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Alcoholic fermentation, also referred to as ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose

are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products. Becauseyeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic fermentation is considered an anaerobic process. Alcoholic fermentation occurs in the production of alcoholic beverages and ethanol fuel, and in the rising of bread dough.

microorganisms convert sugars in ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Alcoholic fermentation begins after glucose enters the cell. The glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. This pyruvic acid is then converted to CO2, ethanol, and energy for the cell. Humans have long taken advantage of this process in making bread, beer, and wine. In these three product the same microorganism is used: the common yeast or Saccharomyces Cerevisae Bread fermentation During the fermentation process of bread, sugar is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide will form bubbles, which will be trapped by the gluten of the wheat causing the bread to rise. Because the bread fermentation takes a short period, only small amounts of alcohol are formed, most of which will evaporate during the bread baking process. Therefore, you won't get drunk by eating bread! Wine fermentation Saccharomyces is responsible for the alcohol fermentation of wines. Grape juice contains naturally high levels of sugars. These sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Natural fermentation can yield wines with an alcohol up to 16 percent. http://www.tempeh.info/fermentation/ alcohol-fermentation.php

down to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. The acetaldehyde is then reduced by NADH2 to form ethanol and NAD. The process yields about 72 kcals from each glucose molecule. This is only about 10% of the energy that would be released by complete oxidation of glucose, as in *aerobic respiration.

Fruit wines Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); they may also have additional flavours taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs. This definition is sometimes broadened to include any fermented alcoholic beverage except beer. For historical reasons,mead, cider, and perry are also excluded from the definition of fruit wine.[1][2] Fruit wines are usually referred to by their main ingredient (e.g., plum wine orelderberry wine) because the usual definition of wine states that it is made fromfermented grape juice. In the European Union, wine is legally defined as the fermented juice of grapes.[3] Fruit wine is commonly called country wine in Great Britain. But the term should not be conflated with the French term vin de pays. In British legislation, the term made-wine is used.[4] Fruit wine can be made from virtually any plant matter that can be fermented.[3]However, some of these products do require the addition of sugar or honey to make them palatable and to increase the alcoholic content (sugar is converted to alcohol in the fermentation). Two commonly produced varieties are elderberry wine anddandelion wine. (A wine made from elderberry flowers is called elder blow wine.[5]) Fruit wines have traditionally been popular with home winemakers and in areas with cool climates such as North America and Scandinavia; in Africa, India, and thePhilippines, wine

Alcoholic beverages All ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages (including ethanol produced bycarbonic maceration) is produced by means of fermentation induced by yeast. Wine is produced by fermentation of the natural sugars present in grapes and other kinds of fruit. Mead is produced by fermentation of the natural sugars present in honey. Beer, whiskey, and vodka are produced by fermentation of grain starches that have been converted to sugar by the enzyme amylase, which is present in grain kernels that have been germinated. Rum is produced by fermentation of sugarcane.

alcoholic fermentation A form of *anaerobic respiration in which glucose is broken down to form ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is carried out by yeasts and various other fungi and by certain bacteria. Fermentation takes place outside the organism and is catalysed by enzymes of the zymase complex. These are either secreted by living cells or released on cell death. Fermentation usually stops due to cell poisoning when the alcohol level reaches about 15%. The process is central to the brewing, wine-making, and baking industries. Since free oxygen is not available as a hydrogen acceptor acetaldehyde is used instead. Pyruvic acid, formed by glycolysis, is broken

In all cases, fermentation must take place in a vessel that allows carbon dioxide to escape but prevents outside air from coming in. This is because exposure to oxygen would prevent the formation of ethanol.

Alcohol Fermentation Alcohol fermentation is done by yeast and some kinds of bacteria. These

is made from bananas. Most fruits and berries have the potential to produce wine. Few foods other than grapes have the balanced quantities of sugar, acid, tannin, nutritive salts for yeast feeding and water to naturally produce a stable, drinkable wine, so most country wines are adjusted in one or more respects at fermentation. The amount of fermentable sugars is often low and need to be supplemented by a process called chaptalization in order to have sufficient alcohol levels in the finished wine. Sucrose is often added so that fruits having excessive levels of acids (usually citric or malic acid) can split the sucrose into fermentable fructose and glucose sugars. If the specific gravity of the initial solution is too high, indicating an excess of sugar, water or acidulated water may be added to adjust the specific gravity down to the winemaker's target range. Many kinds of fruit have a natural acid content which would be too high to produce a savory and pleasant fruit wine in undiluted form; this can be particularly true, among others, for strawberries, cherries, pineapples, and raspberries. Therefore, much as to regulate sugar content, the fruit mash is generally topped up with water prior to fermentation to reduce the acidity to pleasant levels. Unfortunately, this also dilutes and reduces overall fruit flavour; on the other hand, a loss of flavour can be compensated by adding sugar again after fermentation which then acts as a flavour enhancer, while too much acid in the finished wine will always give it undesired harshness and poignancy. Many fruit wines suffer from a lack of natural yeast nutrients needed to promote or maintain fermentation. Winemakers can counter this with the addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium a vailable commercially as yeast nutrient. In the opinion of one wine writer fruit wines often do not improve with bottle age and are usually meant to be consumed within a year of bottling.[6]

The fermentation of fruit wines at home was particularly fashionable in the UK in the 1970s and was popularized in the BBC TV seriesThe Good Life. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_wine What Is Pineapple Wine?

Pineapple wine is an alcoholic beverage made with fermented pineapple. It is called a wine largely because the process of making it mimics that used to make traditional grape wines. The beverage does not typically contain any grapes or grape products, however. In most places, the term wine is used exclusively for fermented grape juice. A beverage that is labeled pineapple wine is usually a wine-style product made with pineapple in place of grapes. It is not wine in any true sense, but is consumed in much the same way, and is often presented in similar bottles. In some cases, it is even marketed by traditional vineyards alongside more traditional vintages. Almost any fruit can be made into a wine-like beverage by compressing the juice and allowing it to ferment. Wine makers must first add yeasts to juices. The fruits natural sugars activate the yeasts, and over time usually anywhere from a few weeks to a few months the yeast's reaction causes the juice to become alcoholic. That alcohol is refined, pasteurized, and sold as fruit wine. Pineapple winemakers must usually pay particular attention to the acidity levels of the liquid as it ferments. Most of the time, grape wines have a fairly balanced acidity level due to the natural tannins and other regulating agents in the fruit. The same is not usually true wherepineapple is concerned. Although pineapple flesh is sweet, its juice has a very high acid content. It often becomes bitter during fermentation. To counteract this, winemakers often add water and additional sugar. The art and science is in maintaining the alcohol content and original pineapple flavor in the process. Pineapple wine is typically quite sweet, and is almost always designed to be

served chilled. It is sometimes blended with other tropical fruit flavors, particularly mango and passion fruit. Most people drink pineapple wine by the glass in much the way that they would drink a white wine. It can also be used as the base of a pineapple cocktail. Tropical pineapple plantations and dedicated fruit wineries are some of the biggest commercial sellers of pineapple wine. Bottles are often marketed to tourists and others anxious for a taste of the islands and warmer weather. These vendors typically make sales on the premises, but also usually ship world-wide, often online or through mail order catalogs. The wine is also popular amongst home vintners. Aside from acid monitoring, little science is usually required to turn out a drinkable batch of pineapple wine. Unlike most grape wines, however, pineapple wine does not typically age well. It is usually designed to be immediately consumed. Depending on how it was made, the wine can grow rancid rather than more developed with the passage of years.

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-ispineapple-wine.htm#slideshow

Knowing Yeast Genome Produces Better Wine June 4, 2012 The yeast Dekkera bruxellensisplays an important role in the production of wine, as it can have either a positive or a negative impact on the taste. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden, among others, have analyzed the yeast's genome sequenced by the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, giving wine producers the possibility to take control of the flavour development of the wine. Yeasts are an important ingredient in the production of various types of food, for example wine, and they make a major contribution to the taste. One of these yeasts isDekkera bruxellensis. It is responsible for the aromatic fingerprint in around half of red wines. Yet the yeast can cause huge financial losses for the wine industry -- Dekkera bruxellensis can produce a phenolic flavour that is usually described as medicinal. In high concentrations it makes the wine undrinkable.

Despite the fact that Dekkera bruxellensis plays a significant role in the wine production process, relatively little research has been carried out on the yeast. However, in an international collaboration, researchers have now decoded the genome of Dekkera bruxellensis. The researchers have mainly studied the yeast's genetic background and properties of relevance to food production. "We now know a lot about howDekkera bruxellensis acts in the aroma formation process during wine production. Wine producers can use this knowledge to their advantage," says Professor Jure Piskur of the Department of Biology, Lund University. In recent years, the wine industry has become increasingly interested in the properties of yeasts because they influence the character of the wine. The mapping of Dekkera bruxellensis's genome can be used as a tool for wine producers worldwide to take control of flavour development. "At the end of the day this could lead to more new and interesting wine tastes and greater financial savings for the wine industry," says Jure Piskur. Sciencedaily.com

kept in the primary fermentor. The fruit is crushed in the fermentor while it is in the bag and the bag is left in the fermentor. Then a mixture of granulated sugar and boiling water is poured over the fruit. The mixture is then allowed to cool by covering it with a cloth. After the mixture settles down at room temperature place acid blend, yeast nutrient, tannin and crushed campden tablet into the fermentor. Cover it for one day and add pectic enzymes. After adding pectic enzymes add one packet of activated Champagne wine yeast and the wine is then allowed to ferment for 7 days. After 7 days, nylon straining bag is taken out of the fermentor and the juice is extracted out. The bag and pulp should be discarded and the wine is allowed to settle for more 10 days. After 10 days, the wine is racked into the secondary fermentor fitted with an airlock and the process is continued for 6 months. Then the wine is stabilized and after 10 days it is poured into the bottles. The use of special corks, labels and bottles for the process of bottling wine can provide dignity to the winemaking process it deserves. In Hawaii, Tedeschi Vineyards termed Maui Winery in Ulupalakua region produces famous pineapple wines. The famous pineapple wines produced are Maui Blanc and Maui Splash. The sparkling pineapple wine which is famous is Hula O Maui. Maui Splash is a pineapple wine which tastes sweet like a dessert wine, but with a clean finish and good acidity. The pineapple flavor of Maui Blanc is subtle with a lingering finish. This pineapple wine is a great compliment to Pacific Rim cuisine and can be served for all occasions. A brand termed Florida Sunset Pineapple Wine is prepared in Florida which is an award winning pineapple wine. http://www.thefinewinecellar.com/fruitwines/pineapple-wine.html

Pineapple wine is prepared from the juice of pineapple. The pineapple juice is fermented in temperature controlled vats and is stopped at near dryness. Pineapple wine is a fruity, dry and sweet wine which contains a hint of pineapple flavor and tastes like a good white wine. Pineapple wine is more like a semi-dry white wine and not very sweet like a dessert wine. One can find this wine almost everywhere in the world and is very affordable, for as low as $10 per bottle in some places. A pineapple wine has a tart and light taste. Pineapple wine when served with slices of fresh pineapple provides extra flavor to it. It goes well with fruity desserts, pork dishes and ham. This wine is great with a Hawaiin dinner. The first step in the preparation of pineapple wine includes boiling water with granulated sugar. The next step is removing the skin of pineapple and chopping the fruit into small pieces. The pineapple is placed into a nylon straining bag and is tied and