# 3/12/13

Heat of combustion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Heat of combustion

The heat of combustion ( ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. It may be expressed with the quantities: energy/mole of fuel (kJ/mol) energy/mass of fuel energy/volume of fuel The heat of combustion is conventionally measured with a bomb calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between the heat of formation of the products and reactants.

Contents
1 Heating value 1.1 Higher heating value 1.2 Lower heating value 1.3 Gross heating value 1.4 Measuring heating values 1.5 Relation between heating values 1.6 Usage of terms 1.7 Accounting for moisture 2 Heat of combustion tables 3 Lower heating value for some organic compounds (at 15.4°C)[citation needed] 4 Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Heating value
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it. The energy value is a characteristic for each substance. It is measured in units of energy per unit of the substance, usually mass, such as: kJ/kg, kJ/mol, kcal/kg, Btu/lb. Heating value is commonly determined by use of a bomb calorimeter. Heating value unit conversions (for more visit Wolfram Alpha (http://www.wolframalpha.com) ): kcal/kg = MJ/kg * 238.846 Btu/lb = MJ/kg * 429.923
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 1/10

Such measurements often use a standard temperature of 25°C. This is the same as the thermodynamic heat of combustion since the enthalpy change for the reaction assumes a common temperature of the compounds before and after combustion. It is useful in comparing fuels where condensation of the combustion products is impractical.g. The above is but one definition of lower heating value adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and uses a reference temperature of 60°F (15.Wikipedia.. The higher heating value takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products. used by Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA) and originally used by API (data collected for API research project 44).56°C). HHV assumes all the water component is in liquid state at the end of combustion (in product of combustion) and that heat above 150°C can be put to use. The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered.3/12/13 Heat of combustion . Lower heating value The quantity known as lower heating value (LHV) (net calorific value (NCV) or lower calorific value (LCV)) is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapor from the higher heating value. This is more easily calculated from the higher heating value than when using the preceding definition and will in fact give a slightly different answer. or GHV.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 2/10 . as opposed to the higher heating value (HHV) (a.k. GPSA currently uses 60°F). and in particular condensing any vapor produced. In other words. The energy required to vaporize the water therefore is not realized as heat.wikipedia. Gross heating value en. gross calorific value or gross CV) which assumes that all of the water in a combustion process is in a liquid state after a combustion process. LHV calculations assume that the water component of a combustion process is in vapor state at the end of combustion. or heat at a temperature below 150°C cannot be put to use. Another definition. is the enthalpy of all combustion products minus the enthalpy of the fuel at the reference temperature (API research project 44 used 25°C. in a gas-fired boiler used for space heat). the free encyclopedia Btu/lb = kcals * 1. This treats any H2O formed as a vapor. in which case the water produced by combustion is liquid. The distinction between the two is that this second definition assumes that the combustion products are all returned to the reference temperature and the heat content from the condensing vapor is considered not to be useful. Higher heating value The quantity known as higher heating value (HHV) (or gross energy or upper heating value or gross calorific value (GCV) or higher calorific value (HCV)) is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original pre-combustion temperature. LHV. minus the heat of vaporization of the vapor content of the combustion products. minus the enthalpy of the stoichiometric oxygen (O2) at the reference temperature.a.8 The heat of combustion for fuels is expressed as the HHV. and is useful in calculating heating values for fuels where condensation of the reaction products is practical (e.

The combustion of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer (e.wikipedia. Note: Higher heating value (HHV) is calculated with the product of water being in liquid form while lower heating value (LHV) is calculated with the product of water being in vapor form. When hydrogen and oxygen react during combustion..in ) where hv is the heat of vaporization of water. Usage of terms en. Relation between heating values The difference between the two heating values depends on the chemical composition of the fuel. This value is important for fuels like wood or coal. the difference being the sensible heat content of carbon dioxide between 150°C and 25°C (sensible heat exchange causes a change of temperature. which is unused and thus wastes its heat content. This is particularly relevant for natural gas. In such applications. which will usually contain some amount of water prior to burning. For hydrocarbons the difference depends on the hydrogen content of the fuel.2% above its lower heating value (142 MJ/kg vs. whose high hydrogen content produces much water.out/nfuel. Measuring heating values The higher heating value is experimentally determined in a bomb calorimeter. A common method of relating HHV to LHV is: HHV = LHV + hv x (nH2O. the higher heating value of hydrogen is 18. The limit of 150°C is an arbitrary choice.[1] Most applications that burn fuel produce water vapour. In contrast. and includes liquid water in the fuel prior to combustion.g. latent heat is added or subtracted for phase transitions at constant temperature. All in all. two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen) in a steel container at 25° is initiated by an ignition device and the reactions allowed to complete.3/12/13 Heat of combustion . the free encyclopedia Gross heating value (see AR) accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as vapor. the latent heat of condensation at 100°C. for true energy calculations the higher heating value is correct.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 3/10 . however.Wikipedia. the two heating values are almost identical. The vessel and its contents are then cooled to the original 25°C and the higher heating value is determined as the heat released between identical initial and final temperatures. nH2O. Examples: heat of vaporization or heat of fusion). In the case of pure carbon or carbon monoxide.out is the moles of water vaporized and nfuel. For gasoline and diesel the higher heating value exceeds the lower heating value by about 10% and 7% respectively. 120 MJ/kg). and for natural gas about 11%. cooling is stopped at 150°C and the reaction heat is only partially recovered. recovering heat which would otherwise be wasted. For hydrogen the difference is much more significant as it includes the sensible heat of water vapour between 150°C and 100°C. and the sensible heat of the condensed water between 100°C and 25°C. water vapor is produced.in is the number of moles of fuel combusted. the lower heating value is generally used to give a 'benchmark' for the process. When the lower heating value (LHV) is determined. The gross energy value is relevant for gas burned in condensing boilers and power plants with flue-gas condensation that condense the water vapour produced by combustion.

but HHV should be used for overall energy efficiency calculations. and in any case the value or convention should be clearly stated. AR. American consumers should be aware that the corresponding fuel-consumption figure based on the higher heating value will be somewhat higher. Using LHV in other energy calculations brings similar errors. Accounting for moisture Both HHV and LHV can be expressed in terms of AR (all moisture counted).[2] since there is typically a 10% difference between the two methods for a power plant burning natural gas.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 4/10 . if only to avoid confusion. where flue-gas condensation is implemented. although any initial investigation may reveal that the US is still tending to use LHV in some circumstances. whether technically correct or not. The difference between HHV and LHV definitions causes endless confusion when quoters do not bother to state the convention being used. and MAF are commonly used for indicating the heating values of coal: AR (As Received) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured with all moisture and ash forming minerals present. While in the US. MAF (Moisture and Ash Free) or DAF (Dry and Ash Free) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured in the absence of inherent moisture and ash forming minerals. especially when pulled (incorrectly) into electrolysis calculations etc. Many engine manufacturers rate their engine fuel consumption by the lower heating values. For simply benchmarking part of a reaction the LHV may be appropriate. Heat of combustion tables en. This has the peculiar result that contemporary combined heat and power plants. MF and MAF (only water from combustion of hydrogen). this does not seem to be the case nowadays and most countries are tending to correctly use HHV for true efficiency figures. the free encyclopedia For historical reasons. This is becoming noticeable in modern UK energy publications with the increase of energy awareness and based on the simple fact that it is correct. However.3/12/13 Heat of combustion . MF (Moisture Free) or Dry indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured after the fuel has been dried of all inherent moisture but still retaining its ash forming minerals. values may have been reported to be generally based on the HHV.wikipedia. MF.Wikipedia. may report efficiencies exceeding 100%. the efficiency of power plants and combined heat and power plants in Europe may have once been calculated based on the LHV.

3/12/13 Heat of combustion .400 19.000 8.7 33.900 14.35 45.8 22.7 6.500 21.96 50.220 2.560 2.4 30.900 20.800 12.00 43.0 382.900 22.500 18.000 9.75 45.wikipedia.00 46.4 41.0 2.4 Fuel Methanol Ethanol Propanol Acetylene Benzene Ammonia Hydrazine Hexamine Carbon en.Wikipedia.100 726.400 21.877 119.80 46.00 15.862 19.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 5/10 . the free encyclopedia Fuel Hydrogen Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Gasoline Paraffin wax Kerosene Diesel Coal (Anthracite) Coal (Lignite) Wood (MAF) Peat (damp) Peat (dry) Higher (HHV) and Lower (LHV) Heating values of some common fuels [3] HHV MJ/kg HHV BTU/lb HHV kJ/mol LHV MJ/kg 141.800 14.00 61.700 20.300.80 32.80 55.700 2.30 46.300.9 41.90 50.0 4.8 9.7 29.00 21.690 8.500 Higher heating value of some less common fuels [3] HHV MJ/kg BTU/lb kJ/mol 22.50 15.50 51.20 44.900 19.6 49.0 32.35 49.35 44.50 43.000 8.0 3.00 47.0 1.50 47.500 6.5 286 889 1.0 1.270.5 19.0 393.020.0 622.200.000 23.370 12.300 14.

2 19.70 19.0 61.9 11.613 — 19.000 8.0 45.437.6 4.0 15.311 31.6 44.794 — 46.000 20.0 27.934 2.48 19.614 2.044.8 44.856.000 14.29 19.504 3.11 18.054 5.34 20.000 21.294.39 21.194 32.240 33.009 — 47.673 2.8 13.519.2 19.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .023 6.1 6/10 en. the free encyclopedia Heat of Combustion for some common fuels (higher value) Fuel kJ/g kcal/g BTU/lb Hydrogen Gasoline Diesel Ethanol Propane Butane Wood Coal (Lignite) Coal (Anthracite) Natural Gas 141.908.683.659.wikipedia.752 — 21.3 10.000 Lower heating value for some organic compounds (at 15.0 45.264.000 23.000 19.23 19.983 7.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .7 7.5 44.163 4.651.9 44.9 49.4°C)[citation needed] Fuel Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Isobutane Isopentane MJ/kg MJ/L BTU/lb kJ/mol Alkanes 50.30 19.357 — 45.2 15.427 31.003 6.1 11.0 33.752 29.357 28.551 1.3 45.Wikipedia.0 29.9 47.3 44.6 Isoparaffins 45.87 19.9 11.0 54.200 6.7 49.0 44.566 30.4 7.82 19.241 27.272.104 5.504 802.706 3.000 21.8 3.074.300 12.7 44.465.454 3.147 33.

380 33.194 — 45.8 43.2.18 19.450 33.7 44.496 30.636 33.3-Dimethylbutane 2.053 5.170 — 40.124 — 45.0 44.799 — 45.5 Monoolefins 47.656.682 29.659 29.055 — 45.194 — 45.334 — 45.213 6.203 3.6? 43.49 19.961 — — — — — — — 7/10 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — en.85 18.590 — 45.Wikipedia.52 19.3-Dimethylpentane 44.259.195 — 45.7 44.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .129.031 — 44.078 Nitrous derivated 10.426 — Diolefins 44.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .589 — 40.684 3.5 Naphthenes 2.56 19.5 Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Isobutene 1-Pentene 2-Methyl-1-pentene 1-Hexene 1.613 — 44.92 19.636? 33.310 30.3-Butadiene Isoprene Nitromethane Nitropropane Acetylene Methylacetylene 1-Butyne 1-Pentyne Benzene Toluene o-Xylene 44.193 3.693 — Acetylenes 48.133 4.241 — 46.43? 19.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia 2-Methylpentane 2.513 — 20.193? 3.850.458.061.4-Trimethylpentane 44.653 4.848.40 18.799 — 44.217 — Aromatics 40.756.

64? 13.88 16.222 2.2. the free encyclopedia m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene Cumene Methanol Ethanol n-Propanol Isopropanol n-Butanol Isobutanol Tert-butanol n-Pentanol Isoamyl alcohol Methoxymethane Ethoxyethane Propoxypropane Butoxybutane Methanal Ethanal Propionaldehyde Butyraldehyde Acetone Carbon (graphite) Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Ammonia Sulfur (solid ) 40.2 31.3 34.961 — 40.971 — 10.355 26.808 — 120.012 2.28 14.2 36.092 1.865 22.938 — 41.867 24.442.570 28.416? 35.77 12.018 3.889 — 31.62 — 52.017 244 en.4 Aldehydes and ketones 17.348 8.703 — 12.45 14.415.156 — 28.193 — 41.798 — 40.646 — 9.940 — 283.322.727 28.78 8.930 15.65 13.329.4-Trimethylbenzene 40.93 13.933 3.829.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .3/12/13 Heat of combustion .24 317.922.82 8/10 — — — — — — — — — 28.3? Ethers 28.6 32.9 32.9 33.563 2.79 14.wikipedia.55 1.510.172 2.610 — Other species 32.9 30.447 23.16 14.56 293.Wikipedia.3 33.8 30.259 — 24.959 26.342 1.568.843.984 — 19.192 1.253 4.501.680 24.769.061.798 28.76 15.587 25.548 22.0 37.43 14.163 — — 4.412 1.075 26.633 3.217 — Alcohols — — — — — — — — — — — — 638.509? 2.112 — 18.

wikipedia.320 kJ/m³ Norway: 39. Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources The International Energy Agency reports the following typical higher heating values:[4] Algeria: 42.710 kJ/m³ United States: 38.000 kJ/m³ United Kingdom: 39.200 kJ/m³ Indonesia: 40.000 kJ/m³ Bangladesh: 36. BTU/lb values are calculated from MJ/kg (1 MJ/kg = 430 BTU/lb).3/12/13 Heat of combustion . See also Adiabatic flame temperature Combustion Energy density Energy value of coal Exothermic reaction Fire Fuel efficiency#Energy content of fuel Food energy Internal energy Thermal efficiency Wobbe index: heat density ISO 15971 Electrical efficiency Mechanical efficiency Figure of merit Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources Energy conversion efficiency References en.231 kJ/m³ Saudi Arabia: 38.889 kJ/m³ The lower heating value of natural gas is normally about 90 percent of its higher heating val.877 kJ/m³ Pakistan: 34. the free encyclopedia Note that there is no difference between the lower and higher heating values for the combustion of carbon.600 kJ/m³ Netherlands: 33.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 9/10 .000 kJ/m³ Canada: 38. carbon monoxide and sulfur since no water is formed in combusting those substances.900 kJ/m³ Russia: 38.Wikipedia.416 kJ/m³ Uzbekistan: 37.