Section: Appendix A

Lower and Higher Heating Values of Gas, Liquid and Solid Fuels
Fuels
Gaseous Fuels @ 32 F and 1 atm
Natural gas
Hydrogen
Still gas (in refineries)

Lower Heating Value (LHV) [1]
Btu/ft3 [2]
Btu/lb [3]
MJ/kg [4]
983
20,267
47.141
290
51,682
120.21
1458
20,163
46.898

Higher Heating Value (HHV) [1]
Btu/ft3 [2] Btu/lb [3] MJ/kg [4]
1089
22,453
52.225
343
61,127
142.18
1,584
21,905
50.951

Density
grams/ft3
22.0
2.55
32.8

Liquid Fuels

Btu/gal [2]

Btu/lb [3]

MJ/kg [4]

Btu/gal [2]

Btu/lb [3]

MJ/kg [4]

grams/gal

Crude oil
Conventional gasoline
Reformulated or low-sulfur gasoline
CA reformulated gasoline
U.S. conventional diesel
Low-sulfur diesel
Petroleum naphtha
NG-based FT naphtha
Residual oil
Methanol
Ethanol
Butanol
Acetone
E-Diesel Additives
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Dimethyl ether (DME)
Dimethoxy methane (DMM)
Methyl ester (biodiesel, BD)
Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD)
Renewable Diesel I (SuperCetane)
Renewable Diesel II (UOP-HDO)
Renewable Gasoline
Liquid Hydrogen
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)
Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE)
Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)
Butane
Isobutane
Isobutylene
Propane
Solid Fuels
Coal (wet basis) [6]
Bituminous coal (wet basis) [7]
Coking coal (wet basis)
Farmed trees (dry basis)
Herbaceous biomass (dry basis)
Corn stover (dry basis)
Forest residue (dry basis)
Sugar cane bagasse
Petroleum coke

129,670
116,090
113,602
113,927
128,450
129,488
116,920
111,520
140,353
57,250
76,330
99,837
83,127
116,090
84,950
74,720
68,930
72,200
119,550
123,670
117,059
122,887
115,983
30,500
93,540
96,720
100,480
94,970
90,060
95,720
84,250
Btu/ton [2]
19,546,300
22,460,600
24,600,497
16,811,000
14,797,555
14,075,990
13,243,490
12,947,318
25,370,000

18,352
18,679
18,211
18,272
18,397
18,320
19,320
19,081
16,968
8,639
11,587
14,775
12,721
18,679
20,038
20,908
12,417
10,061
16,134
18,593
18,729
18,908
18,590
51,621
15,094
15,613
15,646
19,466
19,287
19,271
19,904
Btu/lb [5]
9,773
11,230
12,300
8,406
7,399
7,038
6,622
6,474
12,685

42.686
43.448
42.358
42.500
42.791
42.612
44.938
44.383
39.466
20.094
26.952
34.366
29.589
43.448
46.607
48.632
28.882
23.402
37.528
43.247
43.563
43.979
43.239
120.07
35.108
36.315
36.392
45.277
44.862
44.824
46.296
MJ/kg [4]
22.732
26.122
28.610
19.551
17.209
16.370
15.402
15.058
29.505

138,350
124,340
121,848
122,174
137,380
138,490
125,080
119,740
150,110
65,200
84,530
108,458
89,511
124,340
91,410
84,820
75,610
79,197
127,960
130,030
125,294
130,817
124,230
36,020
101,130
104,530
108,570
103,220
98,560
103,010
91,420
Btu/ton [2]
20,608,570
23,445,900
25,679,670
17,703,170
15,582,870
14,974,460
14,164,160
14,062,678
26,920,000

19,580
20,007
19,533
19,595
19,676
19,594
20,669
20,488
18,147
9,838
12,832
16,051
13,698
20,007
21,561
23,734
13,620
11,036
17,269
19,549
20,047
20,128
19,911
60,964
16,319
16,873
16,906
21,157
21,108
20,739
21,597
Btu/lb [5]
10,304
11,723
12,840
8,852
7,791
7,487
7,082
7,031
13,460

45.543
46.536
45.433
45.577
45.766
45.575
48.075
47.654
42.210
22.884
29.847
37.334
31.862
46.536
50.152
55.206
31.681
25.670
40.168
45.471
46.628
46.817
46.314
141.80
37.957
39.247
39.322
49.210
49.096
48.238
50.235
MJ/kg [4]
23.968
27.267
29.865
20.589
18.123
17.415
16.473
16.355
31.308

3,205
2,819
2,830
2,828
3,167
3,206
2,745
2,651
3,752
3,006
2,988
3,065
2,964
2,819
1,923
1,621
2,518
3,255
3,361
3,017
2,835
2,948
2,830
268
2,811
2,810
2,913
2,213
2,118
2,253
1,920

Source:
GREET, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use In Transportation Model, GREET 1.8d.1, developed by Argonne
National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, released August 26, 2010.
http://greet.es.anl.gov/
Notes:
[1] The lower heating value (also known as net calorific value) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by combusting a specified
quantity (initially at 25°C) and returning the temperature of the combustion products to 150°C, which assumes the latent heat of vaporization of
water in the reaction products is not recovered. The LHV are the useful calorific values in boiler combustion plants and are frequently used in
Europe.
The higher heating value (also known as gross calorific value or gross energy) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released by a
specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted and the products have returned to a temperature of 25°C, which takes into account the
latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products. The HHV are derived only under laboratory conditions, and are frequently used
in the US for solid fuels.
[2] Btu = British thermal unit.
[3] The heating values for gaseous fuels in units of Btu/lb are calculated based on the heating values in units of Btu/ft3 and the corresponding
[4] The heating values in units of MJ/kg, are converted from the heating values in units of Btu/lb.
[5] For solid fuels, the heating values in units of Btu/lb are converted from the heating values in units of Btu/ton.
[6] Coal characteristics assumed by GREET for electric power production.
[7] Coal characteristics assumed by GREET for hydrogen and Fischer-Tropsch diesel production.

Biomass Energy Data Book -- 2011 -- http://cta.ornl.gov/bedb

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