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Author : Spanu Dumitru Viorel , ROMANIA E-mail :spanuviorel@yahoo.

com

Author : Spanu Dumitru Viorel

Theme of study

Let us verify , using the software Mathematica , if it appears any periodical sequence or periodical sequences in the following cases : 1 . are transcendental numbers .

The natural logarithm over all natural powers of 2 , excepting 20 , Iff a = 2n and n 0 than ln( a ) is a transcendental number . 2 .

The natural logarithm , id est ln(a) , over all natural numbers , excepting 0 and 1 , are transcendental numbers . Iff a N and a 0 , a 1 than ln(a) is a transcendental number . 3 .

Iff we modify a finite number of decimals ( that is a finite number of digits after the point ) of a transcendental number , the nature of that number do not change , this means that the number obtained so is transcendental , too . There are situations when we can modify a infinite number of decimals of a transcendental number , and the number obtained in this manner remains also transcendental : We multiply a rational number which is less than 1 , and wich has a finite number of decimals , by ln2 . ( The number obtained like that has an infinite number of decimals .) Examples : (1/2)(ln2) , (1/4)(ln2) We do mean by natural logarithm Loge(x) .

Step
ln4 is a transcedental number Author : Spnu Dumitru Viorel

1 .

Loge22 = 2 ( 0.69314718055994530941723212145818 ) e0.69314718055994530941723212145818 = 2 e 2 (0.69314718055994530941723212145818 ) = 4 4 is an algebraic number e2 = (2.71828182845904452353602874713527 )2 is a transcendental number ( with respect to Lindemann Weierstrass theorem ) e2ln2 = e 2 (0.69314718055994530941723212145818 ) and this implies that 2ln2 is transcendental , as we shall demonstrate . .

Sketch of proof : e 2ln2 = 4 . theorem states that :

The Lindemann -Weierstrass e is

transcendental , iff

is an algebraic number .

e 2ln2

it is equal with

4 . The number

is an algebraic number , not transcendental . theorem .

Here we will apply the conjecture which represents a reciprocal to Baker`s

In mathematics, the LindemannWeierstrass theorem is a result that is very useful in establishing the transcendence of numbers. It states that if 1, ..., n are algebraic numbers which are linearly independent over the rational numbers Q, then e1, ..., en are algebraically independent over Q; in other words the extension field Q(e1, ..., en) has transcendence degree n over Q. An equivalent formulation (Baker 1975, Chapter 1, Theorem 1.4), is the following: If 1, ..., n are distinct algebraic numbers, then the exponentials e1, ..., en are linearly independent over the algebraic numbers. Author : Spanu Dumitru Viorel This is the conjecture which represents a reciprocal to Baker`s theorem .

Iff the exponentials e1 , e2 , e3 , , en are linearly independent over the algebraic numbers , and e is the transcedental number e , and 1 , 2 , 3 ,, n are not established to be linearly independent over the algebraic numbers with the use of Gelfond - Schneider theorem , than 1 , 2 , 3 ,, n numbers . are distinct algebraic

We do not know if someone else did wrote a reciprocal of Baker`s theorem because the mathematical literature is too big . If this is the case , please do apologize me . ............................................................................................................ If 4 it would be a transcendental number , than , with respect of the conjecture which is a reciprocal of Baker`s theorem , it should implies that 2 ln2 is an algebraic number .

But 4 is an algebraic number . This implies that e2ln2 = eln4 ln e2ln2 = ln4 ln4 is a transcedental number . 2 ln2 it is not an algebraic number , but a transcendental number .

Step 2 .
Main ideea :

If we shall modify a finite number of decimals [ that is a finite number of digits from the fraction part of the number ] of a transcendental number , the nature of the number will not change , id est the number remains transcendental , too . There are cases when we can modify an infinite number of decimals and number obtained so it will be transcendental , too . Examples : (1/2)(ln2) , (1/4)(ln2) , the

We do that by multiplying a number less than 1 , having a finite number of decimals , with the number ln2 . ( The number obtained so has an infinite number of decimals ).

Sketch of proof
Let`s take a rational number less than 1 and let`s denote it with c . c will be choosen so that it will have a finite number of decimals . The text bellow was taken from www.wikipedia.org In mathematics, an algebraic function is informally a function which satisfies a polynomial equation whose coefficients are themselves polynomials. For example, an algebraic function in one variable x is a solution y for an equation

First, note that any polynomial is an algebraic function, since polynomials are simply the solutions for y of the equation More generally, any rational function is algebraic, being the solution of

We shall construct now F(x) = ax + c

an algebraic function

F(x) :

We shall take the value 1 for a If x = ln2

( the rational coefficient of x ) .

, then the algebraic function F(x) holds a transcedental value .

F(ln2) = ln2 + c The number ln2 + c is transcedental .

( that is conform with Any non-constant algebraic function of a single variable yields a transcendental value when applied to a transcendental argument . ) Sketch of proof : (1/2)(ln2) , (1/4)(ln2) are transcdental numbers We shall take into consideration the next algebraic function : F(y) = ay + c The rational coefficient of y is a = .

We take value 0 for the rational coefficient c . Then F(ln2) = (1/2)* ln2 ( that is conform with Any non-constant algebraic function of a single variable yields a transcendental value when applied to a transcendental argument . ) This implies that (1/2)(ln2) is a transcedental number . In a similar way it can be shown that (1/4)(ln2) is a transcedental number .

Step 3 .

For the value of ln2 we shall take into consideration two modalities of calculation . We shall not make an arithmetic mean between the two values . We do not make an arithmetic mean because neither of the two values is entirely correct . If there is an algorithm for the calculation of ln2 resembling to that developped by Bailey , Borwein and Plouffe which can allow us to find any digit of in base 2 without computing the precedent digits , we shall use it .

We shall use these two methods for the calculus of ln2 .

(The constants ln 2 and can be precomputed to the desired precision using any of several known quickly converging series.) The text bellow was taken from www.wikipedia.org The computational complexity of computing the natural logarithm (using the arithmetic geometric mean) is O(M(n) ln n). Here n is the number of digits of precision at which the natural logarithm is to be evaluated and M(n) is the computational complexity of multiplying two n digit numbers.

THE TWO METHODS

METHOD 1
The text bellow was taken from www.wikipedia.org

This leads to the Taylor series for ln(1 + x) around 0; also known as the Mercator series

To compute the natural logarithm with many digits of precision, the Taylor series approach is not efficient since the convergence is slow. We are not interested in the fact that the series isn`t fast converging ; we are interested in obtaining a number of precise digits of ln2 .

For

x = 1

we obtain ( the alternate harmonic series )

( -1)n+1 ln2 = ----------n=1 n

To calculate the numerical value of the natural logarithm of a number, the Taylor series expansion can be rewritten as:

To calculate the numerical value of the natural logarithm of a number, the Taylor series expansion can be rewritten as:

which holds even For x = 1

for

x 1

we obtain

ln(2) = 1(1-1(1/2-1(1/3-1(1/4-1(1/5-1(1/6-1(1/7- ))))))) or if we do computing ln(2) = 1- + 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/6 +1/7 - ln4 = ln(22) = ln2 + ln2 = 2ln2 that is twice the value of the alternate harmonic series .

Obviously , we choose as the first method this : ( The constant ln 2 can alternate harmonic series . ) Then we calculate ln4 . be precomputed to the desired precision using a converging series - the

ln4 = 2ln2

METHOD

The text bellow was taken from www.wikipedia.org

An alternative for extremely high precision calculation is the formula[citation needed]

where M denotes the arithmetic-geometric mean and

with

m chosen so that p bits of precision is attained. (For most purposes , the value of 256 for m is sufficient.) choose the

We shall take the value of ln2 computed with some different method than the two methods already mentioned ; we will value of ln2 wich has been determined so it has the greatest number of precise digits . x=4 s =2m+2

ln4 ----------------------2M(1,4/ s ) - mln2

The text bellow was taken from www.wikipedia.org

Substituting

x-1 for x , we obtain an alternative form for ln(x) itself ,

namely

[7]

To calculate the numerical value of rewritten as :

the natural logarithm of a number , the Taylor series expansion can be

To obtain a better rate of convergence , the following identity can be used .

Provided that y = (x1)/(x+1)

and

x>0.

Formally , ln(a) may be defined as the area under the graph of 1/x from 1 to a , that is as the integral ,

By using the Euler transform on the Mercator series , one obtains the following , which is valid for any x with absolute value greater than 1 :

where M denotes the arithmetic-geometric mean and

with m chosen so that p bits of precision is attained. (For most purposes, the value of 256 for m is sufficient.) In fact, if this method is used, Newton inversion of the natural logarithm may conversely be used to calculate the exponential function efficiently. (The constants ln 2 and can be pre-computed to the desired precision using any of several known quickly converging series.)

Step 4 .

Than we shall study if any periodical sequence of decimals occurs .

That`s how it look the two numbers ; it isn`t exactly ; just for the reason that it may allow us to get an idea about how the two numbers appears . The value of ln2 was taken from www.mathworld.wolfram.com

Step 5.
Is there any case , or which should be the condition , that will make so that the number of different decimals of the new number versus the decimals of ln2 to be finite ?
(For example, and 1 are both transcendental .) Than we shall study if any periodical sequence of decimals occurs .

Step 6 .
Conclusions .

This is the project

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