawings, skits, mess around. Add creativity to practice. (Right-brain; V-A-K)

HOW DO WE USE THIS INFORMATION?
• Coach them — provide opportunities to use the information • Guided/independent practice • Useful activities to translate facts into models, designs, practical application

Integrate
DESIGN FINAL PROJECT: Planning, contracting. Must be personal in nature. (Left-brain) SHARE PROJECT: Present report, play, demonstration. Sharing to demonstrate personal integration. (Right-brain; V-A-K)

HOW COULD WE APPLY THIS INFORMATION TO OUR OWN LIVES? WHAT WOULD DO WITH IT?
• Let them personalize information • Provide a variety of options to choose from • Concrete applications with personal connections

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Contextual Learning TEACHING THE LEARNING CYCLE LESSONTO DESIGN WORKSHEET
Teacher ____________________________________________ Grade _____________________ Unit _________________________________________ Subject/Skill _____________________ Goal/Performance objective _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Inform
FURTHER EXPLORATION OF CONTENT: Group experiences, media to provide images; teacher helps provide TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS: Lecture, reading, textbook, teacher directed. RESOURCES:

BEGIN HERE WITH STEP TWO
• First, define the concept/goal/objective. (It must be of significant value.) What skills/knowledge are you teaching and why? What other areas of life and learning is it related to? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ •Identify resources available: video, film, books, articles __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Motivate
GROUP EXPERIENCE: Brainstorm, hands on, simulations. Hook students into the content GROUP ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE: Discussion regarding the experience RESOURCES:

NEXT, GO BACK TO STEP ONE
• Second, state the immediate personal value that is inherent in the concept for ALL students now. What interesting issues are involved? How could they use the knowledge in their life? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Contextual Learning TEACHING THE LEARNING CYCLE LESSONTO DESIGN WORKSHEET
Teacher ____________________________________________ Grade _____________________ Unit _________________________________________ Subject/Skill _____________________ Goal/Performance objective _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ THEN GO ON TO STEP THREE
• What skills will be taught/improved? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ • And transferable to what other areas of learning? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Coach
REVIEW CONCEPTS: Worksheets, writing to reinforce new concepts. STUDENTS USE INFORMATION: Stories, drawings, skits, mess around. Add creativity to practice. RESOURCES:

Integrate
DESIGN FINAL PROJECT: Planning, contracting. Must be personal in nature. SHARE PROJECT: Present report, play, demonstration. Sharing to demonstrate personal integration. RESOURCES:

FINALLY, FINISH WITH STEP FOUR
• Leading to what unque, personal student adaptations? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ • And raising questions about? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Contextual Learning LESSON DESIGN WINDOW WORKSHEET
Subject ________________________________ Unit ____________________________________ Grade Level __________________________ Teacher _______________________________ Lesson/Unit Objective _______________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

Motivate
GROUP EXPERIENCE: Brainstorm, hands on, simulations. Hook students into the content

R
V-A-K

Inform
FURTHER EXPLORATION OF CONTENT: Group experiences, media to provide images; teacher helps provide

R
V-A-K

GROUP ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE: Discussion regarding the experience

Coach

REVIEW CONCEPTS: Worksheets, writing to reinforce new concepts.

STUDENTS USE INFORMATION: Stories, drawings, skits, mess around. Add creativity to practice.

12 34
L
TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS: Lecture, reading, textbook, teacher directed.

L

WHY WHAT

L

Integrate

DESIGN FINAL PROJECT: Planning, contracting. Must be personal in nature.

L

R

V-A-K

SHARE PROJECT: Present report, play, demonstration. Sharing to demonstrate personal integration.

R
V-A-K

HOW IF

Contextual Learning TEACHING THE LEARNING CYCLE LESSONTO DESIGN WORKSHEET
Teacher _______________________________ Grade _________________________________ Unit ____________________________________ Subject/Skill __________________________ Goal/performance objective ________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

STUDENT-CENTERED

Motivate
GROUP EXPERIENCE: Brainstorm, hands on, simulations. Hook students into the content _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ GROUP ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE: Discussion regarding the experience _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Contextual Learning TEACHING THE LEARNING CYCLE LESSONTO DESIGN WORKSHEET
Teacher _______________________________ Grade _________________________________ Unit ____________________________________ Subject/Skill __________________________ Goal/performance objective ________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

TEACHER-DIRECTED

Inform
FURTHER EXPLORATION OF CONTENT: Group experiences, media to provide images _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS: Lecture, reading, textbook _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Contextual Learning TEACHING THE LEARNING CYCLE LESSONTO DESIGN WORKSHEET
Teacher _______________________________ Grade _________________________________ Unit ____________________________________ Subject/Skill __________________________ Goal/performance objective ________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

TEACHER-DIRECTED

Coach
REVIEW CONCEPTS: Worksheets, writing to reinforce new concepts. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ STUDENTS USE INFORMATION: Stories, drawings, skits, mess around. Add creativity to practice. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Contextual Learning TEACHING THE LEARNING CYCLE LESSONTO DESIGN WORKSHEET
Teacher _______________________________ Grade _________________________________ Unit ____________________________________ Subject/Skill __________________________ Goal/performance objective ________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

STUDENT-CENTERED

Integrate
DESIGN FINAL PROJECT: Planning, contracting. Must be personal in nature. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ SHARE PROJECT: Present report, play, demonstration. Sharing to demonstrate personal integration. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE

Here’s what you said after last week’s session
on Learning Styles/Accelerated Schools/Multiple Intelligences
“All students can learn.” “Getting kids ‘caught up’ by sixth grade in the accelerated schools is great! It’s too hard to penetrate all the negatives at the high school level — as my experience shows. Also, it is good to build on the strengths all kids have rather than emphasizing their deficits.” “Each classroom has a mixed bag of student learning styles.” “Teachers need to structure the activities so that a variety of learning strategies are used.” “Learning styles and multiple intelligences provide a way for all students to be learners and learn from one another.” “As teachers we need to be aware of student needs whether they are referred to as learning styles or the seven intelligences.” “The importance of teaching towards all learning styles. A variety of methods is important.” “The teacher is a motivator.” “In the learning styles model, can students learn in more than one style? Similarly, in the Multiple Intelligences model, can students be dominant in more than one domain?” “Advocates seem to be saying that techniques for teaching TAG should be the same used for at-risk students.” “TAG activities equally appropriate for at-risk students – possibly more so.” “Field trips should be repetitive and purposeful (Project O – Multiple Intelligences).” “Integrated - thematic curriculum as means of doing away the current repetitive break-up pattern.” “Curriculum needs to be learner-centered.” “Active, hands-on collaborative learning is espoused by all models.” “The classroom would look like this: interactive, student learning. Project focus. Context is important. Individual interests. Relevance to the community. Assessment (Intelligence Fair).” “Students need to be part of the teaching/learning curriculum instruction equation. (We can start by asking them what they think.) “Students need to be out of their desks interacting with people and their environment to become complete learners.” “Teachers need to move beyond the teacher’s guide and text to meet the needs of learners.” “Schools need to open up and interact with the community to develop more opportunities for everyone.” “Key learnings (actually affirmations of what I believe): Be clear on your purpose/goal — design and implement approaches to learning that are in alignment with your purpose/goal. There is power in variety — use different methods as you can.” “Long range staff development is the key to change.” “In order to develop new methods and implement them, teachers need training in those methods. This means ‘Mo Money.’” “I would like to read Howard Gardner’s book Frames of Mind.” “I feel frustrated by the inability to incorporate some of these ideas due to large class size, lack of time, etc.”

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Contextual Learning TEACHING TO THE LEARNING CYCLE

Compare these models
Founder Key Goal

Guiding Principles

Concept of the student

Organization & Governance

Curriculum & Instruction

PAGE 19

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