A FLUTIST'S HANDBOOK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RHETORICAL APPROACH TO W. A. MOZART'S FLUTE CONCERTO IN G MAJOR, K.
by TARA CAITLIN SCHWAB
A LECTURE-DOCUMENT Presented to the School of Music and Dance of the University of Oregon in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts April 2012
“A Flutist's Handbook for the Development of a Rhetorical Approach to W. A. Mozart's Flute Concerto in G Major, K. 313,” a lecture-document prepared by Tara Caitlin Schwab in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in the School of Music and Dance. This lecture-document has been approved and accepted by:
____________________________________________________________ Molly Barth, Chair of the Examining Committee
Committee in Charge:
Molly Barth, Chair Steve Vacchi Anne Dhu McLucas
____________________________________________________________ Ann B. Tedards, Associate Dean and Director of Graduate Studies, School of Music and Dance
© 2012 Tara Caitlin Schwab
MD DATE OF BIRTH: February 24. 5/12 Mid-Atlantic Symphony Orchestra. 12/10. 2nd flute. 2nd flute. piccolo. 2/12 Global Village Thursdays with John Schneider. 1/12 PARTCH ensemble at REDCAT. CA University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill. 2012. AWARDS AND HONORS: Graduate Teaching Fellowship. 9/08-6/12 Flute Instructor. 1980 GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOLS ATTENDED: University of Oregon. piccolo. 9/08-6/11 UNC Concerto Competition Winner. Eugene. 2nd flute. California Institute of the Arts Bachelor of Music. 9/08-6/11 Eugene Symphony Orchestra.7 Los Angeles. sub. 8/08-6/11 Manager. 3/12. OR California Institute of the Arts. NC DEGREES AWARDED: Doctor of Musical Arts. 2002.iv
CURRICULUM VITAE NAME OF AUTHOR: Tara C. University of Oregon Master of Fine Arts. Interlochen Arts Academy. University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Contemporary Music Performance Ethnomusicology Musicology PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Duo Amantis. sub. Schwab PLACE OF BIRTH: Greenbelt. 10/01
. Interlochen Summer Arts Camp. piccolo. University of Oregon. KPFK 90. 6/12 Traverse Symphony Orchestra. sub. 5/11 Graduate Teaching Fellow. University of Oregon. Santa Clarita Valley Youth Orchestras. 6/07-8/08 GRANTS. 2007. flute and guitar duo. Valencia. 4/12 Panel Discussion and Performance with Shulamit Ran.
and to Michael Kudirka for his wonderful partnership. I would also like to thank Rick Wilson. Steve Vacchi. knowledge. special thanks are due to Marc Vanscheeuwijck whose expertise and familiarity with the subject were greatly inspiring. and instruments with me.
. Paulie Davis. In addition. and of utmost assistance to me in the completion of this project. profound insightfulness. I am endlessly grateful for the munificent support of my parents Lee and Kathleen Schwab. who are patrons of the arts in the deepest and truest sense.v
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express sincere appreciation to professors Molly Barth. and Kim Pineda for their enthusiasm and generosity in sharing their time. and Anne Dhu McLucas for their assistance and guidance in the preparation of this manuscript. and brilliant musicianship. immense support. David Shorey.
... TEMPERAMENT & TUNING…………………………………65 TONE……………………………………………………………………………70 MEMORIA & CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………….49 ARTICULATION & EMPHASIS………………………………………………53 ORNAMENTS.….....46 PUNCTUATION & ARTICULATION……………………………………….…………………………………………………….….19 RHETORICAL ANALYSIS……………………………………………………..……....34 THE PERFORMER'S TOOLKIT …………………………………………….46 TEMPO & STYLE…………………………………………………………. RHYTHM.……………………………………………………………….…………74 APPENDIX A.....……...45 TREATMENT OF SLURS…………………………………………………….39 METER.....………………………………………………………………33 AN OVERVIEW OF MODERN STYLE AND THE CLASSICAL CANON…………....vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION & THESIS.………………………………………………………33 PRONUNCIATIO..…..32 SECTION III PERFORMER'S APPLICATION..22 INVENTIO. & IMPROVISATION…………………………. CADENZAS.………………14 TABLE 1: SCHEMATA…………………………………………………………14 TABLE 2: CADENCES & CLAUSULAE………………………………………18 TABLE 3: RHETORICAL FIGURES…………………………………………. & THE BEAT HIERARCHY……………………………42 TREATMENT OF RESTS…………………………………………………….44 TREATMENT OF THE DOT…………………………………………….....38 TIME…………………………………………………………………………….......58 PITCH...2 SECTION II TERMINOLOGY………………………………………………………..79 ANNOTATED SCORE ANALYSIS……………………………………………………. MELODIES & SCHEMATA ………………………………………………………78 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………... KEY.........27 ELOCUTIO.…………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………….1 SECTION I A BRIEF HISTORY OF RHETORIC AND ITS APPLICATION TO MUSIC…………...22 DISPOSITIO.85
In Section 2. the same aim in regard to both the preparation and the final execution of their productions. J. and to transport them now to this sentiment.J. namely to make themselves masters of the hearts of their listeners. The final section will address issues of memory and delivery in accordance with the rhetorical model. In his unique and comprehensive essay. and their music draws significantly from the principles of rhetorical practice as it was understood at the time."1 The application of the metaphor and tools of rhetoric to music is once again emerging as an important interpretive device for modern musicians interested in historically informed performance practice. held a central position in the educational. I will explain the basis for my own multi-layered rhetorical analysis of the score. XI.1 Introduction & Thesis The study of rhetoric. but essential for music before 1800. at bottom. In this essay I will use a rhetorical approach to provide a unique formal and stylistic analysis of the first movement of Mozart's Flute Concerto No.
. and as one begins to tap the profound reservoir of extant information on historical compositional thought and practice. On Playing the Flute (1752). Quantz asserts the following: "The orator and the musician have. 1 in G major. J. to arouse or still their passions. Our modern methods of musical analysis. On Playing the Flute. Mozart and his contemporaries were born out of this tradition. intellectual. I . now to that. a rhetorical perspective not only seems appropriate. Thus it is advantageous to both. Quantz. Section 1 will contain a brief introduction to the origins and history of rhetoric and its application to music through the time of Mozart. and education would be quite foreign to any composer before the mid-nineteenth century. referring to several primary and secondary sources. and musical aesthetics of the eighteenth-century. composition. if each has some knowledge of the duties of the other. and
J. or the art of discourse.
2 ultimately provide conclusions about performance practice that can be directly useful to the modern teacher. and actio (delivery). termed dialectic.2 'Rhetoric.' defined as the science or art of speaking well and using correct expression. memory. Section I A Brief History of Rhetoric and its Application to Music Ancient philosophers and writers recognized the interconnectedness among the persuasive arts and sought to codify the processes of invention. and was considered the essential. which focused heavily on decorum. arrangement. and to entertain or delight" a given audience. or performer. The moral perspective of Aristotle and his teachers opposed the ancient sophists who "taught that seeking the truth was secondary to
Judy Tarling. and delivery for the purposes of elevating and enriching man's ability "to inform. It was for this reason that Aristotle's Rhetoric described emotion and character in detail but neglected to address figures of speech and delivery. Treatises on rhetoric by Aristotle. style. rendering it of less use to orators and musicians throughout time than the work of the Romans. student. was fundamentally concerned with the persuasion of a large audience through the use of continuous discourse. like Socrates before them. Demosthenes. and was easily inclined to empower the dishonest with the ability to persuade. more human counterpart to the formal. reproached the use of rhetoric because it could provoke severe (and therefore morally corrupting) emotions. Plato and Aristotle. and Hermogenes were studied and later filtered through the writings of Roman author-orators Cicero and Quintilian. eloquence. to persuade or move. The Weapons of Rhetoric.
. unemotional method of logical debate. it could be used to hide it. 1. As much as rhetoric could be used to discern the truth.
as well as certain bodily fluids or humors and the organs that produce
Ibid. fear. rage. Physiologie. as well as in Europe's Baroque era. 5 Ibid. distress (grief). and passion was catalogued. "Die Affektenlehre im Philosophischen und Musikalischen Denken des Barock. and to influence the body to a great degree.
. 'Aesthetics' referred to all things concerning the sensory perceptions." and was understood to have great power and require great awareness and responsibility. Even in politics and law. where rhetoric first took root. desire. Ästhetik. joy. and Aristotle. Every human mood. and compassion. The morally questionable position that rhetoric has occupied throughout history is a primary reason for its relative suppression as a formal area of study in modern scholarship. This strong reaction to the power of rhetorical technique is understandable in light of the theory of the affections that has accompanied the persuasive arts since antiquity. courage. 6. and Quintilian asserted that 'true oratory' was impossible unless the speaker was virtuous and wise. which in turn corresponded to the four natural elements. and phlegmatic. Cicero defined the 'Perfect Orator' as an honest man. Ulrich Thieme. Vorgeschichte. melancholic. Plato distinguished four physio-psychological states or affects: delight (joy).. In ancient Greece. hate." 3. love. jealousy. each state of affection was considered a "non-independent consequential phenomenon of an external cause.4 Unlike our concept of emotion today. eleven: desire. and these "affections" were thought to stimulate the mind. emotion. excitement.3 the art of persuasion". and 'Physiology' encompassed the principles of Nature in its totality. the use of rhetorical tactics today is at once implicit and deplored. choleric.3 Following in the vein of Aristotle.. hope.5 Ancient Greek medical theory dictated that the affections depended on the four temperaments: sanguine. envy. and fear. 2.
A unique combination of the humors comprised the temperament of each person–an equation that was determined by one's physiology which was thought to be governed in part by one's astrological natal chart. and he drew a clear distinction between the passions of the body and those of the soul. 1721. and the belief that a composer or orator could literally alter the functioning of the body and the mind through enacting specific. a few basic principles in his philosophy. Depending on his temperament. Moeck 4032..
." VI. is nothing. those of Baroque thinkers were geared toward arousing them. René Descartes sought to scientifically concretize the theory of the affections with his publication Les Passions de l'Âme in 1649. Descartes used rational inquiry to codify the origin and physiological processes of affection. "Rhetoric in the European Tradition. 8 Johann Mattheson: Das forschende Orchestra. it does not do anything. and still bears profound influence on our way of thinking today.4 them. 1. 1982-84). 2-3. Ulrich Thieme: Die Affeketnlehre im Philosophischen und Musikalischen Denken des Barock.6 In the age of Rationalism (termed by musicians of today as the Baroque). "it is generally held that virtually every important position on the nature of rhetoric enunciated since Descartes can be seen as extensions of. it does not count. or reactions to. 170. Regarding the history of rhetoric. stereotyped techniques. an individual would be significantly more or less susceptible to certain affects. Vorgeschichte. Thomas Conley. A basic tenet of Baroque thought was that "everything that does not happen with laudable affections. This important division marked the birth of the Cartesian mind-body dualism that swept through Europe in the mid-seventeenth century. gave unparalleled
Ibid. Physiologie (Celle: Ed."7 While the main efforts of pre-seventeenth-century authors were focused on representing the affections. Ästhetik."8 The centrality of emotional sensory states in the human experience.
"Rhetoric in the European Tradition. Coluccio Salutati. Poggio Bracciolini. "Throughout the period from the late fifteenth to the early nineteenth
J. and to reestablish "the old republican ideal and a concrete exemplum of the statesman-orator. and others restored in full Quintilian's Institutes and Cicero's De Oratore. 15. 113."10 The burgeoning interest in the rhetoric and philosophy of ancient Greece was also reinforced by the immigration of many Greek scholars and teachers to Italy after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. The resulting wealth of understanding about the ethics and rudiments of classic Greek society and art inspired the early Italian humanists as they sought to reform society and culture. Tarling (2004). and partial versions of Quintilian's Institutio Oratoria were in circulation. "the most comprehensive treatment of rhetoric in the Renaissance.
. the Rhetorica ad Herennium." VI. as well as by the translations and contributions of George of Trebizond. possibly of all time. 11 Ibid.9 The widespread dissemination of these texts throughout Europe was facilitated by the invention of the printing press and subsequent publications by prolific Venetian printer Aldo Manuzio. and the ideology that sprang forth forged unprecedented pathways between music and rhetoric all over Europe. and resurrected many unread speeches and correspondences by Cicero. 9. a Cretian who moved to Italy in 1416 and wrote the Rhetoricorum libri quinque."11 Florentine society was fertile ground for the seeds of Humanism to take root. During the Middle Ages Cicero's De Inventione.. but significant discoveries in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries by Petrarch.5 credence to the devices of music and rhetoric as expressive languages that were capable of meaning and persuasion. Thomas Conley. The Weapons of Rhetoric.
illustrated by the admittance of the third as a musical consonance. Bartel (1997). German writers sought to incorporate Lutheran theology and Boethian mathematics into the flourishing understanding of music as a humanistic art form.6 century the comparison of the performance of music with oratory is frequently found irrespective of differences in national style or purpose of composition. The human sensus became as important as ratio in determining music's effects."15
J. 2728. 15 D. resulting in a uniquely German musica poetica. The Lutheran emphasis on exegesis of the Word coupled with the Renaissance emphasis on the linguistic disciplines resulted in a concept of music which elevated the expression of the text and its associated affections above all else. The Weapons of Rhetoric. heavenly) and 'practical' (earthly) music making. Tarling (2004). "the mathematical basis of music's practical side survived in the form of unequal tuning systems whose ratios and proportions.. With the growing renaissance and Lutheran emphasis on the trivium. But instead of dismissing the speculative acoustical science of music as irrelevant.
." dividing music between 'speculative' (mathematical. 14 Ibid."12 Although Medieval and early Renaissance thought rendered music a purely mathematical science that reflected divine law through order and numeric proportion. linguistic and rhetorical concepts became significant elements of musical composition. Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music."14 In seventeenth-century Germany. i. The purpose of music as an effective as well as affective means of communication made the practical discipline of composition more prominent than its theoretical counterpart. Ibid. the convergence of Lutheran theology and the newly emerging Renaissance Humanism resulted in "significant revisions of the purely speculative perception of music… [and] … in a 'humanized' understanding of the discipline. it was hoped. rhetoric's influence eventually fostered a "new consciousness of expression. 12.13 Though the role of music had expanded to include an intense focus on eloquence. resonated directly with the heavens.
Hypomnematum musicae poeticae (1599).
. as did Burmeister. Ibid. Kircher's "profound and all-encompassing tome.. dispositio. [He] was the first… to present a comprehensive list of expressive musical devices identified with terminology adapted from the rhetorical figures. and Musica Poetica (1606). and rhetorical nature of music. and elocutio."16 The study of rhetoric was also vital throughout the rest of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the Vatican-chartered Jesuit colleges (widely attended throughout Europe and also established in South America and East Asia) where the study of rhetoric was given a central position in the curriculum. 94." emphasizing "the similarity in purpose and method between rhetoric and music. mathematician. Athanasius Kircher was a German Jesuit theologian. Through his three publications. Musica autoschediastike (1601). 1650) was referenced by most German music theorists for nearly a century. and polyhistorian whose Musurgia Universalis (Rome. but also included a chapter dedicated to "musical rhetoric" in which he introduced the concept of a "musical inventio. he introduced a systematic concept of the musical-rhetorical figures. 108. affective. building on the numerous sixteenth-century references to rhetorical figures in music. music theorist.. or Figurenlehre."18 Many theorist-writers in the German Baroque extensively addressed the detailed.. and theorists like Joachim Burmeister. who was "responsible for developing and systematizing an approach to musical analysis and composition through the application of rhetorical terminology and concepts which would remain decisive for the remainder of the Baroque musica poetica tradition. writers. 18 Ibid. 106. systematic application of the principles of rhetoric to music. "In describing how the composer…
Ibid."17 Kircher defined musical figures." a "compendium of musical facts and speculation… essential to an understanding of 17thcentury music and music theory" highlighted the "speculative.7 The Lutheran Lateinschulen produced influential composers.
independent of any text. composer. rather than in counterpoint… With the eighteenth-century emphasis on "natural" melodic expressiveness. began to find widespread acceptance.8 could create a work of music. and was a close friend to Händel. Johann Mattheson. His publication Der vollkommene Capellmeister (Hamburg. Bach. in melody. theorists including Nicolaus Listenius. ultimately. Gallus Dressler. as each author sought to connect. Ibid. was also an opera singer. 61. Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music. in empirical observation rather than theoretical speculation.E Bonds (1991).P. Joachim Burmeister. "it was not until the mid.to late eighteenth century that the idea of music as a language in its own right. clarify. 21 D. 136. theologically determined and dogmatically objectified concept of music."21 Mattheson's book represented a shift in aesthetic perspective in which the power of music was rooted in nature rather than mathematics. Telemann.E."20 One of the most influential German Baroque theorists. and C. coupled with the influence of French and Italian ornamentation. While the metaphors of music as a language and the musician as an orator were related to vocal music throughout the seventeenth century in the writings of theorists like Mersenne and Kircher. and music critic. the contrapuntal-oriented classification of the figures [began] to give way to categories based on melodic Empfindung or sentiment… Through the following decades a new music aesthetic would replace the predominantly Lutheran.. encyclopedic presentation of all the musical knowledge which he considered essential to church or court musicians. and advance past theories of musical rhetoric to the new concept of musica poetica. Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration. The
. 62. church musician. Bartel (1997)."19 Differences in terminology and definitions abounded. 1739) was a "vast. and Johannes Lippius all drew upon the analogy of the orator manipulating verbal language in order to create a persuasive presentation of ideas.
confirmatio. "the predominant critical orientation of all the arts in the eighteenth century… assigned a central role to the intended
Ibid. and Empfindsamkeit would take the place of musica poetica.
." or "Klang-Rede. This new style of music offered a more accessible counterpart to the densely contrapuntal. and arousing the sentiments through music (musica pathetica) was a catalyst for the development of the galant style of music in the European court society of the eighteenth century. without words. harmonic rhetoric of the late Baroque style. a composer of the tonal language of instrumental music should really be capable. 137. Ästhetik..9 "sensitive" performer would begin to replace the informed melopoeticus. as if it were a real speech. he outlined the components of the musical dipositio (exordium. 24 Ulrich Thieme. confutatio. Indeed.." and he directly compared musical execution with the delivery of an orator."23 He encouraged the use of rhetoric's loci topici (subject areas) in the process of musical inventio. propositio.22 Mattheson considered a work of music "an oration in sounds. narratio. and elaboratio or decoratio. dispositio. Vorgeschichte. Ibid. meaning and stress with all the accompanying punctuation. the composer [could] arrange his composition through the process of inventio. and peroratio). "Die Affektenlehre im Philosophischen und Musikalischen Denken des Barock." and he suggested that "like the orator. to express all the inclinations of the heart through carefully chosen sounds and their appropriate combination in such a way that the listener should be able to completely and clearly understand from this the drift. sense. 137. key-oriented style that granted the performer ultimate agency and responsibility in expressive power and good taste in delivery."24 An increased focus on delivery." 2. Quantz recognized that "the proper effect of music depends as much on the performers as on the composer. decorum. offering a more thematically based. and he categorized musical-rhetorical figures as belonging to the musical elaboratio or decoratio. 139. As seen by Mattheson. Physiologie.
and manners associated with the cultured nobility. most charming. 313. attentive to the ladies. K. 5. a patron and member of the nobility. 5." most often. without concern. and training in one or more of the 'accomplishments' .10 recipient of a work. as Baldassare Castiglione described him in 1529. It referred broadly to a collection of traits. Galant was a word much used in the eighteenth century."28 Dutch surgeon and amateur flutist Ferdinand DeJean commissioned several such works from Mozart about the time that the flute concerto in G major. brave in battle. to educate and amuse themselves as amateur performers. inflection. a deep knowledge of etiquette. and trained as an amateur in music and other arts."26 W. including music. comfortable at a princely court.to optimize their success in the moment-to-moment interactions of society. While there is some doubt about the exact date of composition. 3..O. step. were considered a means toward an end."27 "Galant music. art. Music in the Galant Style. charming. 54-55. glance. word.25 "Courtiers in the time of Bach or Mozart artfully modulated all their social behaviors their every gesture. the flute concerto was certainly intended to be a pleasing piece that exhibited the virtuosity and sensitivity
M. 27 Ibid. and the natural sciences. clothes of real sophistication. great skill as a hostess. was music commissioned by galant men and women to entertain themselves as listeners.E Bonds (1991). was composed. and Leopold Mozart were products of and participants in this culture. literature. which was described even at the time as galant.A. Gjerdingen (2007). attitudes. tone. modern languages. he would be witty.
. wealthy from ancestral land holdings. and that end was to elicit an emotional response in the beholder. 28 Ibid. If we imagine an ideal galant man. would have the natural grace "to use in every thing a certain sprezzatura [nonchalance] that conceals its art and demonstrates what he does and says to be done effortlessly. religious in a modest way. most sophisticated and fashionable music that money could buy. as it were. then. and. R. This perfect courtier.." His female counterpart would have impeccable manners. and to bring glory to themselves as patrons of the wittiest. posture .music. Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration. The arts.
"The galant composer lived the life of a musical craftsman.31 The "stock musical phrases." will be explained in more detail later in this essay. Music in the Galant Style. Ibid. whom the general public has long viewed as the paradigmatic Baroque composer."30 A hallmark of the galant style was a particular repertory of stock musical phrases employed in conventional sequences. 6.11 of the performer.O.light/heavy. sensitive/bravura. and so on… Even J. 7. 25. Local and personal preferences among patrons and musicians resulted in presentations of this repertory that favored different positions along various semantic axes ..
. they understood it. of an artisan who produced a large quantity of music for immediate consumption."33 This
R. 31 Ibid."29 Not only did galant patrons generate and enjoy this music. Gjerdingen (2007).. Patrons of galant music were exposed to these schemata through frequent listening. comic/serious.S. as well as the prowess of the composer to match a musical work perfectly to a given occasion and audience. managed its performance and performers. "On hearing a standard bass. Bach. created galant music when it suited his and his patrons' purposes.. 149. listeners could project specific expectations about its outcome. and those expectations were a resource upon which composers could draw." which Gjerdingen terms "schemata. 32 Ibid. and became familiar enough with them to make "informed judgments about compositions and their performances. 33 Ibid. and evaluated its reception with a view toward keeping up with fashion."32 Composers catered their works to the patron's knowledge and were aware that their pieces would be judged according to the level of skill they exhibited in their ability to produce "exemplars of every schema correct in every detail.
and melodies paired with unfigured basses (solfeggi)."36 Relating a composer's use of schemata to an actor's use of stock characters and plots in commedia dell'arte is useful in understanding the function and nature of this style of invention and composition. with the difference being the lack of any other players or their parts. containing examples of figured and unfigured basses (partimenti). In behavioral terms. through the use of "a unique method of instruction centered on the partimento–the instructional bass. 25. or maestros.the memorized speeches.any one of its characteristic parts . which often changed clefs temporarily to become any voice in the virtual ensemble. The result was fluency in the style and the ability to 'speak' this courtly language." and developed students' ability to "improvise entire pieces as soloists. the partimento. and the learned responses of the student resulted in the multivoice fabric of a series of phrases and cadences. dialogues. The stock characters become the stock moods or 'affections. and in doing so committed every aspect of the schema to memory. From seeing only one feature of a particular schema . 36 Ibid. provided a series of stimuli to a series of schemata.12 system of composition was taught by Italian music masters of the time. The multi-act play becomes the multimovement sonata or multipart aria. and well-practiced physical comedy .. 9-10.. or zibaldone. These workbooks provided "an important repository of stock musical business from which a young composer could draw.' And the stock comic business . drawing upon their family's or teacher's musical zibaldone for standard phrases and cadences.
.the student learned to complete the entire pattern. The partimento was the bass to a virtual ensemble that played in the mind of the student and became sound through realization at the keyboard.35 Maestros and their students constructed workbooks.find analogues in the repertory of stock musical phrases or passages: musical schemata. A galant musical score was like a scenario in that it often
Ibid."34 A partimento resembled the bass part given to eighteenth-century accompanists. Ibid.
. one that could speak convincingly to any type of audience. with the graces. and spontaneous.37 In the galant era it was still expected that a master musician would be both a composer and a performer.40 As music was firmly established as a European language.A.13 provided only a bare notation of the sequence of schemata. 39 Ibid. Mozart abandons himself to the inspiration of his spirit and to a wealth of ravishing ideas. and improvise pieces of his or her own invention. Leopold Mozart mentions rhetoric (Vortrag) many times and applies it directly to composition and performance
Ibid. Ibid. able to perform."39 In effect. The rhetorical tradition was one of which Leopold Mozart was extremely aware. 117. the former being the point of origin for the very courtroom manuals that introduced the West to rhetoric. a composer of Mozart's time was necessarily an orator confident in many musical dialects. comprehensible. Mozart was known to be a masterful improviser and by age 7 or 8 he was fluent enough in the galant style to "play off the top of his head for a full hour. young Mozart was able to master the language of music to such a degree that he could participate in it as though it were spoken language–in a way that was fluid. ornaments. replete with all its regional variations. as he received his education in jurisprudence as well as in music. and elegant variation left to the skilled performer. 344-345 40 Ibid. In his Versuch on violin playing.. The most consummate music director could not be more profound than him in the science of harmony and of modulations which he knows how to lead down paths lesser known but always precise. The compositional method of the maestros offered "extensive training in fugal partimenti and imitative solfeggi" and helped composers like Mozart "to master a repertory of these stock contrapuntal combinations."38 W.. 9-10. As described by the patrons that heard him improvise.. elaborate. ideas which he nevertheless knows how to place one after the other with taste and without confusion.
function. with the first beginning on a metrically strong position. This was the seventeenth-century norm. and emphasis on 1 and 5 (the particular contour and order are variable). Gjerdingen in his book Music in the Galant Style (2007). in which the bass alternately leaps down a fourth and steps up a second. in which the bass descends entirely by step. SCHEMATA41: Numbers in bold represent the melody. and rhetorical figures employed in the first movement of K. the bass. Section II Terminology A brief review of the terminology used in my analysis is necessary. and the result was a young boy who could 'speak' and understand the language of music long before he could write it. Mozart's playground. with alternating 5/3 and 6/3 sonorities. and variants of each. all with 5/3 sonorities (the fourth of which was minor)..
Ibid. with the odd-numbered tones supporting 5/3 sonorities and the even-numbered tones 6/3 sonorities. and those underlined. Table 1. 7 (major). • In the bass. 6 (minor).14 practice. The world of rhetoric and music was W. central features. cadence types.A. and 3 (major). The following section includes tables of the most relevant schemata. Appendix A: Schema Prototypes. dividing them as Gjerdingen does. as many of the schemata I identify are specifically defined by Robert O. into categories of clausulae. remained an option throughout the 18th century Function: opening gambit Central Features • Four equally spaced events. 313. usually a downbeat. an initial stepwise descent from 1. Table two presents the types of cadences employed. • In the melody. 453-464. • A stepwise type. Variants • A leaping type. Table 1 contains the schemata and descriptions of the period of greatest currency. along with their musical and linguistic definitions. ROMANESCA Period of Greatest Currency: 1720s & 1730s. The third table is a list of rhetorical figures identified in this movement. • A sequence of four triads with roots (and mode) on 1 (major).
Variants • A type with the normal melody in the bass and what would be the normal bass in the melody. The third stage is often dissonant. with an extended third stage. or 7/5/3. an emphasis on the stepwise descent 4-3-2-1 (to effect a stronger cadence. one of the best indications of a musical style grounded in the Italian galant Function: riposte (answer to an opening gambit) Central Features • Four events presented either with equal spacing. 6/5/3. • In the bass. • A rare. • In the bass. three-part type with the first two parts in the minor mode and the third in the major mode
. The Fonte's first half is in the minor mode while the second half is in the major mode one step lower. and other long works. Central Features • Four events presented as two pairs or dyads. and four are consonant and in the same mode. Other possible basses involve typical cadential moves like 5-1 or 2-1. two. ascents from leading tones to local tonics. in which every other core tone in the bass matches the schema FONTE Period of Greatest Currency: used throughout the 18th century Function: especially common immediately after the double-bar in minuets or other short movements. and 5/3 positions. 6/3. remained an option throughout the 18th century. a high 2 is often inserted before the final 3). Occasionally the melody arpeggiates the local dominant chord. In concertos. large Fontes often function as digressive episodes. • Two pairs of sonorities: each pair concludes with a relatively stable 5/3 preceded by a more unstable or dissonant 6/3. that is. a short scalewise descent that ends 4-3.15 PRINNER Period of Greatest Currency: 1720s-1770s. with 4-3 in the one part sounding against 6-5 in the other. or in matching pairs. a 5 is often inserted before the final 1). • A circle-of-fifths type. in which often only the first two stages appear before a standard cadence. arias. while stages one. • A precadential type. • In the melody. • A sequence of chords in 5/3. There is usually a pedal point on 1. 7-1. an emphasis on the stepwise descent 6-5-4-3 (to effect a stronger cadence. often 6-5-4-3. Variants • A type with a canon on 6-5-4-3 in melody and bass. • In the melody.
• A two-part. • Diatonic types featuring the 6-5-6-5… interval pattern. consecutive chromatic ascents from leading tones to local tonics.. Delaying the bass descent from 1 to 7 creates a dissonance during the second stage. In brisk tempos. an overall rise. with local descents that complement the ascending leading tones in the bass. a procedure especially common early in the 18th century. • In the bass. The mode of the stable 5/3 sonority often cannot be predicted. "Do-Re. or occasionally presented with an extended first stage. each even will likely fall on a downbeat. In the diatonic variant.. and 5/3 positions. • A sequence of chords in 5/3. • A sequence of two or more pairs of sonorities where 6/5/3 precedes 5/3. • In the melody. an emphasis on 1-7-1 (sometimes 5 substitutes for 7). 6/3.
. Variants may include chromatic passing tones. It often had its normal bass part in the upper voice and its "melody" in the bass. Montes usually had only two sections that highlighted the subdominant and dominant keys. down-a-fourth bass and characteristic 4-3 suspensions. The ease with which it could be thus inverted made it a favorite schema for movements in which the bass begins with an imitation of the melody. the bass rises similarly but without the chromatic semitones. used in every decade and in every genre. Variants • Extensions of the rising IV-toV sequence to VI or even to VII and I. Variants • An Adeste Fidelis type with a melody featuring leaps down to and up from 5. • A Principale type with all 5/3 sonorities and a bass that alternately leaps up a fourth. then down a third. Central Features • Two or more main sections.Re-Mi" type.16 DO-RE-MI Period of Greatest Currency: One of the most frequent opening gambits in galant music. • In the melody. Function: opening gambit. MONTE Period of Greatest Currency: the preferred schema for an ascending sequence throughout the 18th century Function: In the earlier eighteenth century. an emphasis on the stepwise ascent 1-2-3. with each succeeding section one step higher. Central Features • Three events equally spaced. often in advance of an important cadence. • In the bass. • A Romanesca type with an up-a-fifth. Montes of three or more sections could effect relatively distant modulations. In the late eighteenth century.
scales and arpeggios focused on the tones of the dominant seventh chord: 5.g. 6/3.. 2.17 MEYER Period of Greatest Currency: 1760s through the 1780s. • The related Pastorella schema has 3-2-4-3 melody. The contour is generally rising. • A sequence of sonorities emphasizing the dominant triad or seventh chord. also sharing its closing dyad with Meyer. Function: often chosen for important themes Central Features • Four events presented in pairs at comparable locations in the meter (e. the ascending step 1-2 is answered by a 7-1 ascent (or 5-1). • A sequence of four sonorities. 7. and 5/3. Variants • The 1-7 may be higher or lower in pitch than the 4-3. in the latter half of the eighteenth century the Ponte was part of various delaying tactics employed to heighten expectation prior to an important entry or return. In later. • In the bass. 6/5/3. this bridge was placed immediately after the double bar and connected the just-cadenced "second" key with a return to the original tonic key. The first and last seem stable while the middle two seem unstable. • In the melody. In minuets. PONTE Period of Greatest Currency: More generally. Function: A "bridge" built on the repetition or extension of the dominant triad or seventh chord. with one. the core melodic tones constitute a major fraction of the perceived melody. or at mid-bar. two. • The related Jupiter schema has 1-2-4-3 melody. longer examples. sometimes in alternation with forms of the tonic chord in metrically weaker positions. usually 5/3. sharing its opening dyad with the Do-ReMi and its closing dyad with the Meyer. • In the melody. repetitions of 5 or even a pedal point on 5. • The related Aprile schema has a 1-7-2-1 melody. the descending semitone 1-7 is answered by a subsequent descent 4-3 (in the "typeical Italian solfeggio" both dyads are fa-mi in major). • In the bass. In earlier. Variants • a type with a descending stepwise melody 5-4-3-2
. sharing its opening dyad with the Meyer. the two paired events constitute brief moments of punctuation amid a profusion of decorative melodic figures. Central Features • Several events that may be extended until a stable return to the tonic harmony offers some degree of closure. across a bar line. shorter examples. and 4. or four measures between the pairs).
The 7-1 Clausulae. For compositions in the major mode. as does the Fonte. CADENCES & CLAUSULAE42 Cadenza .44
Ibid. Ibid. colon. and 6.18
INDUGIO Period of Greatest Currency: Uncommon in the first half of the eighteenth century. Its bass shares many features with the half cadence. 5-4-3 (or just 4-3) in the melody create a small inflection that. ending with a 5/3 sonority on 5 that is optionally the dominant of the main key or the tonic of the new key. 161-162.. Variants • A more diatonic type without the bass's #4. "Closes Characteristic of a Soprano" • Comma .weaker point of articulation than period. 156. A Converging cadence sets up the possibility for a modulation to the dominant key but does not guarantee that modulation.
.so named by virtue of the way its two outer voices move toward each other. a 6/4 sonority helps to maintain iterations on 1. its core melody shares the intervallic pattern of the Prinner. 44 Ibid. Central Features • Several events. • The melody usually emphasizes 2. sets off a syntactical unit from what will come next43 • Converging cadence . or question mark. and its ending is equivalent to the Comma. it quickly became a cliché in the second half. When passing through 5. Table 2. indicates an open-ended repetition of the opening sonority or figuration. • The bass features iterations of 4 leading to 5. with the three dots of ellipsis.. like a comma. The pair of open lozenges above.. "to fall" or "to terminate" Clausulae Cantizans . often with an inflection to #4 just prior to 5. 4. • A prolongation of the 6/5/3 sonority above 4 in the bass.It. • A passing-6/4 type with a more active bass that passes stepwise up and down between 4 and 6. leading up to a Converging cadence in most instances. Function: (It. Often associated with this "darkening" are "storm and stress" syncopations. converging on the dominant chord. with frequent approaches to these tones from below by way of chromatic leading tones. "tarrying" or "lingering") served as a teasing delay of the approach to a Converging cadence. the Indugio allowed. 139-176. which may act as an internal pedal point. the insertion of a brief passage in the minor mode. 7-1 ascent in the bass.
It. 50 Linguistic definitions acquired from the website Silva Rhetoricae by Dr. general descent (like Cudworth) toward the final 1.a 3-2-1 melodic descent over a simple or compound cadence • Cudworth . 164-166. Final Fall . 141-155. uses the standard bass in conjunction with a melodic descent through the full octave from a high 1 to the final 1 • Complete Cadence • Deceptive Cadence • Evaded Cadence • Grand Cadence . Appendix I. the tenor descends by a half-step and the discant ascends by a whole step • Incomplete Clausulae Altizans . Rhetorical Figures with Musical and Linguistic Definitions Rhetorical Figure Musical Definition49 Linguistic Definition50 Acciaccatura an additional. Gideon Burton. accent. Musica Poetica."true close.byu. but places a 1-6-5 descent in the melody Clausulae Tenorizans .most famous of galant cadences. 168." 4-3 bass motion that briefly deters an upward thrust of the cadential bass.19 Clausula Perfectissimae ." the bass descends a whole step and the melody ascends a half step • Phrygian Cadence .a form of clausula vera."simple ending" or "basic fall" (bass movement 3-4-5-1) • Cadenza composta . favorite for slow movements • Mi-Re-Do cadence . http://rhetoric.edu/
."Closes Characteristic of a Tenor" 46 • Clausula Vera .."Closes Characteristic of an Alto"47 • Passo Indietro . pp."The Most Complete Types of Closes"45 • Cadenza semplice . 47 Ibid..a 1-7-1 melody over a simple or compound cadence. 167. dissonant note added It."compound ending" involving the addition of a "cadential" 6/4 or 5/4 chord • Do-Si-Do cadence .final.. lower neighboring note usually tone51 added to the written note by the performer
Ibid. 'to crush' to a chord. 439-443. a musical "stop sign"48
Table 3. which is released immediately after its execution Accentus a preceding or succeeding upper or the accentuation of a word.point of initiation on high 1. 48 Ibid. "a step to the rear.. Brigham Young University. 49 Bartel. Ibid. unadorned melodic fall.
often in parallel structure lessening .edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.perseus. asking oneself (or rhetorically asking one's hearers) what is the best or appropriate way to approach something. diminution Deliberating with oneself as though in doubt over some matter.04. the name of a ceremonial at the festival of the Magna Mater52 generally. creating a growth in intensity various elaborations of longer notes through subdivision into notes of lesser duration. particularly between choirs in a polychoral composition a musical expression of opposing expressions. lowly. a general pause a descending musical passage which expresses descending. descent. although not always. http://www. repetitio Anaploce Antithesis
Diminutio Dubitatio.. or clauses in an order of increasing importance. an intentionally ambiguous rhythmic or harmonic progression from Greek ana = "upward".04. a general repetition a repetition of a noema. usually to portray being overcome with emotion a going down.
Anaphora. harmonies.0059:entry=catabasis&highl ight=catabasis
.tufts.0059%3Aentry%3 Daccentus 52 Ibid. Aporia
Charles T. bainein = "go" the repetition of the last word (or phrase) from the previous line. phrases. the arrangement of words.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. sentences. or thematic material a rest in one or all voices of a composition. A Latin Dictionary. or lines choral repetition juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas (often. http://www.perseus. or negative images or affections a gradual increase or rise in sound and pitch.tufts. or sentence at the beginning of the next repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses.20 Anabasis Anadiplosis an ascending musical passage which expresses ascending images or affections (1) a repetition of a mimesis (2) a repetition of the ending of one phrase at the beginning of the following one a repetition of the opening phrase or motive in a number of successive passages. Lewis. in parallel structure) breaking off suddenly in the middle of speaking. clause.
to sigh for. or affections of sighing or longing
. suspiro . Similarity of endings of adjacent or parallel words.to draw a deep breath. long for
Mutatio Toni Palilogia
Paronomasia Paragoge. Primarily. change. for vehemence or emphasis. Synonym for epizeuxis. a repetition of a musical passage with certain additions or alterations for the sake of greater emphasis a cadenza or coda added over a pedal point at the end of a composition a musical passage which seeks to arouse a passionate affection through chromaticism or by some other means a repetition of a melodic passage at different pitches refers to the specific use of rests in a composition employed to express sighs. note. but in a different form. or through imperfect or Phrygian cadences Repetition of words with no others between. or on the same pitch in the same voice. The use of a word in a context that differs from its proper application. interrogatio is described as employing a question as a way of confirming or reinforcing the argument one has just made. to sigh. Repeating a word. Catachresis Groppo Homoioteleuton Interrogatio an immediate and emphatic repetition of a word. interrogatio is simply the Latin term for erotema (the rhetorical question). with none between. for vehemence. especially as the speaker attempts to elicit an emotional response by way of demonstrating his/her own feelings (exuscitatio). or phrase a musical passage characterized by successive sixth-chord progressions a four-note motif in arch formation with a common first and third note : a general pause in all voices (aposiopesis) following a cadence a musical question rendered variously through pauses. gasps.21 Epizeuxis Faux Bourdon. changing . motif. Using words that sound alike but that differ in meaning (punning). Supplementum Pathopoeia
an irregular alteration of the mode a repetition of a theme. however. alteration Repetition of the same word. The addition of a lettter or syllable to the end of a word. In the Ad Herennium. Using a cognate of a given word in close proximity. either at different pitches in various voices. A general term for speech that moves hearers emotionally. a rise at the end of the phrase or melody.
13. and is ultimately far more descriptive.22 Rhetorical Analysis In his book. The "conformational" approach is "based on the comparison of a specific work against an abstract. in the rudimentary sequence of their
M." such as "sonata form. And in eighteenth-century accounts of musical form. in turn. He notes the fact that "Composition" is "one of the many terms that music has borrowed from rhetoric. Ibid. exhibit close structural similarities. 55 Ibid.E Bonds (1991). The final products of these two processes. Mark Evan Bonds explains the polarized methods of 'generative' and 'conformational' formal analysis that have prevailed throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as perspectives on the form and meaning of historical music."55 Inventio The art of composition both for rhetoric and for music was regarded in the eighteenth century as an essentially three-stage process. These ideas. ideal type. "considers how each individual work grows from within and how the various elements of a work coordinate to make a coherent whole… [and] … in its most extreme manifestations… makes no essential distinction between the form and content of a given work."53 The "generative" approach. conversely. and congruent with the compositional process of the time. "The first step is what German writers call the Erfindung or creation (inventio) of basic ideas. Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration. Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration. the manner in which a composer 'puts together' his work is perceived as analogous to the manner in which an orator constructs an oration."54 Bonds proposes that a rhetorical approach reconciles the generative and conformational dichotomy..
. 14. 80.
31-43. 173-174. relating it to the way in which the speaker writes his speech. Ibid. Typically. beginning with a specific intention or goal in mind. On the score analysis. While the rules of partimenti could be learned.. Table 4. through processes of permutation." The aim of a composer in the rhetorical tradition (to which Mozart most certainly belonged) was to invent a musical idea that was a suitable basis for construction and development. Below is a list of all the melodies used in the first movement of K. 313. so as to create a musical dialogue or argument that could effectively arouse certain responses in human temperament. I & Locations in the Score Melody Number & Title Measures in which melody occurs Melody 1 (M1) 1-11. Melodies in K."56 Rhetoric lends many techniques to assist the composer in the process of invention. a composer would create and develop one or two melodies within a given movement. and the diversity of melodic content is immediately visible in his music. constitute the Anlage or 'groundplan' of the oration or musical movement. 202-203. but is a type of genius. 80-81. these melodies are labeled in blue."57 According to Cicero (Book VII). 313. then constructing the means by which it can be attained. can be expanded into larger ones. 91-99. which may make one's cause appear probable. Mozart was known for being able to invent melodies with great ease. Johann Georg Sulzer. by which very small ideas. "such as the loci topici and the various devices of ars combinatoria. 63. a contemporary of Mozart. 139. 209-215
Ibid. "invention is the conceiving of topics either true or probable. a composer could not be taught how to be a brilliant creator of melodies. It was thought that true invention could not be learned.23 eventual order. wrote extensively on invention as the first step in the creative process. Mvt. 149-161.
and Style. and a more nimble and swift measure doth proportionately excite more nimble and sprightly passions. 61. 127-134. 64-65. 138. 125. (M3ACC) (17). 162-163. assign[ed] expressive qualities to intervals in Die Kunst des reinen Satzes. 122. 105.S. 197-202 27-29. Form. 44-45.G. such as a kind of languor. 79-85. 180. 4. While "Baroque music tended to develop one idea.. or topic throughout a piece. sadness. pride."58 In the time surrounding the composition of Mozart's flute concertos for Ferdinand DeJean. 187-188. which "according
L. 26. Ratner asserts that "Mozart was the greatest master at mixing and coordinating topics. 27.."59 In addition to specific notes and intervals being typified. 142-147 Melody 3 Acc. "Johann Philipp Kirnberger. 61 Ibid. Bach. 111-115. 107-108. Classic Music: Expression. 136. (19). anger. 204. 1771-1779. 164-172." and it was accepted "that a slow measure doth excite in us gentle and sluggish motions. 216-218 46-56. and other heavy and dull passions. 100-103. affection."60 In fact. to maintain unity through consistency. the style of this piece can be described as middle-style. fear. 179
Melody 7 (M7) 66-68. 60 Ibid. 89. 71-78. Ratner (1980). 175-178." by the time of Mozart. 189-196 23-26. 69-70. 86. 116. Overall.24 Melody 2 (M2) Melody 3 (M3) Melody 4 (M4) Melody 5 (M5) Melody 6 (M6) 12-14. "mixtures and contrasts became… the rule. 184-186 Melody 8 (M8) 56. 62. Ibid. such as joy."61 Mozart's treatment of the topics he chose for his flute concerto will be discussed in the next section. 118-119
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries "feelings and passions were classified in various codes. the student of J.
. 206-207 15-22. entire melodic segments were codified. [and] courage. often in the shortest space and with startling contrast. 88-89. 57-60.
"ideal type" (Weber)."62 Scheibe. Riepel. or just the attunement of a cluster of cortical neurons to some regularity in the environment. rather than chord progression]. "prototype" (Posner). pleasant. Knowing relevant schemata allows one to make useful comparisons or. Joy.P. and so forth….
. 64 R. to avoid "comparing apples with oranges. a welllearned exemplar. delight. lively. "natural type" (Rosch).O. be it an abstracted prototype.25 to Scheibe. 12-13. evidencing that "within the conceptual metaphor of the musical work as an oration. as schemata: a term with a long history first in philosophy and then in psychology. Gjerdingen (2007).64 Gjerdingen likens his investigation of galant musical schemata to the "taxonomic approach of the early twentieth-century Finnish school of folktale study."63 Gjerdingen refers to these musical ideas." which identified "tale types" based on "analyses of constituent motifs and shared complexes of motifs. and patience are best imitated in this style. [and] must please the listener rather than excite him or lead him to reflection. C.E Bonds (1991).E. "archetype" (Frye). a theory intuited about the nature of things and their meanings. M. 65 Ibid.. the themes of an instrumental work were seen as units of complete and selfcontained thought. or patterns. 164165. is ingenious. flowing. harmony must serve only to make the melody clearer and must never dominate [this refers to texture. "essence" (Putnam). "family resemblance" (Wittgenstein). and Türk all mention the concept of 'musical ideas' repeatedly in their writings.. "Schema" (Kant) refers to what is broadly called a mental representation or category. and well turned. Quantz. Schema is thus a shorthand for a packet of knowledge. love. The melody must be clear. and flowing." Experts in a particular subject may distinguish more relevant schemata than non-experts. Music in the Galant Style. The music may seem to develop more meaning. 10-11. Becoming acquainted with a repertory of galant musical schemata can thus lead to a greater awareness of subtle difference in galant music. and thus shares meanings with terms like "idea" or "form" (Plato). as the saying goes."65
Ibid. devotion. modesty. Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration. Bach. 7-8.
. that was in widespread use before the socio-political and cultural shift of the French Revolution. His work is reminiscent of studies by ethnomusicologists Peter Jeffery. I have identified the schemata present in the first movement of Mozart's flute concerto in G major. which he named after his teacher Leonard B. Meyer for first bringing attention to the 1-7-4-3 melodic pattern. His side-by-side method of comparison is revealing of many discernible patterns. The significance of these various schemata throughout society and time is explained in great detail in Gjerdingen's first
Ibid. respectively. In his explanation of musical schemata. such as the Meyer. while others are schemata for which he has created names. the galant style. especially a schema that unfolds in time."66 Gjerdingen seems to have found a genuinely rhetorical method of analysis that addresses and reconciles the polarity between the generative and conformational approaches.
. Albert Lord. In the score analysis that accompanies this essay. Leo Treitler. Epic Ballads and Counting-out Rhymes. Through Gjerdingen's analysis. South Slavic heroic songs. learned oral and written tradition.' Both assume different levels of analysis–subordinate narrative episodes each with its own subordinate motifs–and both eschew the single defining essence in favor of complexes of defining features. These are labeled in green and primarily use terms established by Gjerdingen in his book Music in the Galant Style. Yet neither is the last word in defining a schema.26 A tale type has many correspondences to what psychologists today term a 'story schema. he presents a comparison of seven bass lines from Locatelli's Opus 2 flute sonatas. David Rubin. and Anne Dhu McLucas. 13. and British-Irish-American tune families. Many of Gjerdingen's schemata use the original titles from theorists of the time. often hierarchically nested. and telling of the many challenges inherent in categorizing them. Mozart's music reveals evidence of a highly developed. in their investigations of oral tradition and formulaic theory as it pertains to Gregorian Chant. and that is now completely unrecognizable to our modern hearing of his music.
27 book A Classic Turn of Phrase. The different kinds of schemata can function as opening formulas, responses (called riposte by Gjerdingen), and clausula (or cadences). These are freely and brilliantly mixed, inverted, reversed, and combined by Mozart, as the objective of every great composer was to use stereotyped formulas in novel ways to set up and then evade expectation, allowing the audience to feel simultaneously 'in-the-know' and delightfully intrigued. The most relevant schemata and clausulae to the analysis of Mozart's flute concerto will be defined in Section II. Dispositio The second step in the process of composition is the Anordnung or Ausführung (the dispositio or elaboratio), in which the basic ideas (Gedanken) are ordered, elaborated, repeated, varied, and articulated in the sequence of their ultimate deployment over the course of an entire movement or speech. It is here that large-scale form is determined by the orderly arrangement of discrete units; it is at this stage that "individual melodic sections," to use Koch's terminology, are "united into a whole, according to a definite purpose. Through grammar, the material contents of artistic expressions are made correct; rhetoric, by contrast, determines the rules by which the artistic expressions within a particular work are concatenated, according to the end to be achieved."67 A rhetorical approach provides a set of rules to follow, a prescribed conformational form, but allows for an idea to develop from its inception to its most complex manifestation, through the generative process of thematic development and formal punctuation, or periodicity. A listener attuned to 18th-century musical rhetoric accepts the authentic cadence… as a firm and proper conclusion to a period. The half cadence–a pause upon the dominant–is a momentary interruption of movement, a comma or semicolon. A deceptive cadence… is a question, delay, or digression. An
M.E. Bonds (1991). Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration, 80.
28 inconclusive cadence–tonic or dominant inverted–is a signal for further action. Cadences, thus, are controlling and shaping factors in the motion of the period toward its conclusion; each has a lesser or greater effect of periodicity according to its impression of finality.68 In the accompanying score analysis, these terms appear in bold above the score as they occur in the music. These terms are listed and defined in a multitude of books on rhetorical music. The following descriptions are compiled from several sources and are applied to this piece as metaphors that help me, as a performer, to delineate and express the larger structure of the whole movement. These sections can be compared to the paragraphs of a speech, and are comprised of sentences, which are in turn comprised of subjects and predicates, opening phrases and closing responses, all of which are embodied in the various schemata, which I have labeled in green. The exordium "introduces the composition, arousing the audience's attention and preparing them for that which is to follow."69 Its "sole purpose… is to prepare our audience in such a way that they will be disposed to lend a ready ear to the rest of our speech."70 In the case of K.313, this takes the shape of an opening ritornello (mm.1-30) that prepares the listener for what is to come. The first five melodies are introduced clearly in this section, and without digression, prior to the flute's entrance. These melodic ideas are introduced briefly, so that the audience gets an idea of the topics of the piece before the solo flute states its case. The section concludes with a typical final-fall figure that serves as a grammatical period, which is then followed by a brief rest, or breath, in all parts. The next section, the propositio (mm.31-90) presents the "actual content and purpose of the composition," and includes the narratio, which advances "the intention or nature of the
L.G. Ratner (1980). Classic Music: Expression, Form, and Style, 34. D. Bartel (1997). Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music, 81. 70 Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, IV, I.
29 composition [and]… can be realized through the entry of the vocal part in an aria or the solo instrument(s) in a concerto."71 The section begins with what could be heard as a false repeat of the opening thematic material, but one quickly hears that the first melody is elaborated upon through extensive prolongations based primarily in virtuosic flourishes for the soloist. Like the exordium, this section is firmly rooted in the key of G major. All cadences and extensions thereof serve to reinforce this key area until the sudden shift to e minor that occurs simultaneously with the flute's introduction of a new melody (not contained in the exordium!) at measure 46. This new Melody 6 follows on the heels of the coda material (Melody 5) that previously served to finalize the exordium. This reassessment and development of the sequence of melodic events is the beginning of a series of melodic and motivic juxtapositions of various lengths. Yet another melody is introduced by the flute at measure 66 (Melody 7), confirming its position in the narratio, and supporting the overall purpose of the propositio. Combined with diminutions in the flute, the section from measures 70-83 recapitulates the second-half of the exordium, though now in the dominant key of D major. This recapitulation, rather than ending with the coda material (Melody 5), engages in extensive harmonic prolongations that set up a series of grand cadences that conclude the section and initiate the confutatio at measure 91. The function of the confutatio (mm. 91-148) is "to strengthen the proposition by refuting or resolving any objections to it, by way of suspensions, chromaticism, or contrasting passages which, when properly resolved, strengthen the original theme."72 The confutatio is divided into two primary subsections, the first of which (mm.91-104) relates most obviously to the arguments of the propositio, and the second of which features the stark contrast of the counter-arguments
D. Bartel (1997). Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music, 81. Ibid.
30 (mm.105-148). The second subsection is initiated after a striking adaptation of the previously accompanimental coda material (Melody 5) by the solo flute line in m. 103. This empathetic utterance followed by a scalar cadential flourish, is then responded to by the unison tutti forces, which transform from a "skipping" thirds motif to a scalar variation of Melody 8 (mm. 105-6). The material that follows in this second subsection is clearly derived from material in the opening section, but its antithetical nature is dramatically demonstrated by the mode shift from the dominant key of D major to its parallel minor in measure 106. This initiates a pair of protracted circle of fifths progressions, the first ascending (d min., a min., e min.) and resulting in a Phrygian half-cadence (B maj.), and the second descending (e min., a min., D maj., G maj., C maj.) and resulting in an approach to the subdominant C major that through converging, chromatic bass motion, leads back to the key of D major. Throughout these harmonic sequences, the flute seems to act out a dialogue with the other voices, oscillating between virtuosic passages and long-held chord tones to prove its versatility and responsiveness to the demands of the tutti. Indeed, this section is defined by the tutti's frequent forte interrogatio (questioning) figure, which seems to suddenly interject (mm. 105, 116, 125, 142, 144, 146), demanding the skill of the solo line to cope with the disturbance in texture. After the first circle of fifths sequence is complete (m.127), the flute is assigned an embellished version of the Melody 5 coda material (mm. 127-134), and then responds to the tutti's more supportive (less antiphonal) accompanimental texture by employing the more assertive Melody 8 interrogatio figure (mm. 136, 138). At m. 139 an interesting return to Melody 1 in the flute line, now altered by chromaticism, reminds the listener of the true argument of the movement, and pleads its case through a descending pathopoeia. At m. 142 this
31 results in a rapid antiphonal oscillation of the familiar interrogatio figure between the tutti and the flute. Mozart engages in a playful and mischievous dialogue between the solo and tutti forces. The forte tutti questions in D major (m. 142), the flute and first violin respond at piano in d minor (m. 143), the forte tutti questions again in D major (m. 144), and the piano flute and violin line respond again in d minor, but more emphatically this time (paronomasia). Finally, the tutti is convinced and reiterates the figure at forte, but this time in d minor! Just as someone telling a joke, as soon as the tutti is convinced of one thing, the solo line switches to D major, adding an extra measure of descending groppo-like flourishes for emphasis, which lead back to the statement of Melody 1 in its original key, initiating the confirmatio. This deeply playful sense of humor and wit is the kind that Robert Levin relates to "the three walnut shells and the pea– it's Three Card Monty at a street corner… You watch, and you predict that the pea is under the second, the middle walnut, and you're right. And then you're sure it's the first one, and you're right again. And you're sure it's the third one, and you're right again. The funny thing is as soon as you start to bet $20 a shot, somehow then you never figure out where that pea is... Mozart understands that to keep you playing you've got to win a fair amount of the time. In the case of the aforementioned dialogue between the tutti and the solo, he allows our expectations to 'win' several times before switching the card and deceiving our assumptions, to our surprise and delight.73 The confirmatio (mm. 149-208) employs varied and artful repetitions to reinforce the propositio.74 Tonal digressions from the propositio are here brought into a resolution with the tonic key. For example, the e minor Melody 6 is here (m. 164) stated in the subdominant C major
Robert Levin, Mozart Lecture III, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPuxV0xXEc8&feature=relmfu 74 D. Bartel (1997). Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music, 81.
ultimately concluding in a second final fall. mirroring that which concluded the exordium.).g. Bonds. Goldberg. Elocutio In the third and final step..32 to further reinforce the home key.77 and refers to the part of the rhetorical process in which figures of speech are employed. Wordless Rhetoric: Musical Form and the Metaphor of the Oration. On the score analysis. etc. At measure 209. I have included in red the most relevant
Ibid. 90) concludes the confirmatio firmly in the tonic key (m.
. 80. Haydn and the Performance of Rhetoric. we hear the final restatement of the opening argument (Melody 1) with additional subdominant prolongations that lead into the cadenza (paragoge) at measure 215. The grand cadence that previously established the dominant key at the end of the propositio (m. and ideas are adorned with the finishing touches that enhance their meaning and effect to the greatest degree. the orator or composer shapes all the remaining details of the argument."76 This process can be related to "clothing" the ideas in proper words. The double-suspension of the orchestra (6/4) is resolved by the flutist (5/3) and leads to the final tutti. which employs the coda material (Melody 5). 132. a device which is given the various names paragoge. and to alleviate the tension of all of the dominant keys just heard. Melody 3 from measure 15 is related to measure 189. may make use of an elaborated pedal point. (1991).E. 208). or sumplementum."75 Indeed the metaphor of the peroratio is an apt one to apply to the last section of this movement. "To end the composition emphatically" the peroratio "may include a repetition of the opening exordium or ritornello. (2007). M. Beghin & Sander M. manubrium. 77 T. The restatement of melodic material from the propositio (much of which was never stated by the flute in the tonic key) is now finally confirmed by the flute in the home key (e. the Ausarbeitung (elocutio).
without accents. and expressions of style. While Judy Tarling considers the processes of inventio. These rhetorical-musical terms as previously defined earlier in this section. even if performed with the strictest observation of pitch. dispositio. The use of rhetorical figures proved a compelling metaphor for historical composers in the embellishing of their ideas. Weapons of Rhetoric. and is generally regarded as the most important. She identifies the performer's main responsibilities are the processes of memoria and pronuciatio or actio. and to express them in the presentation of the music. in other words. It is our job as performers to be able to recognize these figures.
. Section III Performer's Application Pronuciatio (actio) Ever-present in primary and secondary sources on the subject of performance practice is the assertion that "Delivery is one of the principal divisions of rhetoric. if the words were not separated from one another by the accents associated with the
Judy Tarling.33 rhetorical figures employed in the movement."78 Both Tarling and Bonds cite Kirnberger's description of the rhetorical style of performance still alive towards the end of the eighteenth century: It is immediately apparent to everyone that the most moving melody would be completely stripped of all its power and expression if one note after another were performed without precise regulation of speed. and the thoughtful and skillful delivery of the music in good taste and replete with proper articulations. will be integrated into the performer's application in Section III. Even common speech would become partly incomprehensible and completely disagreeable if a proper measure of speed were not observed in the delivery. 99. she considers the performer's thorough awareness of these elements of music-making essential in conveying a piece's intended affect and form. and without resting points. the memorization and preparation of the music. good intonation. and elocutio to be the responsibility of the composer.
p. Quoted in M. interpretation. 6.
Die Kunst des Reinen Satzes in der Musik (1771-79) part 2."81 In his book The End of Early Music. but any good young instrumentalist knows how…each piece is expected to be played.. dynamic marks." the "authoritative list.34 length and brevity of the syllables. Such a lifeless delivery would make the most beautiful speech sound no better than the letter-by-letter reading of children."80 These works are "so pervasive and familiar that not only [do they] form the core of the repertoire for symphony auditions. we must understand not only what the music requires. Bonds. 81 Ibid. and implication of eloquent speaking. space. Modern methods of analysis. 105. right down to [articulations]. the act of performing music should be seemingly spontaneous–imbued with all the nuance.79 According to this assertion. section 1.
. But in order to perform Mozart's music in a way that reflects all the subtlety and delicacy of language. so that we may be as informed as possible when making decisions about how to participate in it now. and finally if the phrases and sentences were not differentiated by resting points. variety. 75. ease. 313 is a firm fixture in the "classical canon.E. and delivery imply a different interpretive process and aesthetic than what was intended when this music was written by Mozart. 80 Bruce Haynes. 69. It is important to understand how our current use of and relationship to this music has changed. and places to breathe. The End of Early Music. p. An Overview of 'Modern Style' and the Classical Canon Mozart's flute concerto K." Bruce Haynes describes the canon as Western art music's highly exclusive "corpus of works that is regularly heard. Haynes goes on to draw a very clear (but not very pretty) picture of the "modern style" of playing historical music. but what tools we possess to express it.
For this reason. or how it differs from Romanticism.
.. the automatic. The flute we play now has a different pitch and tuning system. and it cannot provide us with an example of the traverso's pitch-relationships and timbral idiosyncracies."85 He identifies some elements of modern playing as a natural result of the changes in instruments. tempo rubato. pauses. inflection (individual note-shaping). and beat hierarchy all tend to run counter to the predictable."83 Much of his complaint has to do with the constant use of vibrato. 84 Ibid. myself included. 59. that there is no
Ibid. but is less sensitive to the complex articulations mastered and catalogued by Quantz. and it takes more air to start and maintain the sound."84 In addition to regularity and equality.tossed off or etched out in rigid and disciplined equality…the attributes of Period style like phrasing by gesture. The cylindrically-bored metal Boehm-system flute is louder and has a more even scale. Ibid. those sounds that were native to Mozart and composers of his time. 13. and goes on to say that "modern performances rarely relax.35 He asserts. Haynes identifies "Vehemence" as "commonly applied instead of more nuanced and varied expression". "Comparing Period style to modern style. 32. as well as the long-line phrase that steamrolls over intelligible gestures and figures of musico-rhetorical speech."82 He further explains the "Modern style…shows the typical attributes of Modernism. 85 Ibid. "classical musicians play in Modern style…without the faintest clues about Modernism. the machine-like regularity of Modern style.. many people feel.. dynamic nuance. the overriding impression comes from the way 16th notes are treated . agogic accents and note placing. following written scores quite literally and being tightfisted with personal expression.
unattainable virtue (in essence a dead. Placing this vivid. that once our idol is touched by mortal hands. with Dante's poor Beatrice in the much earlier La Vita Nuova). As performers. Mozart is presented to performers and audiences as an impervious legend–his music." On one hand. To relate this to literature. divine giftedness–not to be tampered with. is held in power by an opposing fear. which is to say that our immortalization of. a perfect. causing a fall from grace and the ultimate demise of an icon that in turn represents our own virtue. marketed to listeners as a way of transporting the mind from the toils and noise of the modern world to a more elegant. we seem to teeter nervously between the desire to represent flawlessly what is flawless. beautiful state. and obsession with what we (erroneously) view as pure. unchanging window into one of the greatest achievements of human intellect and raw. In juxtaposition with this anachronistically reverent attitude (Mozart was not so idolized in his time). written in 1748 (and for that matter. orderly. dynamic. It is highly questionable if how modern musicians perform Mozart's music today could be termed "correct. and some understanding of rhetorical music and the differences in historical and modern performance practices. and ingenious musical style in the impossible realm of perfection and apotheosis while simultaneously relegating it to the unobtrusive role of background music produces an interesting dilemma for everyone. inhuman state). and the desire to participate creatively in the genius of Mozart's musical style.
.36 substitute for some experience playing the traverso. his music is often consigned to the genre of 'soothing' classical entertainment. fear of. our modern handling of Mozart's music bears an uncanny resemblance to the uncomfortable treatment of the heroine Clarissa in Samuel Richardson's epistolary novel of the same name. imminent and total corruption of that purity will ensue.
dynamics. in the twentieth century.com/watch?v=RWKbOGMqDVw 88 B. and emphasis are regularly present in one's performance. "is that these pieces have become museum pieces. and of course. 113. and steady frame our modern pedagogy. individual note shaping. and with exact adherence to the musical score. more nuance can be derived–"when parameters like dynamic nuance.'86 "What the 19th Century did to Mozart was. a beautiful face. they act like windows into the soul. But with the application of a historically informed perspective." according to Robert Levin. what starts by being a notion of beauty ends up being rather "prettified". and articulations with a meticulous and pre-ordained precision. The End of Early Music. it turned Mozart into a fashion model. because his music teems with all of the disorder of the human condition. rubato. http://www. things needed to be beautiful. to edify. beat hierarchy. pauses. rather than to enliven him. smooth. agogics and note placing. transparent. In short. and so we get performances of Mozart that tend to "embalm" him. as
Robert Levin. orderly. it cultivated an attitude towards Mozart performance in which things needed to be smooth. And to turn Mozart into an object which is just simply "nice. and very little opportunity to make creative decisions about how to play it."88 Without considering these attributes of musical performance integral to the rhetorical perspective. so thoroughly known…" that any variation in the way that we play them is perceived as a mistake.
. and in 'poor taste. pretty" is…unforgivable. a mask. and we encourage students to follow rhythms. and as a result of that. and to persuade their listeners. of beauty. Haynes (2007). "On the Edge" (1992) directed by Derek Bailey (B).youtube. In an age defined by recordings and an unyielding focus on technical virtuosity. through almost limitless repetition. it turned Mozart into the definition of taste. musicians must use every available device to delight. pleasant. They have become. ornaments. of elegance. things needed to be poised.37 The "terrible problem now."87 Descriptions of Mozart's music as transcendent. [transcription by Tara Schwab] 87 Robert Levin. we end up with very little (if any) variety in the performance of this work.
and understanding. and persuade the audience.
J. Weapons of Rhetoric. It is important to remember that in the absence of specific written indications." as they can be applied to the first movement of this concerto." and will inevitably open new avenues of expression. As performers we are responsible for using our informed intuition to 'fill in the gaps' of the unwritten traditions that accompany music like Mozart's. delight. creativity. The following sections will explore what Judy Tarling refers to as the "weapons of rhetoric. Tarling. Mozart was one of the most specific in his indications and written-out ornamentation. but a great deal was left unstated because much of it was implicit in the style of the time. the "mother of boredom.89 My objective here is to explore the toolkit that a rhetorical approach provides for us to tackle such a task. and expanding one's toolkit in order to be as equipped as possible in live performance to move.
. 107. This is what was expected . Below are the most essential tools to begin developing that ability within the rhetorical tradition. Building a strong foundation of awareness and agency for modern performers of historical music will help to arrest the threat of monotony. Discovering the rules and how to toy with them successfully requires learning how to use the tools of rhetorical music. Generally. if a composer of Mozart's time takes care to indicate something in the music it more often implies the breaking of a rule than the statement of one. The Performer's Toolkit Constructing a spontaneous and personal performance of rhetorical music provides a particular challenge. it is the performer's duty to make decisions about how to enliven passages and melodies in unique and delightful ways using variety and innovation within the context of the 'rules'.38 the very persistence of the art depends on it.and directly opposes a model which assumes nothing but what is explicitly written.
. where a flexible pulse is not the norm. or does he refer to the timing of particular nuances within that pulse? Certainly. In this context. elide. It does not only animate the same. therefore time is the soul of music. When Leopold Mozart refers to 'time. the best speed by which each passage and its sentiment could be brought to have the strongest possible effect upon the listener. As opposed to the longline phrasing of the Romantic style that corresponds to a more flexible. Treatise on Violin Playing. truncate. and correspondingly. the language of the galant style depended on a structure of regular stress and release. in the modern age of the metronome. This mechanical kind of "musical fashion" is epitomized in Ravel's Bolero (1928). but retains all the component parts thereof in their proper order. and are particularly noticeable since they defy the listener's well-established internal sense of pulse and expectation. or compress the thrust of the music act as specific devices of expression. 30."90 This statement.' does he simply mean the tempo and 'thrust' of the movement. and is often that which is lacking in many who otherwise have advanced fairly far in music and have a good opinion of themselves. is somewhat ambiguous. decisions to pause.39 Time "Time makes melody. wherein melodic ideas develop in relationship to that stereotyped rhythmic context. emotionally governed sense of time. Time decides the moment when the various notes must be played. the machine elements of the factory reflected in the
Leopold Mozart. a movement's tempo was determined by a performer's ability to discern from the music the intended affect. but in the eighteenth century. while profound. for which he conceived a "stage design…with a factory in the background. stretch. performers accustom themselves to a very steady sense of the beat. Mozart's music precedes the twentieth century's obsession with perfectly aligned rhythmic hierarchies (like the perfect meshing of gears in an engine).
Cambridge. Routledge NY/London (2002). The Stravinsky Legacy. Each piece that he wrote was intended for people
Douglas A."91 Stravinsky's Petrushka was criticized by Adorno "for its mechanical. and seem to exhibit a greater concern with the power and beauty of tone and melody than with the clear articulation of meter and gesture."92 The modern performer lives in the shadow of this kind of mechanistic approach to music. mechanically oriented concept of time. we have a very precise. Lee. 'lifeless' aspects because. denying the possibility for flexibility and a communally agreed-upon sense of thrust and pulse. 92 Jonathan Cross. This way of conceptualizing the music encourages an unyielding sense of time in which exactness and uniformity are applied to every layer of the rhythmic hierarchy. What is lost in Mozart's music. where 'keeping the beat' is the job of the metronome or the conductor. and we also tend to apply that evenness to the smaller layers of time as well as the overall structure. While this does not prohibit flexibility of time in modern performance. Masterworks of Twentieth-Century Music: The Modern Repertory of the Symphony Orchestra.40 relentless mechanical repetition underlying the music.
. 329. and rarely the soloist or a leading-member of the ensemble. Interpretations of Mozart in the 'modern style' lack a certain lightness and clarity of pulse. under this paradigm. Today. and does not yield the intended effect. Cambridge University Press. is the very essence of rhetorical performance – the relationship to the audience. 36. What is most noticeable in a comparison of modern and 'period' styles of performing is the difference in the way time and its components are treated. he argued. … [It is] an act of violence against the subject with the enthronement of a mechanical factor as authority. it resulted in dehumanization: 'The images of mechanical music produce the shock of a modernity which is already past and degraded to a childish level. UK (1998). it reinterprets it in a way that does not reflect the same context and aesthetic in which it was created.
95 Ibid. Mozart to his Father. and having heard it several times. not quick playing. Accordingly. 1778. phrase.J. and decorum.."93 If we are to play as though we composed this music ourselves.. provided the following prescription for performers in his treatise On Playing the Flute (1752): "Your principal goal must always be the expression of the sentiment. with appropriate expression and taste in every note. While an appropriate tempo should be influenced by the size of the hall. 383.' It would serve us well to remember that "the listener is moved not so much by the skill of the performer as by the beauty which he knows how to express with his skill. if the piece is not to lose all its agreeableness. The units of musical dialogue must be comprehensible in order to be detectable. With skill a musical machine could be constructed that would play certain pieces with a quickness and exactitude so remarkable that no human being could equal it either with his fingers or with his tongue. To simply aspire to play the music as written. you would even cease to be astonished. 17.
. Indeed it would excite astonishment. etc. so that one would suppose the performer had composed it himself.41 that understood music (beyond the sheer delight in the sound) as a language in which they participated as connoisseurs. the size and nature of the
MacClintock. Mozart felt that every piece should be played "in correct time. 135. must play each piece with its proper fire. and wish to touch people. Jan. but it would never move you. at a given tempo. 131. anticipating a tendency toward mechanical playing. J."95 To avoid monotony. On Playing the Flute. without deeper consideration of timing. personal way to judge the best tempo for the performance of this music. and this directly relates to the treatment of time and pulse. and understood its construction. then it is appropriate that we explore every possible avenue to understanding it. Quantz. was the very thing that musicians of the galant era defined as 'poor taste. we must also avoid a mechanical approach and derive a more practical. but they must also avoid immoderate haste. those who wish to maintain their superiority over the machine. delivery. as it should go."94 Quantz.
Meter. describing the degree of 'accent' or emphasis given to "the specially strong beats… [which are]. While it is tempting to rely on the convenience of the metronome to establish our sense of time. Rhythm. the first note of the first crotchet. but also the implications of the meter and the ways in which various expressive uses of time bring the music to life. [and] the first note of the half-bar or third crotchet in 4/4 time. it precludes the development of a self-generated concept of pulse–"the pulse beat at the hand of a healthy person"–which Quantz considered the "most useful…guide for tempo. of bars within a phrase and of phrases within the whole. in every bar."98 While the hierarchy of beats is generally introduced to music students today. But today's standards of what is executable depend on a different instrument. and above all. and a different concept of time. Students are as often taught to play 'over the barline' and to create
Ibid. our modern relationship to the influence of meter is drastically different from that of musicians of Mozart's time. and the Beat Hierarchy "In the eighteenth century musicians attached great importance to the hierarchy of beats within a bar. A few basic premises of the rhetorical approach are outlined below and will later be applied specifically to the piece.. from a thorough investigation and manifold understanding of what the music requires."97 In chapter twelve of Leopold Mozart's treatise he describes the hierarchy of beats within the measure. 283.
. The regular metrical division of the bar-line denoted the importance of the downbeat and.. 98 Leopold Mozart. 74. we must consider not only the tempo. or 12/8 time also the half-bar. 219.42 ensemble."96 Flutists are encouraged to derive the tempo of a movement by looking to the most technically difficult passage within it. to some extent. Therefore. 6/8. Rachel Brown. Treatise on Violin Playing. The Early Flute. lacking the nuances of rhetorical music that would have been implicit to Mozart. a different aural environment. in 4/4. it should first be assessed in practice. the audience.
"99 In music. then circumventing and defying those patterns.
. must begin on a strong beat and conclude on a weak beat. This
Stephanie Vial.. In other words. wherein the strongest emphasis always falls on the first beat of a bar of 4/4. Meter is a term "borrowed from poetry. the complexly colorful and unmitigated bond between music and language is always visible. The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century: Punctuating the Classical "Period"."101 While slightly varying definitions of musicalrhetorical terms and their functions multiply with every new source a performer encounters.100 Classical rhetoric regards rhythm and meter "as the combination and arrangement of syllabic feet into commas. On the other hand a trochee consisting of a long syllable followed by a short syllable. lyrical phrases with gradual crescendos and decrescendos. and vice versa. 74. colons. 100 Ibid. In the eighteenth century a composer's concept of meter was directly influenced by rhetoric and poetry and their music was informed by the way speech influences the expression of time. must begin on a weak beat so that the second syllable then falls on a point of metrical stress. is the correspondence of short syllables to weak beats (also called "bad" beats) of the bar. Certainly there are dynamic shifts in Mozart's music. and periods. What seems to best define the concept of musical meter. is a key element of expressing form and emotion in this music. consisting of a short syllable followed by a long syllable. but the thrust of a phrase has a much more immediate connection to the hierarchy of beats. and the second strongest falls on the third quarter note in each bar.. where it defines the flow and the length of the line by help of feet. and long syllables to strong beats (or the "good beats") of the bar. Koch claims that meter (poetic feet) and metrical stress are so similar to each other that one clarifies the other. 74-75. Setting up regular patterns of stress and release. meter dictates the number of beats in a measure and the allocation of emphasis within it. ignoring any implied stress that corresponds to the hierarchy of beats. 23. 101 Ibid.43 long. an iamb.
or delayed proves essential to articulating units of musical thought within a movement. and that they in truth drank deeply from this well-spring. deceived. then 'a much more refined perception' (i. and commas of music conclude with visible rests.
. that the diversity and inexhaustibility of rhythm was present to and intuitively seized by them. Ibid."103 But when those "phrase segments. are not separated from one another by any visible rest. does "prove that neither Beethoven or Mozart. interrupted. nor Bach and Händel for that matter. evaded. Being able to recognize points of punctuation and how they are completed. they are "perceptible to even the dullest senses. 104 Ibid. colons.. thought and felt in that colorless and thread-bare fashion which people now-a-days are so fond of calling classic repose and simplicity. a more experienced musical ear) is required in order to find them quickly."104 The way that "resting points of the spirit" are used to delineate small and large units of meaning in music is lucidly and thoroughly examined by Stephanie Vial in her book The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century: Punctuating the Classical "Period.."102 Treatment of Rests In his discussion of musical punctuation (musikalische interpunktion) Türk explains that when the period.. 64.e. The following
Ibid. and how rhetorical composers related language to their own music. Another drawback of playing Mozart's music in a way that is too even and mechanical is that it disables the clear expression of these implied points of rest." an important guide for understanding how methods of punctuation evolved in language and music. while complicated and offering few hard-and-fast solutions. particularly the smallest members. semicolons.44 kind of perspective. 117.
even expression of the written rhythms is the practice of "over-dotting [which] involves the alteration of printed rhythms."105 Quantz states it as common practice that "in dotted quavers. We are taught to abide by the rhythms of Mozart's music exactly–counting each dotted note for its full value and no more. More than a measure of exact time. and making sure that the short notes that follow are played exactly in time. 107 Ibid.
.45 sections–Punctuation & Articulation. because of the animation that these notes express. C. and ultimately masks the intended affect.E. Bach and Leopold Mozart recommended that those dotted notes be lifted "in a springing style. Treatment of the Dot In direct opposition to the regular. fixed. The practice of extending the duration of dotted notes to produce a livelier affect is an element of performance practice generally not recognized today outside of the Historically Informed Performance movement. or abstract rhythm. not slightly late.P. semiquavers. and demisemiquavers… you depart from the general rule. it was a tool of musical rhetoric. suggestions for implementing a more rhetorical treatment of the dot will be detailed. prolonging an already dotted long-note and delaying (contracting) the following short note."106 In addition to lengthening the time of the dotted-notes.
Ibid.107 The dotted figure was meant to express an affect. 84 Ibid.." in order to properly express the implied liveliness of dotted gestures in fast tempi. But this uniform treatment of dotted notes only obscures the elements of rhythm and metric stress detailed above. and Articulation & Emphasis–explore ways in which to treat and express the units of punctuation that have been identified in the rhetorical analysis. In the following section titled Articulation and Emphasis. not a sterile. or shorter than indicated (as was still the tradition in Mozart's time).
Ibid. combined with the tendency for phrases to lean forward towards the middle of the measure and away from downbeats. four. simply ceased to be aesthetically desirable amidst the more powerful. so fundamental a part of contemporary 'articulation' and performance style. 128-129. It was understood that "if in a musical composition two. which "indicates a cheerful. The aforementioned 'eighteenth-century concept of the slur' will be referred to throughout the following sections on performance practice and applied to various examples of phrasing and gesture.. followed by a softer.
.. three."108 On wind instruments. had begun to disappear" by the mid-1800's. this implied emphasis was achieved by "giving force to the first note and softness to the second."109 "This eighteenth-century concept of the slur.111 The modern concept of the slur runs the risk of obscuring the beat hierarchy and the thrust of the meter. and often blurs the expression of rhetorical gestures. especially [as is the case here] when moderated by
Ibid.110 "The implied convention of an accent or stress on the first note. but the remainder slurred on to it quite smoothly and more and more quietly. gentle release.46 Treatment of Slurs The simple indication of a slur holds a different meaning for the modern performer than it did for a performer of the 18th century. 110 Ibid. 128. 111 Ibid.. and musical ideas. so that one recognizes therefrom that the composer wishes the notes not to be separated but played singingly in one slur. and even more notes be bound together by the half circle. resting points. sustaining ability of instruments. the first of such united notes must be somewhat more strongly stressed. Tempo & Style The first movement of this concerto is marked Allegro. though not too hurried a tempo. 129.
364. everything that pertains to caricature and comedy. and to display a soloist's skill and musical sensitivity. Unlike the high-style of expression. and in the low style we include that which is more popular and obvious than genteel. more trifling and merry than clever. the fundamental principle in a social order organized according to clergy. To clarify the idea of style. or to represent sacred (high-style) or farcical (low-style) topics. bourgeois. satisfaction."114 The purpose of a piece in the middle-style is to delight and entertain the nobility. the best division is: the high.113 This flute concerto falls into the "middle style. in addition. and to express it suitably. with majesty. and particularly.
. Hence it is necessary to investigate whether the piece to be played consists entirely of gay ideas. exalted. and Style. 114 Ibid."115 in the middle-style Allegro. cheerfulness.47 adjectives…such as: … Maestoso. or whether these are
Leopold Mozart. calmness. The high style encompasses all great. with limited contrast throughout a principal section. not hurried. "the passions change frequently… The performer must therefore seek to transport himself into each of these passions. 50-51. 115 Ibid. deliberately. 365. It does not aim to edify the audience. and the low or comic. "Dignity of musical style reflected the consciousness of status in 18thcentury life. 364."112 In order to determine how the adverb "cheerfully" and the adjectives "majestic" and "deliberate" apply to this piece.. to elicit intense feelings or passions. The middle-style includes softer and milder feelings. Classic Music: Expression. dreadful feelings. which "called for maintenance of the ruling sentiment.. such as love. except that instrumental music. the middle or moderate. Instrumental music. and joy. A Treatise on Violin Playing. tries to arouse wonder by means of brilliant passages proper to the virtuoso technique of the instrument." as do most virtuosic instrumental pieces and concertos of the time. and peasant and their internal rankings. is also classified accordingly. nobility. Leonard Ratner. one must first determine the style of the piece. and violent passions. Form. which is an echo of the feelings that vocal music expresses.
"116 As has been made clear by the rhetorical analysis. Mozart from Augsburg. Quantz. it does a performer well to remember. Quantz prescribes that "quick passagework must be played above all roundly."119 but he reminds the performer "never [to] lose your composure. and addressed by Quantz in the following passage:121 Pains must be taken to play each note with its proper value. 131. On Playing the Flute. To
J. For everything that is hurriedly played causes your listeners anxiety rather than satisfaction. 118 Ibid."118 The Allegro of Mozart's time also called for a more detached.J. 1777. 313 contains many contrasting melodies and affects. 119 J. the first note of quick figures must be stressed and held slightly… especially since the principal notes should always be heard a little longer than the passing ones."117 While it may sound technically impressive. Leonard Ratner. speech-like playing style than the Adagio. and with liveliness and articulation. particularly in ascending notes.48 joined to others of a different kind. in which notes are connected (as in singing) and held to their full values (with the exception of dotted-notes. In the case of this allegro. correctly. 381. speed cannot add anything. Oct."120 Hurrying virtuosic passages during performance was as frequent a problem in the eighteenth century as it is now. 133. and Style. and distinctly.. playing the movement at too fast a tempo ignores the possibility for a more sensitive rhetorical interpretation. 129. suspensions. Quantz. It was coined the "universal fault" by Leopold Mozart. if the fingers are raised too quickly. To avoid this. Form. 121 MacClintock. 184.J. On Playing the Flute. Classic Music: Expression.
. and requires a tempo that allows the most elegant expression of the "part-writing. and sudden changes of topic. which were held longer). 120 Ibid. 23. the first movement of K. and to avoid carefully either hurrying or dragging… Hurrying of passage-work may occur. "where fire is lacking in the music.
that produced by a cadence or rest. Stephanie Vial. staccato and legato are types of articulation.
. of tonguing. has several levels of punctuation and articulation.124 Vial takes great care to distinguish between articulations that are punctuating. Thus. We speak of 'articulating' this or that passage in a kind of catch-all manner with any variety of meanings and on any number of levels. articulation is comparable to punctuation in language. so next we will look to the elements of punctuation and articulation that define them. the characteristics of attack and decay of single tones or groups of tones and the means by which these characteristics are produced. e. and those that are "nonpunctuating. a boundary or point of demarcation between formal segments. Stephanie Vial explains "articulation in the daily discourse of the modern musician has acquired such broad usage that its significance is often obscured. The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century: Punctuating the Classical "Period".e."123 The New Harvard Dictionary acknowledges the complex meaning of the word articulation.). in wind instruments. (2) In the analysis of musical form. and clarity. for example. 121. It is the pronunciation and expression of these figures that require emphasis. 124 Ibid. 130. On Playing the Flute. we must first identify the various affects and their corresponding figures and passages. commas. In the playing of stringed instruments." and serve
J. Punctuation & Articulation Music. Quantz. this is largely a function of bowing. etc. providing two definitions: (1) In performance. many of which easily merge into the realm of punctuation. the principal notes which for the fundamental melody may also be stressed from time to time through chest action. nuance. like well-constructed speech.. As a compositional process. "phrased") so as to be perceived as constituting phrases….g.J.122 In order to determine the appropriate degree of speed. Groups of tones may be articulated (i.49 this end. indicating the larger units of phrase (periods.
many instances of modern phrasing indicate that the flute's line does indeed resolve very briefly on the D that follows the trill in m. 125. it is necessary to express that to the audience. 124. 127 Leopold Mozart. 101.. only his fortune. 128 Stephanie Vial.. A Treatise on Violin Playing. However.
. Interpunctiones. 40.. Because a final resting point was circumvented. This
Ibid. 126."128 This 'modulating influence' is easily visible when applied to the following sentences: "He lost his life.125 Her goal is to distinguish the terms punctuation and articulation. and so on. or better still. not only his fortune. 129 Ibid."127 In addition. But here we see also that a good violinist [or flutist] must have this knowledge. but that resting point is evaded in measure 40 when the bass suddenly enters with a Prinner melody. so as to better "understand the capacity in which we use" them. rhetoricians or poets." Each have "an entirely different meaning according to the way in which [they are] punctuated."129 Measures 38-40 of the accompanying score analysis provide an opportunity to apply a schemata-based method of punctuation to open the possibilities for different expressions of the same musical line. Ibid. 132. But what sort of animals these are must be known to great grammarians." and "He lost his life not. Distinctiones. he emphasizes the importance of Diastolica: "the theory which explains how speech is made intelligible through the modulating influence of punctuation. 125. The solo flute enters in measure 38 and begins a cadential figure implying the approach of a more final resting point. The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century: Punctuating the Classical "Period".126 In the fifth chapter of his violin treatise Leopold Mozart identifies the tools of punctuation in a footnote: "The stops and pauses are the Incisiones.50 as a "special kind of expression" that helps to establish the affect of the phrase.
But the nature of this section is to elide phrases. I suppose it could be argued that the ensemble motion arriving rhythmically together on the third quarter note of m. which itself acts as a written-out upper-neighbor to E. small pause) comes after the G trill in measure 40. 41 (and the second true structural note of the Prinner melody). and incorporates the staccato D (third beat. and also creates a bigger upbeat. then the last three eighth notes of the bar will act as the pick-up to the next part of the phrase. one that ends by interrupting and becomes an avenue for the delay of resolution. 40 indicates a resting-point.51 interpretation requires that the trill be carried through to full value. the line takes on a more dynamic shape and character. to deceive expectation. and the flute line should follow suit. treated as an opening figure. 40. I feel this allows a true surprise. with five eighth-notes leading to a more emphatic (and articulate) landing on the downbeat of m. Instead it is a pivot point. with a very slight breath or lift taken from the time of the trill. 40 is not stable enough to imply any real resolution. If this phrasing is employed. or the confusion that results from treating something irresolute as a point of rest. and a re-articulation of the two sixteenth notes. and that the following sixteenth notes F# and E be slurred into the D. If observed as such. and the first-inversion chord that results on the third beat of m. 40) into the opening G major arpeggio of the new phrase. m. Based on this information I propose a phrasing in which the incise (comma. not a closing one. leading into a slightly emphasized D. But this interpretation does not take into account that another Prinner begins on the F# in m. This conveys an exciting and playful surprise and avoids the monotony that results from playing the entire line as one unpunctuated sentence.
. the first structural note of the Prinner melody.
52 Another instance where schemata-based rhetorical phrasing can greatly influence the punctuation begins in m. Music in the Galant Style. the flute's 'Descending Thirds' schema
R. Melody 6]."132 This schema only lasts until the downbeat of m. 48."131 Mozart executes this digression in a clever and eloquent way. 456. because this is the end of the Meyer. and often obscures or delays the 'Descending Thirds' figure that follows. large Fontes often function as digressive episodes. there must be a clear but brief point of rest indicated here. building the Fonte out of other smaller schemata which must be clearly expressed.
. strong-note beginning on the preceding measure's weaker beat four. creating a displaced trochee (long-short). giving emphasis to the third beat and the downbeat of the next measure. Meanwhile. Coinciding with the Fonte in m. 48 invert that pronunciation with iambic figures. Note how Mozart's indication of the slur contradicts the general practice of the stronger downbeat. Ibid. 132 Ibid. 459.. at which point the 'Descending Thirds' schema begins. Its period of greatest currency was the 1760's and the 1780's. In regards to punctuation. The ensemble's figures that follow in m. Modern performers often treat the D# in m. and other long works. Gjerdingen. for they contain a variety of contrasting figures that serve to communicate frequently changing affects. which serves "to digress from. O. 46 with a Fonte. full eighth note downbeat–but this would be an exception to the rule that the second note of a slur receives less emphasis. 46 is a Meyer (inverted). and must be differentiated. with the long. if only by allowing a very slight lift on the E downbeat of m. and then return to. 47 as a leading tone to a strong. which "was often chosen for important themes [in this case.130 [The Fonte] was used throughout the eighteenth century…" and "in concertos. arias. a main key. 48 (in observance of the treatment of slurs). This is a drastically different figure from the Meyer.
1753-1762. slurred dissonances that fall on the downbeats throughout the measure. For Türk. and the proper connection and separation of musical periods. Modern practice often assumes that all notes. Articulation & Emphasis "Articulation signifies the degree of separation between notes and figures in performance. P. 1752. leaving an almost imperceptible space at the end of each slur.53 swings in syncopation. using the shorter notes of the "strong" beats as springboards for the following affective melodic figures. Instructions for articulation in performance stressed clarity above all (Deutlichkeit). Classic Music: Expression. Bach. E. The above are examples of how examining structural melodies in conjunction with punctuating slurs and resting points gives a performer more options in developing a personal and thoughtful interpretation of the music's phrasing. In this way. followed by a slight rest. the downbeat of m. it also refers to degrees of emphasis. as is appropriate for the brief. and Leopold
Leonard Ratner. Form. a performer should put a slight emphasis on the highest notes of the slurred figures. Tones without specific staccato or slur signs [were] played somewhat shorter than their indicated duration.133 Mechanical clarity referred to "each tone of the most rapid passage" in a movement as "heard distinctly separated from the other tones. According to sources of the time. 190. should be played for their exactly full and even value–and quite often flutists crescendo through the slurred patterns. emphasis. clarity depends on mechanically proper delivery. 49 would be given space to be well-placed. Quantz. even if slurred.
. and would be emphasized slightly. and well-heard. which completes the note length… These recommendations corroborate those of C. Next we will consider how articulation and emphasis influence the expression of these melodies. and Style. stealing the space that the shorter notes need to be heard and on time.
and describes two types of double tongue–"tiri for dotted notes and moderately quick passage-work. Koch. whether or not it falls upon the normal grammatical accent–and the pathetic accent. While there is some difference of opinion concerning the exact degree of detachment… all evidence points to some degree of détaché as a norm for performance. 137 J. Ibid.. "an especially intense oratorical accent. and the ri long."134 "Détaché promoted the management of emphasis. Quantz devoted chapter VI of his treatise to enumerating the ways in which the tongue can be used in blowing upon the flute. Hence the ri must always be used for the note on the downbeat. He introduces the use of syllables ti and di as single tongue techniques. for very quick passage-work. 1756. Hiller.
. 191."135 Three different kinds of emphasis are distinguished by Rousseau. the ti short. "the normal stress that occurs at the beginning of a measure or other metric group"–the oratorical accent. J. and Christmann–the grammatical accent. On Playing the Flute. Quantz."136 A diverse palette of options for tonguing and its applications can be found in the major flute treatises of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. and the ti for the note on the upbeat. He explains that "the accent falls on the second syllable. often upon a salient dissonant melodic tone.. we will first examine another phrase of Mozart's that resembles the solo flute's opening
Ibid.54 Mozart. 76. 74." and did'll. "a stress given to an important melodic note. 138 Ibid. Rachel Brown includes a complete list of "Flute treatises and tutors in chronological order" in Appendix A of her book The Early Flute: A Practical Guide. 136 Ibid."137 Quantz praises the usefulness of tiri in distinguishing the slightly unequal quality of notes in moderately quick passage work."138 To understand how and why this variety of tonguing may be applied to the flute concerto.
Va. The following example is taken from one of Mozart's earliest vocal works." the first twosyllable word in the text.55 measures.” which is a powerful statement and expression unto itself. creating a disyllable of an iamb." has a natural emphasis falling on the middle syllable "ta. 31. K. coinciding with the word “va. lending it additional emphasis. K. and can relate it to how we as flutists might articulate the same rhythm. implies a rhythmic relationship of the quick upbeat leading to an emphatic second syllable.” which has a closed ending and does not allow for a natural emphasis or sustained vowel. According to the aforementioned treatment of the dot. 1. 21.Measure 31 with suggested tonguing
Ibid. The next word of the text. as shown below. a slight lift would separate the dotted note from its succeeding sixteenth. 77. Using an example of a familiar rhythm with the text that Mozart employed enables us to relate it directly to speech. dal furor portata (1765. "Furor.” or “go. 34)
The structure of the text clearly places the most emphasis on the first beat. "portata. (text Metastasio) [Allegro]. thus corroborating the textually closed syllable. To express this. a suggested articulation (according to Quantz' guidelines) involves the syllables ti. and tiri.139 Ex. and shares exactly the same rhythm as the flute's line in m. but also begins a slur. di. London). 2. 313 . and assigned the word “dal.. Ex.
. In this way. The next beat (the weak second beat) is given a dotted eighth-note.Arie für Tenor." This accented syllable is not only placed on the strong downbeat of the second measure. opening theme . (Köchel. 73. we see the natural punctuation and variety of emphasis that is required of the music.
displacing the regular rhythmic feel of the first measure and allowing the next downbeat figure to come as a surprise. The function of the following half-note 'C' should also be considered. taking advantage of the dissonance of the tri-tone against the bass. 132.
. the seventh of the 'dominant' harmony? My opinion is that the 'C' halfnote is meant to act as a distinct syncopation.56
The eighth-note D that begins m. The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century: Punctuating the Classical "Period". and breaking the rule of the implicit 'beat hierarchy' to set in the minds of the listener a theme that will recur throughout the piece. It should be noted that while in the ti the tongue immediately springs back against the palate. but serves to articulate them as a comprehendible gesture). 32 is slurred to the following eighth-note C. The importance of the half note C is easily visible in the schematic analysis. again indicating that the D "should be very gently (and almost imperceptibly) accented"… and the C should receive a "gentle release" that serves "to provide a 'fresh impulse' or 'an appropriate distinctness' without impeding the flow of the line. in
Stephanie Vial."140 This subtle lift is necessary so that the entrance of the half-note 'C' that follows is not obscured by a consistently connected tone (the slur is not solely a method of grouping notes. as it acts as the second note in the Romanesca melody that is being employed here. this half-note should act as a distinct structural note of the melody. For this half-note C (and other sustained notes) "the stroke [of the tongue] must not be firm. Instead of a resting point before a breath. and why did he choose the pitch of 'C'. hence you must use di instead of ti. Why did Mozart choose to begin this half note on a weak-beat (beat 2).
and should add to the emphasis of the B."141 Looking again to the schematic-analysis. even 'slur-two-tongue-two' pattern of descending sixteenth-notes that begins on the preceding D. and is usually masked in a smooth. It is my opinion that to clearly articulate (using ti) and slightly emphasize the B would result in a more distinct and playful downbeat in m. In performance. this B is rarely distinguished as the true pickup to the next measure. an eighth note before the downbeat of m. the downbeat A grace note of m.. 73. While the above interpretation may be arrived at intuitively by any performer it is important we have concrete reasons for the musical decisions we make. Quantz. On Playing the Flute. and would establish a rhythmic pattern that is directly elaborated and corroborated in mm. 38. J. 33.33. 39.
. Besides being the first beat of the measure and the beginning of a slur. Ibid. 33 does act as a structural note of the Romanesca melody. the A is also a dissonant tone in respect to the harmony. but that note is not the only one to be considered in this way. Another important structural melody note precedes it. To emphasize the D and deprive the B of emphasis would defy the schematic melody as well as the harmony–for the B is a dissonance while the D and C that precede it are not. and that is the B. as Quantz reminds us. and 40 (if one will accept my previous suggestion of the treatment of those sixteenth notes following the trill in m. 40). so that the wind is not kept from sustaining the tone. "To excite the different passions the dissonances must be struck more strongly than the consonances". The call for special emphasis on this downbeat is three fold.142 Playing this A without additional emphasis is a missed opportunity in all regards. The above combination of tools as applied to the entire movement would clearly yield a way of considering the expression of the punctuation and articulation that is thoughtful
J. 254. particularly as teachers of the music.57 the di it must remain free in the middle of the mouth.
with its centrally placed point of tension and its clarity of form… To equate the practice of Mozart (and Haydn after 1780) with that of J. A wide variety of expressive articulation can be achieved by applying Quantz' (and many other eighteenth-century writers') principles of tonguing to the modern flute. 107-108.58 and that directly corresponds to a rhetorical perspective. and aesthetic
Charles Rosen. The High Baroque in music had a horror of the void. and they are almost always fully written out–necessarily so. articulates structure.143 While an Allegro cannot indulge the kind of ornamentation that would be appropriate in an Adagio. The chief ornament retained from the Baroque is. as they have become thematic. divisions. Mozart is particularly ineffective. He was at the forefront of what was in vogue at the time. there are still many choices to be made in interpreting the graces. and the agreéments fill what empty space there was. significantly.P. To take only one example. Ornaments. on the other hand. The musical ornamentation of the first half of the eighteenth century was an essential element in the achievement of continuity: the decoration not only covered the underlying musical structure but kept it always flowing. Cadenzas.E. The decoration of the classical style. and appoggiaturas that are indicated in this movement. A. the final cadential trill.
. and Improvisation: In all the arts. The Classical Style: Haydn. the infinitely repeating designs for fabrics used in the upholstery of chairs and sofas were gradually replaced by centralized compositions. and I believe that incorporating these resources into each musician's training and education can only lead to fresh perspectives and enlivened music making. As the above text suggests.S. the taste for ornamentation changed radically in the last quarter of the eighteenth-century. For mural decoration the simple folds of hanging draperies were preferred to more elaborate systems. Other ornaments are used more rarely. directly applying the principles of earlier composers' writings on ornamentation to the music of W. Bach or even C. These tendencies are obviously reflected within the musical style of the period. Recognizing melodic schemata aids in determining the important structural notes and how they can be used to produce effective (and affective) pronunciation and declamation in performance. Mozart. Bach is to ignore one of the most sweeping revolutions of taste in history. Beethoven.
realizing that the worst thing. Neumann & J.145 These quick pre-beat graces can also be found in mm. 145 Ibid.
F. that he has to figure out every case on its merits. 348. 71. Playing the grace notes before the notes to which they are slurred allows a natural emphasis to fall on the ascending stepwise melodic eighth notes that culminate on the downbeat of m. R."144 The placement and duration of graces must be carefully considered. and how that corresponds to regional.59 tastes changed radically over very short spans of time throughout the 18th century. 71.. 70-71. "Above all. national. Performance Practices of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. which must not be displaced. these iambic disyllables should be pronounced like the word "hoo-ray. as they have a great influence on the affect and pronunciation of a given figure. Stevens. In m. dissonant note added to a chord. In other words. so as not to obscure the underlying anapestic rhythm. then as now. 359." they should be played before the beat. because these graces fall on "even binary notes. which is released immediately after its execution–it is clear that these small notes should be played quickly. A comparison of earlier and later styles is valuable to understanding the nature and application of ornamentation. According to Neumann. Recalling Bartel's definition of acciaccatura–an additional. it is imperative for the enlightened performer to know that there are no easy automatic rules. is any sense of rigidity and formulaic stereotype.
. 46 the rhetorical figure acciaccatura is a helpful tool in conceiving of how the accompanying graces should be played." with the emphasis falling on the second syllable. and personal styles of composition throughout history. which in turn acts as a surprising and effective transition to the next melodic section. for it also functions as the beginning of a pathopoeia. This interpretation allows an unobscured landing on the half-note A on the downbeat of m.
A figure of interrogatio. 61. 70." taking on a trochaic rhythm and resulting in an appoggiatura (accentus) on the downbeat of m. 32 where the figure is introduced. This small variation between the expressions of like figures is a perfect example of the highly rhetorical quality of Mozart's music. this musical idea seems to demand an answer from the solo line. which are played without emphasis. who has become accustomed to hearing the thirds with the emphasis on the first of each couple. 60 are pronounced "fa-ther. where the emphasis falls on the first sixteenth note of each ascending third figure. As is true for all graces and appoggiaturas. assertive response.60 The aforementioned grace notes act in direct contrast to the almost identical phrase in m. Here. the disyllables in m. As opposed to m. 60. the B grace-note would be played on the beat. Mozart varies the emphasis on these ascending thirds to surprise the listener. and would receive a slight emphasis. and
. and begins the pathopoeia mentioned above. All these small appoggiaturas should be played on the beat with a slight emphasis. proving its ability to treat the subject confidently and with mastery. 3638. But the strings assert the theme again in m. and slurred to their succeeding notes. less pedantic feel of the iambic thirds in m. the B grace-note would be slurred to the A that succeeds it. the solo line almost immediately becomes tender. The lighter. instead of repeating himself. which correspondingly would be given a slight lift before articulating the dottedquarter note A (using the syllable di). to which the flute responds aptly. where they function thematically. but instead of continuing on with another triumphant. 59. 70 delights the ear. last the span of an eighth note. Other written out appoggiaturas can be found throughout the piece and appear in mm. as if more is required from the solo line to convince the tutti. At this point. 69. referring to the fourth beat of the flute's line in m. The subject of "Skipping Thirds" is first asserted by the strings in m.
or release it earlier. and the melodic structure of which it is a part. There exists a plethora of writings on the interpretation of ornamentation in Mozart's music. 95-96.
. too. Quantz believed that plain trilled notes implied the addition of an appoggiatura as well as a twonote termination which was sometimes notated as grace notes or fast notes. allowing her to vary her use of ornaments in ways that delight and surprise her audience. It is a mistake with Mozart. Many tutors notated the appoggiaturas in their fingering charts. dynamic shape and manner of termination. matching the rhythm in the violins and viola. to try to confine him to the upper-note-on-the-beat design. However. To hold the note longer. would muddy the clarity of the measure's rhythmic expression. length."146 Despite the much corroborated general rule that dictates trills should begin on the uppernote. a performer must consider the function of the trill. especially in French repertoire. in m. its underlying harmony. "Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries trills were enormously varied in their arrangement and number of notes. and clearly lasts for an eighth note. 124 an appoggiatura is indicated on the downbeat. trills without termination were very common.
Rachel Brown. speed. In order to determine how a trill should be treated. The Early Flute. For example. asserting that "there is no trill type that was out of bounds to him. the intended value of an appoggiatura is indicated by its context within the rest of the rhythmic texture. The addition of a dissonant grace note at the start of the trill greatly enhanced the harmony and this appoggiatura was often the only true upper note since subsequent upper notes were produced on a false fingering. Whilst a few examples of trills starting on the main note were recorded by the violinists Geminiani and Leopold Mozart… almost all flute methods of the eighteenth century stipulated trills starting on the upper note. Certainly any exploration of the execution and variety of ornamentation that was used in Mozart's time will expand a performer's palette.61 with a very slight lift. Frederick Neumann makes a compelling argument for the frequent and necessary use of the primary-note trill in Mozart's music. In some cases.
129. trills after a sharply attacked anacrusis on the same pitch. and its primary note is a dissonant G to the A in the bass. R. as it would create no added dissonance. 135. 131. as are the terminations of trills and the ways that upper and primary-note trills are approached. Two different functions and possible approaches to apply to trills can be seen in the close comparison of those in measures 66 and 67. 71.. Mozart's
F."147 Various situations in which a primary-note trill may be appropriate include "trills that are preceded by the slurred upper neighbor. 127. 437-438. Stevens. While substituting the turn for a primary note trill in m.62 the 'appoggiatura trill'… That he used the appoggiatura trill is quite certain–but as one among various types. most likely intended to be played on the beat and with noticeable emphasis to bring out the dissonance it creates with the bass. Conversely. 440) Measures 43. trills on dissonant notes. one could replace the trill with a turn. and finally. The first trill (m. 67) has no written appoggiatura.
. 82. 87 and 90 contain trills in which an upper-note beginning would be tasteful. In this case it would make little sense to emphasize the upper note. 66) has a written appoggiatura. As it is best to emphasize the primary note in this case. trills in chains."148 (Neumann. extending and stressing the G slightly before executing the ornament. trills in various special circumstances that are hard to classify. 67 is not the only possible treatment. in the bass. 66. Performance Practices of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. measures 67. The second trill (m. or at the end of rising scales. 133. if not deemed essential. Neumann & J. and 137 contain trills for which primary-note execution could easily be considered. 148 Ibid. 440. and probably far less often than is frequently assumed. it is one that emphasizes the contrast in affect between two similar figures. The treatment of turns is described at length in performance manuals of the eighteenth century.
Whether this relates to time or the filling in of notes is unclear. and the suggestions above are in no way proposed as the only possibilities.
. 62. nonetheless the issue should be pursued. The harmonic goal of the cadenza is to move from the tonic chord in second inversion to the dominant key by way of deriving.” but warns performers to “stay clear of the dual dangers of too little and too much. Neumann recognizes that Mozart lived in a time “when composers still gave the performer license to make certain improvisatory additions to the written text. The first 175 pages of Neumann’s Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart are dedicated to the different kinds and treatments of ornaments. Soloists were expected to take some liberties. how to resolve them. 215.”149 It is important but challenging “to identify what could be called the ‘white spots’ in Mozart’s music.63 flute concerto gives us ample opportunity to make decisions about how to approach trills. 178. Much can be gained by experimenting with the myriad options suggested in primary and secondary sources addressing the topic of ornamentation. however even the Urtext edition of K. embellishing. Ibid. where the latter’s failure to do so leaves an undesirable void. sequencing. 313 indicates that in measures 60. developing. and with what shape. liberties could be taken while the soloist is without accompaniment. which begins melodically on the fifth scale degree of G major at the start of the coda. 181. combining.”150 In faster movements there is significantly less room for improvisation. and the last hundred pages are devoted to improvisation. and harmonically altering melodic
Ibid. and 180. who were never to improvise ornaments. spots left unfinished to be finished by the performer. as opposed to the members of the ensemble. what speed to play them. Such liberties include the cadenza (paragoge) indicated in m..
Türk (1786) supported using 'some of the important ideas–to be sure not in their entirety. even a complete. Robert Levin provides intriguing cadenzas in the Urtext edition of K. one could fashion a cadenza by developing and concatenating various expressions of those units. J. of which the parts (melodic units) are interchangeable. Rachel Brown. 181-182. On Playing the Flute. particularly if there is one extant that was written by Mozart. Neumann insists that it is impossible that anyone could
J. only to be considered if inspiration failed. While "cadenzas must stem from the principal sentiment of the piece.' This was usually achieved by a brief allusion to another key or keys. an (A) cadenza and a (B) cadenza. two choices are given. whilst by 1791 Tromlitz described this 'emergency aid' [as] 'old and well known'.
. or drawn from the "most pleasing of the preceding phrases. The lack of one for K. unaltered phrase was probably too predictable.64 units. without actually modulating. With an understanding of the schemata related to this piece. For this movement. for we will never know just what Mozart would have conjured. and to leave behind a special impression in his heart. as well as into Mozart’s concept of melodic fragments and how they were combined and put into play. Quantz reminded his readers. 107-108. Quoting wholesale from the piece was to be avoided. but nevertheless in extracted form'. This lends some insight into the construction of cadenzas. Even among experts there are varying opinions as to whether performers should compose or improvise their own cadenzas. However."151 Quantz (1752) presented the idea of thematic reference as new." the melodic ideas within a cadenza may be freshly invented. Ornamenting the melody or leading elsewhere. The Early Flute. or developing just a fragment was preferable. Quantz.313.152 A thorough exploration of available information on the creation of cadenzas and an understanding of simple harmony are imperative to being able to improvise in an appropriate style.313 is both a blessing and a curse. 'The object of the cadenza is simply to surprise the listener unexpectedly once more at the end of the piece. we are forced to deal with the issue. or fall into the abominable category of doing nothing.
that it is still relatively rare to hear a performance of Classical music that goes beyond the printed page. (1992). No. In order to do this.
. and had not yet been largely standardized at 440hz until the twentieth century. by providing them with an expressive toolkit. Many historical performance ensembles have
Robert Levin. it is because we have prized heritage over its content. Mozart’s music possessed none of this patina when it was written. and by teaching them that this style of music is a language that one can learn to 'speak' fluently. points a finger at the “decline in the stringency of music theory requirements in schools throughout the world. Temperament & Tuning The term "pitch" in this case refers to the tuning pitch of an ensemble. whose equally dazzling virtuosi are often unable to read music but honour their instincts and always use their language actively. Pitch. students must understand the basic principles of this music's construction and be encouraged to experiment with them. If visits to concerts often seem indistinguishable from attendance at church. then. 20. No wonder. Vol. we can inspire a resurgence of improvisation in the performance of historical music. The cadenza of the flute concerto's first movement is a fitting place to begin this exploration of concepts of improvisation and composition.153 I believe strongly that by introducing students to the compositional methods of Mozart's time. much less improvise one on the spot! Levin. and when it does. 2: 221. Improvised Embellishments in Mozart’s Keyboard Music.65 come up with a cadenza of the caliber of Mozart’s. Early Music. on the other hand. the embellishments and cadenzas presented are usually the product of careful preparation rather than risk-laden spontaneity. By now it is commonly understood by musicians that the exact frequency of this tone (usually A) has undergone great flux over time and throughout regions.” and asserts that this has led to a situation in which performers master the syllabic surface of the works they play without sufficient knowledge of the language that underpins it. How discouraging it is that the lack of freedom in performances of art music – practiced by performers with years of training – results in far less communicative power than jazz and popular music.
Quantz recommended that every flutist know how to make his own flute. but the way we conceive of it differs greatly from performers of Mozart's time. The directive to train one's student in these issues is ubiquitous among treatises of the galant period. Tromlitz goes into great detail to advise on the treatment of each scale and interval. simple-system wooden flutes based on historical models are used instead of the Boehm system metal flutes that are standard today. Anyone interested in experimenting with various reference pitches for ensembles should consult Bruce Haynes' book A History of Performing Pitch: The Story of "A". This knowledge could only add to the available options for variety and mastery in the playing of our instruments. and he suggests that each student should learn the rudiments of intonation by tuning a keyboard instrument repeatedly and meticulously until a good ear is developed.
. and should be explored. but less time is given to understanding the mathematical and aural subtleties of intonation. wherein one can find the exact pitches used in Mozart's time. within a great degree of accuracy. Flutists of his time experienced a much greater diversity of flute sounds and styles of construction. scale. timbre. temperament. and how to train the ear to different temperaments. Unfortunately efforts to recreate a variety in reference pitch would be greatly hindered by the lack of variation in instrument construction today. This kind of relative intonation is an issue with which today's flutists are intimately familiar. For these ensembles. and tuning. and by this they mean the relative tuning between the intervals. Writers of Mozart's time make frequent reference to the importance of intonation. not the absolute pitch of the ensemble. Understanding the way that various styles of flutes are constructed lends great insight into differences in pitch.66 adopted a standard but lower pitch of A = 415hz. Much of a flutist's training is focused on the development of finger-technique and strength (if not beauty) of tone.
In Mozart's time. namely to attempt to tune two strings next to one another so that they sound like only one. Repeat this until this interval has fixed itself in the ear. To learn to temper the fifth correctly. The great advantage of this process is that it produces major thirds. minor thirds. unison and octave cannot be tempered. but one should make an effort to learn this most thoroughly…Now try to hear and learn to tune a completely pure fifth. but bears it easily and gladly… Although it is used less on the string and wind instruments than pure intervals. tune together. Then tune down an octave from this fifth. 148. The Flute."155 A mean-tone tuning necessitates the narrowing of the fifth to a greater degree than 12-tone equal temperament. one should first of all try to learn to tune the perfect fifth quite pure. Now this can only be done on the fifth. and major thirds that are slightly wider than pure major thirds. one should proceed as follows: one should first try to learn to tune the unison correctly. This tuning system differs greatly from the equal-tempered one that prevails as the standard today. The Virtuoso Flute Player. if you cannot do it on your own then do it with the help of a teacher. G. as so often happens. especially the violins. Powell.67 To learn to tune or temper a keyboard instrument. and impress it on the ear as strongly as possible by frequent repetition… When these have been practiced long enough and impressed firmly on the ear. and minor sixths that are significantly closer to just intonation than their equal-tempered counterparts. this is not so easy. which generates fifths that are slightly narrower than pure fifths. 117. major sixths. and since it has so much effect on how the instruments of the orchestra. one can begin to temper. but must be absolutely pure. Tromlitz. and then let it beat lower as far as it can so that the ear is not offended. but are rather separated by an interval referred to as a comma (not to be confused
J. this exercise does serve to teach one to hear the perfect fifth more surely and certainly.
. equal temperament was overwhelmingly regarded as an 'inharmonious system of 12 hemitones' producing a 'harmony extremely coarse and disagreeable'. it should not be treated lightly. This results in tonal structures of triadic music that are significantly more euphonious than in equal temperament.154 Tromlitz continues to describe instructions for how to tune a keyboard instrument in a sixth-comma mean-tone tuning. and the other intervals arise out of it. A significant byproduct of this tuning is that enharmonic pitches are not equivalent. A.
the small semitone is formed by raising a note on the same line or space by a sharp or lowering it by a flat . as do every greater and lesser semitone. etc. the great semitone has five commas. he plays G#' on the second string with the third finger. and Db" with the third and Eb["] with the fourth. wind. etc. then Ab could be used as the major third to E just as well as G#. Bb for A#. From this one can see that they are different from each other. and to attempt to demonstrate the necessity for the presence of the D# key. and nothing would be in tune. so one must simply make do as best one can. The singer. Gb for F#. and Ab' with the fourth. for example. and you will hear.and string-player. and the reason for it lies in Harmony. nor can one be accepted in place of the other. just try it. so it is not capable of effecting this distinction. Ab for G# or vice versa. Thus one cannot take Eb for D#. they cannot therefore be the same. Db just as well as C# the major third to A. Tromlitz describes the significance of the comma in the following quote from chapter three of his 1791 tutor The Virtuoso Flute Player: The subject of Eb and D# keys and their use remains to be discussed. and the lesser four.. now I would like to try to clarify this. or the other way around.68 with the term of punctuation). have the advantage of being able to make it very exactly… A good violinist observes the difference between the large and small semitones precisely if. and are not interchangeable. If they were mistaken for each other. I have frequently pointed out that the correct use of these keys is a matter of great importance. Db for C#. and Eb just as well as D# the major third to B. or the harmony and the melody would make an incorrect and false progression. they differ from one another by a comma. and the Eb from E. Since the D# originates from D. Quantz is the inventor of this key. C#" on the third string with the second finger.see g): g)
The great semitone makes a step from a line to a space. they appear as in i): i)
What applies to these goes for everything else of this kind. Of course on the keyboard there is nevertheless only one key for both these notes. however. So I repeat that it is a great
. see h): h)
Observed side by side.
66-67. it is important to practice intonation using the ear to establish pure intervals and the necessary tempering of them. The Virtuoso Flute Player. cent deviations. so that oscillation between large and small semitones can be clearly heard. In the case of Mozart's flute concerto in G major. viola. As Bruce Haynes confirms. nobody who does this can possibly play in tune. for the modern flutist. For modern flutists and string players. but there are two violins. and a bass–instruments which have to consider the tuning of their open strings to accommodate the requirements of just intonation. a viola. it is quite possible to employ the microtonal inflections required by the two types of semitone. For the strings. Tromlitz. We begin to
J. and cello. it is significant to note that the purpose of this tuning system is to build major and minor triads that will sound extremely close to those found in just intonation (evenly splitting the tempering between the fifth and the third). we often do not understand the nature of the tunings systems of other instruments in the ensemble. a cello.156 Today's flutist does not differentiate between small and large semitones. Additional care should be placed on passages containing chromatic scales. and detailed comparisons of other ways of dividing the comma.
. there is no keyboard or continuo present. While it is beyond the scope of this paper to examine all the complexities of pitch ratios. Thus. and to mitigate the problems with a Pythagorean system of pure fifths. and can act to imbue the music with more expression and color. rather than relying on the visual cue of the tuner to affirm an equal-tempered scale. tuning their instruments in accordance with Tromlitz' suggestions (narrower fifths for the violins. G. "The more we experiment with temperaments… the more their significance appears to be in their expressivity. wider fourths for the bass) would prevent the problem of open strings that are noticeably out of tune.69 mistake to use one in place of the other on the flute for the sake of a little convenience. and while we are asked to play in just intonation as much as possible.
Mozart and the Flute. and a review of several important documents and treatises that address the numerous regional styles and varying alterations of the flute over time (Hotteterre. but was neither necessary nor popular. in his book The Flute. 1: 38-9. brighter. and more sustained tone). including iconography. to name a few). presents a highly detailed and comprehensive account of the flute’s development. conically bored German flutes “made principally of boxwood. which facilitated stronger low notes. No. 55. was known by Bach's and Vivaldi's contemporaries. The flute underwent significant transformations varying by region throughout the eighteenth century. One-keyed.”158 The English style employed added tuning slides for the head joint and foot joint. or ivory” were of the earliest eighteenth-century designs and “were by no means standardized: each maker developed a personal concept of tone and intonation. 74. and were made fully of wood. The 'classical' flute was often shorter than the Baroque flute and at
Bruce Haynes. Powell. A more heavily tapered bore was also applied to the flute's design. 159 Jane Bowers (1992). ebony. Equal temperament. which would have facilitated a rich sound in both extremities but one that may not have been as penetrating as the English design. and Devienne. four metal plug keys and a metal-lined head joint (providing a fuller. The German flutes used interchangeable middle joints and leather keys. and devised original technical means of achieving his ideas.70 realize that they exert a serene but enveloping influence on the character of the music. Early Music. Tromlitz. The Flute. Vol. which yielded a stronger. epistolary evidence. The End of Early Music. a harder black wood was often used in the construction of German flutes (as with Dresden flute maker August Grenser). 20. more virtuosic tone. Quantz. A.159 In the later part of the century.
. the tuning of necessity among modern players."157 Tone Ardal Powell.
they therefore contend that a soft tone is always to be preferred.160 Though it may seem obvious today which philosophy prevailed. 126. No. from its affinity to the female voice. 1: 34. and the wisest players may have sought to possess ability in both styles. The most modern composers usually write for this instrument so that it has to shriek or rather whistle piercingly in the high register. and Virtuosos love this sharp. when acquired. Powell relates a quote from John Gunn’s Art of Playing the German-Flute (c.71 a higher pitch (A=430). and can by no means be the bold and warlike expression of those full and loud tones. Jane Bowers (1992). André (1798) in which he recalls “a time when the flute was… the ideal with which everything soft-toned was compared. Jane Bowers relates a quote from A. The other opinion is in direct opposition to this: those who adopt it being chiefly pupils of nature. that this kind of tone is contrary to the very nature of a Flute. The favourers of this opinion have on their side. 1793. England): Two opinions seem chiefly to prevail on the method in which this instrument ought to be played: the first is. cutting tone so much that they play everything in it – even their Solos and Adagio. The Flute. Even so.” and complains that “now things are different. Mozart and the Flute. and tender expression. that an equal fullness of tone ought to be aimed at throughout. the example and practice of every public performer. it was previously not assumed that the flute would sound only one way. say. which seem to emulate the notes of the trumpet. Early Music. is softness. Powell. and this.
. Vol. the flute was not ever standardized in this period. without any great deference to authority. 20. the character of which. These elements of instrument development are essential in considering differences of opinion regarding the sound of the flute in Mozart’s time.”161
A. and many makers experimented with new key mechanisms to expand the range and to address certain idiosyncrasies of timbre and scale inherent in Baroque flutes. grace. is thought to be the greatest excellence of which the instrument is capable. and speak from their own conviction and feelings.
163 Vibrato has come to impose a uniform heightened expression on most playing (and singing). was unknown until its development by flautists of the Paris Conservatoire at the very end of the [nineteenth] century'. 'vibrato as an enhancer of tone [on wind instruments]. as Joachim." used more as a tool of expression than a learned technical standard of sound production. The idea that 'the steady tone' should predominate. Auer. The End of Early Music. Powell. Even as late as Taffanel and Gaubert. vibrato is an integrated element of tone quality. resulting in a constant feeling of activity and nervousness. 220. as opposed to an ornament. used continuously and aggressively. with varied speed and intensity depending on expressive context. fatiguing quickly a sensitive ear. and that vibrato should be used only to intensify carefully selected notes or phrases." "According to Robert Philips study of early recordings (1992)." providing for comparison the Period style vibrato…[which] is used selectively rather than constantly (to draw attention to important notes). the use of vibrato was opposed in the performance of the classics. and often associated with messe di voce.162 Haynes describes vibrato as "the MSG of music. In Modern style. 55. Bruce Haynes.
A. and others insisted less than a century ago. sustained. expressive dynamic swells. is quite alien to most late 20thcentury string-players and many woodwind players. vibrating tone has become the requisite of every flute player. The effect is to deny that any passages are 'unexpressive' or 'neutral'." They charged it as "a serious error" and showing an "unpardonable lack of taste to use these vulgar methods to interpret the great composers. The Flute. He notes that the effect was generally extremely delicate and unobtrusive. a powerful.72 With the standardization of the instrument and the expansion of the orchestra and performance spaces. 164 Ibid. as they considered it an effect that "distorts the natural character of the instrument and spoils the interpretation.
.”167 Considering the same issues of tonal variety. Improvised Embellishments in Mozart’s Keyboard Music."166 Occasionally a modern performer will choose to minimize the amount of vibrato used in Mozart's flute concerto. would allow the flute to employ a wider array of expressive tools in performance. sonority.73 While the use of constant vibrato is thought by many to be "patently unhistorical." it is nonetheless frequently employed in modern performers' presentations of Mozart's music. used for longer or more expressive notes. Levin.165 It is likely that there will soon "come a day when constant vibrato is also 'historical. vibrato resumes the role of an ornament. and playing method for the rest of the ensemble instantly expands a performer's awareness of the available options for interpretation. In this case. construction.' and associated with the period after 1950. not a full symphonic string section. The acoustics of the
Ibid. character. and varied in speed and frequency. Modern “assumptions about matters of tempo. Combined with a broad palette of other expressive tools. 20. 167 Robert D. and less overall force of sound. No. (1992). Exploring models of the historical flutes used in and around the time of Mozart can be a valuable aid in developing an understanding of the music. instead of holding paramount the goal of projecting the flute's tone over a full orchestra. this use of tasteful vibrato can be both appropriate and delightful. Vol. Ibid. The original instrumentation calls for a total of ten instruments. focusing instead on a beautiful tone and the contrast of color and expressive nuance. Early Music. 2: 221. the original venue for this piece was a chamber meant to seat a small audience. Greater variety of tone and nuance. texture and inflection [are] challenged by the growing conviction that the language of a period is intimately related to its instruments of execution. In addition. There is no indication that Mozart intended this flute concerto to be performed as a full-scale orchestral concert piece. articulation.
74 intended venue would not require the flutist to concern himself with being loud enough to be heard in the back of a giant concert hall. then remembering how those larger units are strung together and embellished within the piece would be far easier than trying to recall an abstract series of pitches and shapes."169 If one were to become familiar enough with the schemata employed in this piece. having written the speech himself. The rhetorical approach provides a method of understanding and organizing the music. Considering the entire first movement of Mozart's concerto in a rhetorical framework creates repositories of increasingly detailed information. The Weapons of Rhetoric. Instead."168 Musical performance is an art and discipline in which a performer is called to masterfully utilize memory. and were to be able to recognize and recall them as larger units (and eventually vary them at will). would always have performed from memory using gesture to reinforce and impress his ideas on the audience. and delivery to communicate with and delight a given audience. Ibid.
. 19-20. which can be learned in small segments and recalled on cue. 19. stage presence (physical gesture).
Judy Tarling (2004). This can be compared to the mnemonic technique of visualizing "a house divided into various types of rooms in which things to be remembered are stored. Throughout history various mnemonic devices have been suggested to assist with memory. Memoria & Conclusions "Memory is one of the prime divisions of rhetoric. and the ancient orator.. therefore making it much more meaningful and easy to remember. and to convey virtuosic prowess when it was summoned by the music. a performer's focus would be on using a varied and sensitive tone to communicate the many different affects in the piece.
it is devoid of the very tools of survival that allow traditions to persist in oral form for thousands of years. seventeenth-. p. "In a world of constantly changing environment. 15.
. Rubin. and that the performer's role is to present it as 'correct' and without noticeable variation.
Bartlett. But the product of this perspective is not rhetorical. literal recall is extraordinarily unimportant. but because both artistic disciplines are learned traditions that are transmitted through a complex combination of written and oral processes. As Bartlett pointed out in 1932. The illusion that governs the transmission of this work is that the written score contains all of the necessary information. Modern students are expected to conduct their listening by comparing various recordings. and I believe this speaks much more to the combination of exposure. Memory in Oral Traditions."170 What is important is the transmission of the language that this music represents. he also depended on his aural environment to successfully transmit many unwritten elements of expression and style. 1932.75 Music of Mozart's time is uniquely akin to the art of rhetoric not only because it was directly joined to it in the writings of sixteenth-. p. and eighteenth-century composers. than to Mozart possessing some inherent genius over all others (not to say that his music is less than consummate). as well as larger melodic units of meaning and emotion. 204 found in David C. Today we have a phenomenally different aural environment–one that lacks the cues and processes that were previously essential to the oral and written transmission of this musical style. Mozart learned this language as a child. education. and more importantly. not through the process of learning small. and a comprehensible musical style geared toward rapid production. integral units of information that concatenate to create a functional musical language. While Mozart took great advantage of the notational system of his time to produce music for immediate consumption. is not memorable–in my opinion.
and significant changes in the materials and construction of the flute over time. at heart.
. Quantz. Over the last two centuries the field of music has witnessed a growing divide between the knowledge of composers and that of performers. the impetus for this project came from a desire to dissuade a pedagogical approach that aimed at a 'correct' performance over an informed. In modern times. In fact. any true endeavor to approach the massive amount of information contained in historical sources appears to be. and the social and aural environment in which they lived and composed. With the resurgence of interest in Historically Informed Performing Practice throughout the last half-century. it has become strikingly clear to musicologists how much information must truly be considered to develop a sense of what past composers may have intended. Intro. to develop an informed and personal interpretation of each composition that we encounter.76 It is our most basic aspiration. to open a space for new insights and possibilities. another science “requiring the whole man.171 The goal in seeking out this information is in no way to recreate a historically ‘authentic’ performance. beyond the technical mastery of the flute. to be able to make confident and unique artistic decisions. On Playing the Flute. as that objective is widely realized as impossible. In addition. I offer this investigation as a framework for inquiry.” or woman as the case now often is. as the standard repertoire now encompasses a vast scope of history. as well as an overwhelming emphasis on instrument-specialization and virtuosic training. broad and diverse international influence. This goal reflects the desire to produce music of the highest quality. spontaneous one. and to inspire other rhetorical
J. §19. this task has become exponentially more
difficult. and to develop an appropriate concept of ‘good taste’ and how to execute one’s musical instrument within it.J.
. For flutists puzzled by an inability to distinguish 'the forest from the trees' in the performance of Mozart's music. Certainly. as do Mozart's other works for flute (not to mention many less standard works written by his precursors and contemporaries).77 investigations of this concerto. the rhetorical approach reveals a forgotten playground–a secret garden of expressive possibilities and meaningful choices that await the modern musician. the second and third movements deserve the same attention.
78 Appendix A: Schemata & Cadences Employed in K. Mvt. 313. 1 Schemata & Cadences Cadence: Complete Cadence: Deceptive Cadenza Circle of 5ths Clausula Cantizans Clausula Perfecta Clausula Perfectissima Clausula Vera Coda Converging Cudworth Descending Thirds Complex DO-RE-MI DO-SI-DO Final Fall Fonte Grand Cadence Indugio Meyer MI-RE-DO Passo Indietro Phrygian Cadence Ponte Prinner Romanesca "Skipping" Thirds Sol-to-la Flourish Triadic Flourish
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