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10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

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5

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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10

10-3-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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10-3-2013,Sunday

11

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10-3-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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10-3-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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wufa&mufem;axmifMuNyD; a[majymyGJ

10-3-2013,Sunday

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15

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)
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armfeDwmowif;tzGJU

17

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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18

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rif ; xuf t mumvd I i f (&rnf ; oif ; )

10-3-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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nDnDxGef;

MONITOR

NEWS JOURNAL
Phone: 09 -73204192, 09-73203273,
09-5502618

10-3-2013,Sunday

&wem? bPfpmtkyf? csrf;omo
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nDnDxGef;
&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;tpdk;&tzGJUrS today;aMunmxm;aMumif; od&onf/

19

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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20

10-3-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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21

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22

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10-3-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )

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10-3-2013,Sunday

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23

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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24

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25

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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vlukd ...]acG;}owfwyhJ /JG
ypfrxm;MuygeJYav
&Spfav;vHk;tpayr,fh
'Drdkua&pDtrSef&atmif
pcJhwJhc&D;a0;
aoG;awGu renf;ygbl;
jzL&mu eDwJhwHwm;
'Dvdktcsdefa&mufcgrS
bkef;armfeJY &Jabmfrsm;udk
tvGr;f iSuf
arhawmhrmS vm; . . ./
(1988)ckEpS f rwfv 13 &ufaeYwiG u
f sqH;k cJah om&Jabmfausmif; om; udb
k ek ;f armftwGuf

26

Ä

pdefyef;&J&J? yGifhqJumv
rwfvylyl? vli,fwpfodkuf
wpfusKdufESpfusKduf? aomufvdkufarmhvdkuf
ayghuscsKdqdrfh? NrdefYNrdefYpum;
ajymMum;ESD;aESm? awmtaMumif;ESifh
awmiftaMumif;jyif? ]vrf;pOfygwD}
jrefrmjynf\? þþxdkxdk
vdkonfydkonf? [dkonfa0zef
rcHcsifpdwf? ,dkzdwfpD;us
&ifxJrSvm? ajymp&majym
a'gESifharmESifh? aZmoefa'guef
toHazmif;<u? ab;uvlrsm;
owdxm;rd iJhapmif;Munfh/

Ä

pufrIausmif;om;? vli,frsm;\
pum;0dkif;udk? emvdk½Iqdwf
wpfqdwfpmrQ? r&SdMuonfh
ab;utjcm;? vli,frsm;u
&efp pum;? rMum;Edk;em;
ajymMum; ]csJvifh}? vufoD;ESifhxdk;
vlqdk;tvkyf 0dkif;tHkvkyf/

Ä

onf&efyGJrS? tpjyKum
jynfjrefrm\? Zmwmpef;v*f
vQrf;wufa0qm? jynf&GmtESHY
owif;ysHUí? qefYwef;vuf½Hk;
tm;rmefBuHK;0g;? ]bkef;armf}ausmif;om;
oufpGefYoGm;NyD? wdkYrsm;wdkufyGJ
qufvufETJtHh? &JaoG;&Jrmef
vQHwufyGufavm? a'goawmx
wpfvQm;wpfeH? wpfEkdifiHvHk;
tylvHk;<u? ,lusKH;r&
vdIif;vHk;vlxk? awmif;qdkrIum;
]]vlUtcGifhta&; 'Drkdua&pDay;}}/

Ä

wpfudk;oHk;&Spf? ouú&mZfü
xGef;opfjynfausmf? ]Adkvfatmifausmf}ay:
aemifaomf ]ig;q,f}? ESpfjynfh0,fwnfh
oG,foG,f ]xef;aygif;}? ]vwaygif;}ü
axmif;axmif;vQHausmf? ]Adkvfbkef;armf}[k
]ausmf}-]armf}ESpfOD;? toufzl;jzifh
jrL;<u atmifaw;? awmfvSefa&;udk
[pfa<u;oDqdk? atmifyGJudk&nf
]aEGBudKyef;}wdkY rEGrf;NyD/ /
armif M unf a omf ( aumvif ; )

10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)
yef;csDum;eJY r[m*Dw
ordkif;qdkwm rsKd;quf
rsm;&JU pmrsufEmS . . .pmrsufEmS
wdik ;f rSm umvowfrw
S f csuf
awGeJY csKyfpyfxm;wmrdkY 'D
rEÅav; . . a. &aq; yef;csDum;
av;rSm jrefrmhr[m *DwoH
awG . . .a0 . . .aeav . . .&UJ /
zefwD;olu q&mBuD;
a&Tjynf OD;bwif&UJ om; yef
wsmausmif;tkyBf uD; OD;0if;az
av/ tEkynm&Siaf wGukd rsKd;
qufopfawGu cspfjrwfEdk;
pGm uavmifemrnf yef;csD
q&mvufrw
S t
f &if twdik ;f
tm;&yg;& 0if;azvdyYk J ac:&
&if 'g[m rEÅ a v;&eH Y e J Y
0if ; az&J U tar&d u jyef
vuf&musK;H . . u
. m; . . a. ygh.../
t&G,fu 10" x 12"
a&aq; tMunfa&;xm;wm
u NrdKU½d;k jymom'f? MumcGuf
Mumyef;eJY MumyGifh Mumzl;
Mum&Guf MumcGuf Mumyef;eJY
tud k i f ; ? tcuf ? t&G u f ?
tvuf rEÅav;taiG U
toufa'opGJ tEkynmopf
ta&mifrSwfwrf;vdkYqdk&r,f/
b,favmufxd cHpm;
MurvJ . . .
azsmfajzyGJwpfyGJ&JU ed*Hk;
aemufqufrSm tEkynmeJY
cHpm;olwu
Ykd kd jzwfawmufv&Ykd
ayr,fh yef;csDrSmawmh t
a&mifawG&UJ tvif; tarSmif
zG J U pnf ; rI [ m pu© K yom'
uae jrifpdwfav;xJ pGJNrJ
&pfaESmifae&pfcJhwmrdkY tdyf
rufudk a&eJYyufNyD; zsufvdkY
r&ovd k jrif r uf c sef x m;
cHpm;EkdifMuw,f/
'Dae&mrSm pdwyf nm&Sif
awGajymwJyh pkH aH v;rsKd;eJY cHpm;
wwfMuwJh wkjYH yefrI oabm
av;eJY 'D yef;csDum;av;udk
csOf;uyfMu&atmif
(1) a&vdkuf ig;vdkuf
cHpm;rI

awmifawmf[m pdr;f vsufpt
kd ad eNyD; a&n§pd rd ;f
arSmfuGufav;awGeJY &dyf&dyfvdIif; jrifhwuf&mrSm
&yfawmfrl wefaqmif; jymo'fawGeYJ apmif;wef;
awGrSm edrfhcsnf jrifhcsnfpkefqefaew,f/
oD . . .wm . . .oD . . .wm . . .jr . . .om; . . .
Mum . . .Mum . . .Mum . . ig; . . . yg; . .
r[m*Dw&JU wd;k a0SY wdu
k cf wfrrI mS jyefu
Y s,fc;kH
xaewJ h rsuf E S m jyif a wG e J Y Mum&G u f a wG v d k
vGwv
f yf w,f/ MumcGuaf wGvkd ayghyg;vIycf wfNyD;
Mumzl; iHkav;awG yef;Ek tDiHk MuufaoG;eDwdkY
avta0S Y r S m
&eH Y a v;awG
&Syfajy;&if;eJYaw;csif;oDw,f/
(3) oabmaygufrI vu©Pmorm;&JUcHpm;rI
Charactor type

yef;csDqw
kd m ta&mifukd cHpm;,if ta&mif&UJ
bmompum;ygru zGUJ pnf;yHt
k quftpyf&UJ [efeYJ
uAsmudk vu©PmzwfwwfzdkYvdkw,f/
jymo'fay:0JusaewJh tcuftvuftwuf
t½dk;awGu t½dk;udk t&GufrzHk;qdkwJh pum;yHkudk
azmfñeT ;f aewmvm;/ ,Ofaus;rI tarGtESpu
f pd /ö
&ifbwfudkzGifhjyNyD;
oa&mfaewmrsm;vm;/
aEGoauFw? tnmtrSwftom; tylydkif;a'o
edrw
d yf kH usKH; a&jyif&UJ tuGmta0; tñTe;f avmuf
awmhru wef&mbl; ...
usKH;awmf . . . rSm . . a&T . . Mum . . yGihf . .w,f
eef;awmf NrdKU½dk;BuD;eJY
&if;wm; ypöif pHk . . .nD . . .
acwfoDcsif; tzGJUtEGJUrSmvnf; rEÅav;[m
a&eJu
Y sKH;eJMY umeJY awmifeYJ MunfE;l p&maumif;NyD;
om;/ eE´mayavm wl pG[kwåm/
ta&mifukd nDatmif n§½d ekH YJ omrefp½kH akH vmuf
jc,fwmqd&k if rIe;f xm;wm bmaMumifv
h /J 'Dpum;
tydrk [kwf zefw;D ol&UJ tZÑwå tjriftwif tjy
apwemeJY tvSaA'&oay;a0rIu tjcm;wpf
a,muf wk,lvdkYr&wJh zefwD;rIayyJvm;/
(4) aywHrsufpdeJY "r®'d|orm;cHpm;rI
Objective type

Associative type

jrifjrifum rwå cHpm;rI
vdkYyJ qdkMuygpdkY&JU q&m[m
tEkynmavmurSmyJ usif
vnf zefwD;cJhayr,fh wpf
udk,fawmfoD;oefY yef;csDjyyGJ
&,fawmh rawGUrdao;bl;/
owfowfcwfcwf jyyGw
J pfyJG
taeeJ Y M unf h & &if q&mh & J U
ES v H k ; om;jywd k u f a v;xJ u
armf'efrsLZD,efrSm
ckawmh NrdKU½d;k eJY jymom'f
ndKndKBuD;udkawGUuwnf;u
a'opGJBuD;wJh tnmom;awG
&ifcek Nf yD/ a&Tref;awmif&yd f a&
ndKndK &pfumorf;wJh ta&mif
bG J U *D w o½k y f a zmf o H p Of o pf r S m
jref r mawG &pf y wf w G , f a ES m if N yD /
vdar®mfa&mifEk aumif;uifom;eJY vdar®mf
eD 0g tndK owf jzm us 0J &pf opfuikd ;f
opfcufwdkYeJY obm0udk yef;csD cspfwwfolwdkY ESpf
NcdKufMunfarmNyD/
a&jrifv
h Ykd Mumwifw
h m/ MumawG jynfah ewJh uef a&jyif usKH;udk
aexGufeJY ae0if &ifvmckefMuwJh EkdifiHwum cHpm;wwfolwdkYtwGuf
ta&miftcif;tusif;av; udk appreciate vkycf pH m;Ekid rf sm aocsmyg&JU/
(2) qlvG,f eyfvG,f orm;wdkY&JUcHpm;rI
Subjective type

10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

yef;csDqdkwm tjriftm½HkwHcg;0u &o avwdk;oH qdkawmhum;
tm½HEk ;dk vG,o
f al wGtwGuf Munfvifat;jrwJt
h pdr;f udk Nidro
f ufat;csrf;
wJh tndKeJY tcsKd;nD zGJUpyfxm;wJh &oajrmufjc,frIef;rIrSm
jyom'fukd &ifcek Mf u&atmif ndKwJh rdiI ;f a,mif&w
dS ,f/ rnpfb;l /
av;wJ h x d yd raebJ td ½ H k a v; td a ewJ h tnd K om;av;xJ r S m
ukef;abmifacwf &mZ0iftaiGUtoufwdkYqDaiGUjyefw,f/

cyfrsm;rsm;u yef;csDudk Munfh&if&Sdxm;wJh
aywHeYJ wdik ;f Ekid if w
H um yefwsmawG&UJ oif½;kd ñTe;f
wrf;xJu 5p 6p eJY jrifodw,fqdkNyD;cHpm;/
17 &mpk ES p f u wnf ; u o½k y f r S e f e J Y
obm0udk csefxm;cJhNyD; yef;csDopf azmufxGuf
vmcJhwm 'D wef;udkausmfNyD;rSyg/ 'gayr,fh 'D
ajy;vrf; orÇmav;avmufeyYJ J yef;csDukd wifw
h rd f
a&mifh&J aeEkdifMuwJhxJ jrefrmygw,f/ rEÅav;&Sd
w,f/ 'gudk 'D rEÅav;usKH; yef;csDum;av;u
vrf;cGJ xGufcJhNyDav/
21 &mpkopftp 'DumvrSm rEÅav;usKH;xJ
Mum&SdvdkYvm;/ usKH;[m usKH;eJY
rwlbJ wmwrHudk tumt&H
awGeJY o'¨gvefp&m acwfudk
wcpfcpf &,fNyD; avSmifaeovdk
vd k Y a jym&if "r® ' d | H a ywH o rm;
awGu oabmwlcsifrS wlyg
vdrfh/
rEÅ a v;rS m &S d w J h rEÅ a v;
yef;csDum;
'Dvkd cHpm;rIav;rsKd;xJrmS wpfrsKd;wnf;ru
ESpfrsKd;oHk;rsKd; oD;oefYcHpm;cHpm;a&mNyD;yJ cHpm; cHpm;
'Dxufykd &ifcek o
f ed x
YJ ad tmif rdatmifb,fvykd J cHpm;
cHpm;'Dyef;csDum;av;uawmh ckrEÅav;rSm pkaqmif;
xm;&Sdw,f/
yGiv
hf if;vmr,f Ekid if w
H um&JU ,Ofaus;rIawG
wd;k 0ifwu
kd cf wfwu
hJ mv ESpo
f pfrmS b,fEidk if u
H kd
'D yef;csDum;av; c&D;xGuNf yD; vSnv
hf nfomG ;r,frod
rEÅav;&wemyHu
k ek ;f abmifacwf&UJ r[m*Dwudt
k a&mifawGeYJ BudK;n§ad y;
wJhausmif;tkyfBuD; q&mOD;0if;azudkawmh orkdif;rSwfwrf;t& aus;Zl;
wifMu&rSmyg/
,Ofaus;rI orkdif;tarGESpf pmrsufESmrSmrEÅav;usKH;&Sdayr,fh 'D
rEÅav;usKH;yef;csDum;av;rSm tEkynmtopf&Sdw,f/ acwfNydKifcHpm;
rItwGuf 21 &mpkESifhtwl EkdifiHwumudk &ifaygifwef;EdkifaMumif;u
armifav;xGef;
aocsmvS/

27

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)
uRefawmfonf touf wpfq,fh
&SpfESpfjynfhonfESifh wyfrawmfxJ 0ifcJh
onf / q,f a usmf o uf b 0rS m Nrd K Ur
txufwef;(trsKd;om;)ausmif;ü ynm
oifMum;aeqJ tif;pdeNf rdKUrSm wdu
k yf aJG wG
jzpfonf/
tif;pdeNf rdKUonf uRefawmf aexdik &f m
&efukefta&SUydkif;ESifh rnfrQa0;rSef;rod/
okaYd omf a&Tw*d b
kH &k m;teD;&Sd NrKd Urausmif;okYd
aeYpOfausmif;wuf&ef pdwfrcs&[kqdkum
NrdKUrausmif;rS xGu&f onf/ a&ausmf&yf&dS
q&mBuD;OD;armifarmif tvGwfynmoif
ausmif;okdY ajymif;&onf/
tif;pdew
f u
kd yf jJG zpfp (1949) ckEpS rf mS
yif &efuek Nf rdKUwGi;f rS t&yfot
l &yfom;rsm;
pkí wdkufyGJ0if wyfrawmfom;rsm;tm;
oG m ;a&muf t m;ay;MuaMumif ; Nrd K Ur
ausmif;rS ausmif;om;rsm; tygt0if
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm; oGm;a&mufí apwemh
0efxrf;wdkufyGJ0ifMuaMumif; Mum;od&
onf/
&efuek Nf rdKUBuD;udk olyek w
f Ykd odr;f ydu
k f
awmh ra,mifa,mif owif;rsKd;pkH jzpfay:
vsuf&Sdonf/ t&G,fra&mufao;aom
uRefawmfwkdY oli,fcsif;wpfokduf oGm;
a&mufwu
kd cf u
kd í
f pdwrf sm; wzGm;zGm;ay:
aygufvsuf&Sdonf/
xdkpdwf"mwft&SdefESifh toufjynfh
vQif jynfch sif; wyfrawmfxJ 0ifco
hJ nf/
(1954) ckEpS rf pS í us&mwm0efrsKd;pkH xrf;
aqmifcJh&onf/
touf j ynf h ½ H k r u touf v G e f r S
(2006) ckESpfwGif tem;,ljzpfcJhonf/
touf ck E S p f q ,f a usmf a omf v nf ;
usef;rmao;onf/ oifhawmf&mwm0ef
xrf;aqmifEdkifao;onf/ okdYaomfvnf;
vlBuD;rsm;u oem;Mu[efwyl gonf/ vkyf
oufqktjynfhay;í tNidrf;pm;vpmjynfh
ESifh tem;,lcGifhjyKcJhygonf/
touft&G,fBuD;&ifhvmí ay &Spf
axmifausmf awmifay:okYd rwufEikd af wmh
yg/ wdkif;jynfNidrf;csrf;om,ma&;twGuf
aoewfydkufvsuf wdkufyGJ0ifEdkifpGrf; r&Sd
awmhyg/
okdYaomf pGrf;orQ wm0efxrf;csif
ao;onf/ ud,
k cf spfaom wyfrawmfukd
ysKd;axmifco
hJ rl sm; ordik ;f wjznf;jznf; arS;
rSed v
f mjcif;aMumifh vGwv
f yfa&;udk vG,f
vG,Ef iS hf &,lcjhJ cif;r[kwaf om wyfrawmf
ordik ;f udk vdu
k í
f vdu
k í
f ar;onf/ rSwí
f
rSwfía&;onf/
onf v d k E S i f h vG w f v yf a &;twG u f
BudK;yrf;csderf mS yg0ifcahJ om q&morm;BuD;
rsm;udk ar;uma&;cJrh ad om yH&k yd af qmif;yg;
rsm;udk pkumpkum ]]vGwv
f yfa&;yk&H yd rf sm;}}
[laom pmtkyfudk xkwfa0jzpfcJhonf/
(2010) ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvrSpí vQyfwpf
jyuf*sme,fwiG f a&;om;cJo
h rQ aqmif;yg;
pkukd (2011) ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmvusrS pmtkyf
tjzpf xkwfa0cJh&onf/
xkyd &Hk yd rf sm;xJrS trSwpf Of (5) tjzpf
AdkvfrSL;BuD;0if;taMumif;a&;jzpfcJhonf/
Adv
k rf LS ;BuD;0if;onf vGwv
f yfa&;BudK;yrf;
rIacwfOD;rS yg0ifcJholBuD; jzpfygonf/
(1920) ckEpS u
f arG;zGm;cJah om oxko
H m;
armif b ZH o nf (1936) ck E S p f r S p í
Ed k i f i H a &; yd k ; 0if c J h u m (1938) ck E S p f
ausmif;om; oydwrf mS ud,
k w
f idk yf g0ifco
hJ l
jzpfonf/
xdkyk*d¾KvfBuD;udk oGm;a&mufawGUqkH
vsuf (ZGwt
f wif;) awmif;yefum ar;cJh
a&;cJ h r d o nf / pd e f a ygvf a usmif ; om;
armifbZHwpfa,muf NrdKUrausmif;om;

28

ausmif;rS oli,fcsif;rsm;ESit
hf wl ausmif;
om;oydwrf mS ygcJo
h nf/ q,fwef;atmif
NyD; wuúov
kd af &mufaomtcg tif*sifeD
,mausmif;om;jzpfvmaomfvnf; trsKd;
om;EdkifiHa&;av[kefrSm ajcpkHygvmonf/
Edik if aH &;oifwef;wufonf/ tif*sife,
D m
rjzpfbJ Edik if aH &;orm;av; jzpfvmonf/
vQKdU0Suo
f ifwef;udk &efuek Nf rdKU? A[ef;&yf
uGurf mS wufonf/ OD;AaqG? OD;ausmfNidr;f ?
ocifcspf? OD;vSarmif (AdkvfrSL;BuD;tb
vSarmif) wkEYd iS ahf wGUcJo
h nf/ vli,fav;
jzpfí awmfvSefa&;twGuf vQKdU0SufnTef
Mum;csufawGykdYaom wm0efrSpcJh&onf/
rEÅav;-q&mcifarmifav;(0efBuD;)jrif;NcH?
oHrPdarmifarmif (AuyA[dkaumfrDwD
0if) rdwv
D¬ m? ysOf;rem; ocifyg? ajrmif;jr
ocifp;kd jrifh polwx
Ydk H wpfjynfv;Hk oGm;
a&muf q uf o G , f í nT e f M um;csuf a wG
udk,fwkdifay;&onf/
&Jabmfo;Hk usdyw
f Ydk bDtikd af twyfBuD;
csDwufrvmcif BudKwifvyI &f mS ;cJ&h ol jzpf
onf/ jynfwiG ;f okyek t
f zGUJ ESihf zGUJ pnf;jyif
qifxm;&ef BudKwif0ifa&mufvmaom
ocif½aI rmif(&Jabmfo;Hk usdy)f ESihf yJc;l NrdKU
pnfwD;&GmwGif awGU&onf/ avhusifhrI
,l & onf / ud k b ZH E S i f h ud k a rmif a rmif
(Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf)wkEYd pS af ,mufukd jrpf0uRef;ay:
okdY vTwfonf/ jynfwGif;olykefvlpkí
bDtdkifat ppfaMumif;awG BudK&onf/
c&D;wpfavQmufa&SUrS ajy;&onf/ pkpnf;&
onf/ jyifqif&onf/ yl;aygif;vdkufyg&
onf/ bDtikd af twyfBuD; ay:ay:xifxif
a&mufvmaomtcg udb
k ZHonf Adv
k 0f if;
tjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;xH a&muf&Sd
teD;uyf wm0ef,&l onf/ awmfveS af &;
BuD; NyD;onftxd Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf
twl wm0ef,lcJh&onf/
oydwaf rSmufausmif;om; armifbZH?
EdkifiHa&;orm;av; udkbZH? bDtdkifat
Adv
k 0f if;? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESit
hf wl *syef
awmfvSefcJhaom AdkvfrSL;0if; qdkolonf
'kw,
d urÇmppfNyD;p uED´pmcsKyft& wyfr
awmfukd jyefvnfzUJG pnf;aomtcg (1511-1945)wGif bDpD (3501)? Adv
k v
f ufsm?
(15-12-1945) wGif bDpD (3502) Akv
d f
ae0if;? bDpD (3503) AdkvfaZ,s? bDpD
(3504) AdkvfausmfaZmwkdY (36)OD;udk cefY
tNyD; (1-1-1946) aeYwiG f bDpD (3540)
Adkvfarmif0if; t&m&Sdjzpfvmonf/ [dk
wpfcsdeu
f tjrifq
h ;Hk xJrmS ygaom Adv
k rf LS ;
BuD; (Colonel) tqifhjzifh wyfrawmf
wm0ef? EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,
0efBuD;? jynfolUvkyfief;ppfaq;a&;tzGJU
0if ponfh Edik if aH &;wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmif
cJo
h Bl uD;onf (20-1-2013)&uf touf
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bufa&muf&ovJ[k qufar;rdonf/
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armifaqGouf

10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

odkY&mwGif pkukd jrefrmjynfolvlxku EdkifiHa&;pifjrifhxufwGif
pwifjrif&onft
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k rf LS ;b0wm0efxrf;aqmif&if; yifv,fxw
J iG f
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aMumif;ukd ]wdu
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dk af wGU odc&hJ ygw,f}[k olu a&;om;cJh

10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

onf/
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qufvufazmfjyygrnf/

29

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

Photo; NLD Congress

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A[kdtvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0if

30

9/ a'gufwmOD;aZmfjrifharmif
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10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46 )
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av;u *syefacwfrmS jyowJh edyeG Af rm
txl;yef;csDjyyGJBuD; uwfwavmufav;
jzpfygw,f/ pm&Gufu 0gMuefYMuefYa&eD
puúLrsKd; t&G,fu vufw0g;pmcyfi,f
i,f? xdyq
f ;kH rSm *syefpm bl;oD;ig;aygif;
ausmf? NyD;rS jrefrmvdk edyeG f Armtxl;yef;csD
jyyG J B uD ; pmvH k ; BuD ; BuD ; ,if ; atmuf u
*syefpm jrefrmvdjk yoaom yef;csDum;rsm;
\pm&if;/ yef;csDjyyGBJ uD;udk ZGev
f (6)&ufaeY
rSpí (9)&ufaeYtxd usif;yygrnf/ edyeG f
ppfbufqikd &f m 0g'jzefjY zL;a&;XmerS txl;
pD p Of y gonf / onf w k e f ; u uwf w
avmuf½u
kd Ef ydS o
f nfh r[mynmausmfrsm;
yrm'avconf h
tcsuf u

jyyGJjyoonfh&ufomygNyD;
ck E S p f o uú & mZf r ygjcif ; ?
jyonf h a e&mrygjcif ; jzpf
ygonf/ jyyGJrSmyg0ifjyowJh
ed y G e f A rmyef ; csD q &mrsm;\
trnfeYJ um;pm&if;udk azmf jyyg

Armhvw
G v
f yf
a&;wyfrawmf/ *syef
wyf r sm;ud k wd k u f c d k u f &
onfUemrnfausmf (a&Tawmif
wdkufyGJ)yGJBuD;ESifh ppfyef;csDum;
rsm;a&;qG&J ef rlcsrSwv
f u
kd yf gonf/
yxrOD;pGm a&Tawmifwu
kd yf u
JG kd q&m
OD;aiGuikd u
f w
kd m0efay;NyD; OD;bMunf
ES i f h OD ; oef ; (bm;rm;twf u vyf )
twGif;a&;rSL;tm; tjcm;wdkufyGJ
rsm;udak &;qGaJ p
ygonf/

BULLOCK CART
This
is
a
reporduction of one out
of six different picture
postcards issued, in limited number in 1943 during the Japanese Occupation of Myanmar.

q&mOD;bÓmPfu xkad eYwiG f tpnf;ta0;
rwufa&mufEkdifí yef;csDum;a&; qGJ&ef
tpDtpOfudk acwåqdkif;iHhxm;ygonf/
*syef a cwf w G i f (r[mArmjyyG J ) ud k
(1945)ck azazmf0g&DvaemufqHk;ywfwGif
uefawmfBuD;wGif crf;em;BuD;us,fpGmjyo
cJhygonf/ r[mArmjyyGJwGif q&mOD;b
ÓmPf? OD; pH0if;? OD;bMunfw\
Ykd yef;csDoyd rHÜ S
wpfcef;? q&mOD;aiGuikd w
f Ykd ppfyef;csDXmerS
wpfcef; yg0ifjyoMuygonf/ r[mArmjyyGJ
udk (1945)ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv(22)&ufrS
rwfv (1)&uftxd (8)&ufwikd w
f ikd u
f sif;y
&m *syefacwfwGif tBuD;us,fqHk;jyyGJ
wpf c k t jzpf ajymprS w f u sef c J h a yonf /
armifaA'gonf þaqmif;yg;udka&;&ef
*syefacwfxkwfa0onfh ydkYpuwfyHkrsm;?
ed y G e f A rmtxl ; yef ; csD j yyG J u wf w avmuf
pmom;rsm;ESihf q&mOD;rif;Ekid \
f OD;bÓmPf
b0ESihf olUvuf&mpmtkyx
f rJ S taMumif;
t&mrsm;udk rSjD irf;í a&;&ygonf/ edyeG Af rm
txl ; yef ; csD j yyG J u wf w avmuf r l y G m ;ud k
yef;csDcifarmifAv
kd x
f rH S &&Syd gonf/ þonf
rSm armifaA'g&SmazGawGU&So
d rQ *syefacwf
yef;csDjyyGrJ sm;ESihf uwfwavmuf? ydpYk uwfykH
rsm;omjzpfygaMumif; pmcspfolrsm;cifAsm;/
rif ; wif a tmif

jzpfNyD; ArmEkid if aH wmf
tpdk;& wHqdyfacgif;yHkpH(3)
rsKd ; ud k a zmf j yxm;ygw,f /
tm&S w d k u f omwl n D r Q
aumif;pm;a&;a<u;ausmo
f H
eJY csDwufvmwJh udak &T*s
yefzufqpfatmufa&muf
&S d w J h ( 1943)ck E S p f xk w f
a0wJh uwfwavmufjzpf
ygw,f/ *syefacwfwGif

r[mArmjyyGu
J kd (1945)ckEpS ?f azazmf0g&v
D (22)&ufrS rwfv (1)&uftxd
(8)&ufwikd w
f ikd u
f si;f y&m *syefacwfwiG f tBu;D us,q
f ;kH jyyGw
J pfct
k jzpf ajymprSwf
usefcJhayonf/
&Jabmf oHk;usdyf0ifAdkvfvusfmBuD;rSL;wJh
ppfyef;csDXmewpfczk UJG pnf;cJyh gw,f/ ppfyef;csD
XmerS m q&mBuD ; OD ; aiG u d k i f u Ad k v f r S L ;
tqifh? Adkvftkef;armif? Adkvfjrwfausmf?
Adkvfwifat;(Mwifat;) AdkvfatmifcsKd?
Adv
k af tmifñeG ?Yf Adv
k af usmfp;kd ? Adv
k x
f eG ;f a&T?
Adv
k b
f vS? Adv
k af usmfoefY ESihf Adv
k cf ifarmif
wdu
Yk ppfyef;csDXmerSm Adv
k Bf uD; t&mcHAv
kd ?f
wyfMuyf&mxl;toD;oD; eJY wm0efxrf;
aqmif c J h M uygw,f / ppf y ef ; csD X meud k
&JabmfoHk;usdyf0if AdkvfrSL;BuD;vusfm u
BuD;rSL;NyD;zGifhvSpfum ArmhvGwfvyfa&;
wyf r awmf ( bD t d k i f a t) ArmumuG , f

r,f/ ppfyef;csDXmerS OD;aiGuikd u
f (9)um;?
armifcifarmif(4)um;? armifcspfarmif (6)
um;? armifbcif(2)um;? OD;ñGe(Yf 4)um;?
armifcsKd(2)um;? armifp;kd &D(1)um;? armif
atmif o ef ; (2)um;? armif t k e f ; armif
(3)um;? armifwifat;(3)um;? OD;omxGe;f
(1)um;? acsmif'&D(1)um;wdkYjzpfNyD; edyGef
yef;csDq&mxJu rpk'gudk tdcsd(8)um;?
aquD'?kd tDwmblavmh (9)um;? pdu
k w
f ;dk
wefatmfr(d 4)um;? qmtDuw
kd eJatmfr(d 1)
um;? pkpak ygif; edyeG f Armyef;csDjyyGu
J m;(52)
um; jyocJyh gw,f/ jyyGrJ mS jyowJh um;
trsm;pku &efukefwpf0dkuf? jrefrmjynf
aus;vuf N rd K U&G m rsm;yH k ? vl y H k r sm;om

jzpf y gonf / jyyG J x l ; jcm;csuf wpf c k u
,if;jyyGJwGif yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;bÓmPf?
OD;pH0if;? OD;xGe;f vS? OD;bMunf wdYk yg0if
jyojcif;r&Sdjcif;jzpfygonf/ Adkvfvusfm
zGJUpnf;ay;aom ppfyef;csDXmeu yef;csD
q&mtrsm;pkEiS hf edyeG yf ef;csDq&m (3)OD;om
yg0ifjyojcif;jzpfygw,f/ Adkvfvusfmu
vnf; OD;bÓmPf? OD;cspfarmif (*sme,f
ausmf)? OD;pH0if;? OD;bMunf? OD;aiGudkif?
OD;armifarmifjr? Adv
k t
f ;kH armif? q&maZmf*s?D
q&mrif;ok0Pf? ocifbaomif;ESihf OD;om
xGef;wdkYyg0ifaom yef;csDtBuHay; aumf
rwDuzkd UJG pnf;NyD; wyfrawmftwGuf tvH
rsm;? wHqyd rf sm;? 0wfprkH sm;ESihf armfueG ;f 0if
ppfyef;csDum;BuD;rsm; a&;qG&J ef n§Ed iId ;f wdik f
yif a pNyD ; yxrOD ; pG m t*F v d y f w yf E S i f h

25

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)
rsufESmzHk;rStquf

xGef;azmifa';&Sif;pmayqkcsD;jr§ihf rS

pOf

bmom&yf

pmtkyftrnf

1/

pD;yGm;a&;

2/

usef;rma&;

3/

ordkif;

4/

,Ofaus;rI

5/

a&S;a[mif;usrf;

6/

&nfñTef;usrf;
(0dZÆm)
&nfñTef;usrf;
(odyÜH)
uav;pmay
(pum;ajy)

pawmh&S,f,m
oufxGef;OD;
aps;uGuftcif;tusif;
tdrfom;orm;awmf
a'gufwmoef;
xG#f
jrefrmrif;rsm;vufxuf wifEdkifwdk;
oHwrefqufqHa&;
pmayESifh*Dw?
OD;jrifhMunf
*DwESifhpmay
eef;okH;,Of?y&dabm* xGef;&D(a&S;
ESifheef;rIya'omusrf; a[mif;okaowD
acwfrDEdkifiHa&;a0g[m armif0Ho
&tbd"gef
tmumotbd"gef
aEGudkwl;
(yckuúL)
armifwdkYr,fwkdYzwfzdkY armifqE´
okwynm tvdrm®
(v,fa0;)
vrf;ñTef
tarhurÇmuav;
armifomvif;
uAsm
vli,fESifhtawG;tjrif wifñTefY
vmygawmhtcgcgarmh armifxGef;vGif
rmvmaMumh arQmfaygh (rdk;av0o)
rdk;&moD
wdkYbk&m;udkwdkYzl;NyD
armifudkudk
(tr&yl&)
armf'ef'DyvkdarpD
ÓmPf0if;
(ZD;ukef;)

7/
8/

9/

uav;pmay
(uAsm)
vli,f
ywf0ef;usif
xdef;odrf;a&;

10/
11/

12/

pmya'om

13/

okwya'om

pOf

bmom&yf

pmtkyftrnf

1/

&nfñTef;

jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;pOfxJ oef;xGef;
utw¬KyÜwÅd tbd"gef (armfvNrdKif)
(1920-1988)

2/

tw¬KyÜwÅd

ynmrif;BuD;pnfol
OD;aumif;

armif{&m

3/

ordkif;

*syefacwftaMumif;
pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;

cifESif;OD;

4/

a&S;a[mif;
t*Fvdyfusrf;

The Chronicle of the Saw Mra Aung
the Mons & The
Collectionof Histories
of their pagodas

26

a&;ol

em&DawG

u &&SdcJh&m om;jzpfolrSvufcH&,lcJhonf/
tqdkygpmayqkay;yGJwGif yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD; 0efBuD;csKyf OD;ÚmPf0if;onfvnf; ÚmPf0if;(ZD;ukef;)emrnfjzifh a&;om;cJhaom
armf'ef'yD vdak rpD pmtkyEf iS hf okwya'om wpf&yfjzifq
h &k &Scd &hJ m? om;jzpfow
l ufa&mufvufc&H ,lco
hJ nf/ xGe;f azmifa';&Si;f pmayqkonf
wpfoufwmpmayqk&iS f aiGusyf(10)ode;f ? pmtkyq
f w
k iG f usyfig;ode;f ? pmrlqw
k iG f usyfav;ode;f csD;jr§ichf NhJ yD;? wpfoufwmpmayqk
ESifhpmayqkESifh pmtkyfqkrsm;tjyif a&TwHqdyfqkrsm;vnf;csD;jr§ifhcJhonf/
tqdyk gtcrf;tem;odYk &nfñeT ;f usrf;(0dZÆm)qku?kd acwfrED ikd if aH &; a0g[m& tbd"mefpmtkyjf zifh qGwcf ;l &&Scd o
hJ l q&marmif0o
H
(jrefrmEdkifiHowif;pmq&m A[dkOuú|rSvnf;udk,fwdkifwufa&mufvufcH&,lcJhzl;cJhonf/

rsufESmzHk;rStquf
jynfcidk Nf zKd ;ygwD 'kOuú|OD;a|;OD; NLD nDvmcHziG yfh o
JG Ykd wufa&muf rS
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umva&m w&m;Oya'r&Sd&bl;vm;? w&m;Oya'&Sdatmif vkyf&rSmbJ/ ygwDwkdif;u enf;rSefvrf;rSef&Sdatmifvkyf&wmbJav?
ckd;aMumif cdk;0Suf vkyfvkdY&wmr[kwfbl;? ygwDqdkwm jynfoltay:tajccHwm? ygwD bmvkyfvkyf jynfolrodbl;qdkwm r&SdEdkifbl;?
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uRefawmfxifw,f/ a&G;aumufyGJrSm uRefawmfta&G;rcH&awmha&m uRefawmfrvkyfEkdifbl;vm;? uRefawmf vkyfEkdifwJh[mawG
trsm;BuD;&Syd gw,f/ (2008)zGUpJ nf;ykt
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pnf;ykHudk topfawmifqGJcJhwmyJ/ (2008) zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'qGJwJhxJrSmvnf; uRefawmfwdkY &mcdkifEIef;awmfawmfrsm;rsm; ygw,f
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qGJay;vkdY&wmbJ}}[krD'D,mrsm; odkYajzMum;cJhonf/
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awmf0ifESif;qDü eHeuf(9)em&DrSpwifí usif;yjyKvkyfcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ tqdkygnDvmcHzGifhyGJodkY EdkifiHa&;ygwDtoD;oD;rS udk,fpm;
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apmzd k ; cG m ;

a&;ol

9 em&Dwek ;f u
10 em&Dwek ;f u
11 em&Dwkef;u
12 em&Dwek ;f u /
bmrSrjzpfcJhygbl;
bmjzpfcJhao;vkdUwkH; /
1 em&D
2 em&Dqufí a&wGuv
f m&m /
" Boney M "
" Boney M "

\
\

"Clender "
"Clender "

oDcsif;vkd
oDcsif;ukd

igtwkckd;
em&DawGudk a&wGu½f o
Hk ufoufayuk;d /

/
atmifcsdrfh

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)
'Dtm;enf;csufawGudk jyKjyifEikd zf BYkd udK;pm;&r,f/ usrwdt
Yk rSm;awG jyKusifch hJ
w,fq&kd ifvnf; 'DtrSm;awGjzpfcw
hJ ,fqw
kd mukd 0efcEH ikd &f r,f/ 'Dvakd emif
rjzpfatmifvdkY usrwdkYBudK;pm;Edkif&r,f/ ukd,fhukd,fukd vSnfhjzm;ae½HkeJY
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Photo : Phoe Khwar

10, 3 , 2013, Sunday

15

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 46)

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10, 3 , 2013, Sunday