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Facts Bearing on the Problem Conclusions

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Japan and Korea Bibliography


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THE PROBLEM1. To determine the capabilities and limitations of Korea and Japan in world affairs in general and in reference to the foreign relations of the United States in particular, FACTS KEAING ON 'TE1113iP0L 2. Japan: (Appendix A)

a. Although Japan has been stripped of all overseas possessions, she still retains a geographically strong position in relation to the sea lanes of eastern Asia. Her.climate is the optimum for the development of human energy. Her position, however, is such that she can be blockaded easily by sea and air forces. b. The people of Japan are capable of great industrial achievements. On the other hand, Japan lacks the vital raw materials necessary in waging a modern war, she lacks a merchant marine, her technological advances have been few, and she is weak financially. In short, she is not economically self-sufficient.. c. Japan has a latent strength in the political unity which was achieved by emperor worship and regimentation. She has been historically anti-Russian and could become an asset to the United States as a buffer against Communism. Her present government, however, is unstable and carries no influence 'in international affairs. d. Japan possesses a formidable population, the age,sex, . structure, density, homgenity, industriousness, and religious characteristics of which render her a nation capable of aggressive war when considering these points alone, e. All Japanese military organizations have been or are being disbanded. Her only asset from the military standpoint is her wealth of trained manpower and her experience at having mobilized and utilized a large army, f. Japan is no longer isolated militarily from the rest of the world. Technological advances in aircraft and the emergence of Russia as a military power have eliminated this isolation which was formerly an asset.

3.

Korea: a.

(Appendix A)

Korea is a land bridge between the islands of Japan, and the

There are num erous suitable landing beaches land masses of Russialand China. on the west coast, however, the nature of the terrain limits large scale movement in any direction and, in general, favors the defense. b. Korea's economy is predominately agricultural. However, the development of light industry has progressed sonsiderably because of the She has adequate presence of abundant water power and mineral resources. food resources and enough industry to provide eventual exportation of chemicals, fertilizer, light metals, gold, cement and miscellaneous goods. c. Koreans are in the process of forming a democratic government under a "Big Four" trusteeship, which has been established for a period not Russia and United States forces jointly occupy Korea. to exceed five years. Koreans are The Russian zone of responsibility is north of the 38 0 parallel. Political immediately. hostile to the trusteeship and desire independence unity and fornation of a government have been slow. d. Korea is very nationalistic in her thinking and resents any She lacks a strong external influence on her political and social structure. Her people middle class to assume the lead in development of her govenment. are poverty-stricken and she has a growing labor problem.

e. Both Soviet and American forces have taken steps within their own zones to organize Korean military forces. Her population could support a sizable array; however, her heavy industry is not capable of equipping such a force, f. The rigid division of Korea at the 38th parallel has seriously impeded the economic, political and social unification of the country. CONCLUSIONS
4.

Japan

a. If the United States government, as a member of the Supreme Allied Control Council, formulates and implements strong, sound and just policies towards Japan, and if these are properly executed by American occupational authorities, this once enemy may turn into a bulwark against Commuism in the Far East. b. Internationally, Japan is no longer a nation to be considered, her economic, political and military weaknesses being, so great that they far outweigh the few assets that she still retains geographically and sociologically.

5.

Korea:

a. Korea has the potentialities to become strong and independent under the guidance of the trusteeship but will never become an aggressor
nation.

b. Korea's geographic position in relation to Russia, China, and Japan should make:her a stabilizing factor in Eastern Asia and the Pacific; however, the proximity of Russia and the presence of Russian troops in Korea will do much to spread Communism and bring Korea under the Russian sphere of influence.

APPENDIX A to Regional Studies. Subcourse CAPABILITIES AND LJ IITATIONS OF JAPAN AND KOREA IN JAPAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

AFF-I I zLA

Prior to 1875, Japan consisted of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. Between that year and 1931 she annexed or seized .outright the Kurile Islands, the Ryukyu's, Formosa, The Volcano Islands, Karafuto, the Japan has 'Kwangtung Peninsula, Korea, the Mandated Islands, and Manchuria. now reverted to its 1875 size,' four islands forming a strategic arc-shaped chain off the Asiatic coast. Comparing this' post-war Japan to the United States we. see that the lower tip of Kyushu would be a little more than a hundred miles off Jacksonville, Florida, while the tip of Hokkaido would lie directly off Eastport, ,Maine. About 85% of the total area of Japan is composed of mountains, Mountain streams which of which are either active oj extinct volcanoes. many perpendicular to the main axis of the islands, are short, flow generally This mountainous nature of swift, shallow, and preponderently nnavigable. Japan has forced its inhabitants into the few existing plains, the most important of which is the Kwanto or Tokyo Plain. The Nobi or Nagoya Plain is second only to the Ktanto Plain in area. Farther west are the Kinki Plain, the Northern Coastal Strip, and the innumerable smaller lowlands and deltas This sea, a narrow, Island-studded body of water 260 of the Inland Sea. miles long, forms the industrial, comraercial and military heart of Japan. Access to the sea by water is possible only through three narrow, treacherous and easily defended straits. Climatically speaking, Japan occupies a position of latitude which It is is perhaps the optimum location for the development of human energy. climatic conditions. interesting to note the causes other than latitude for its In summer, extremely high temperatures in Manchuria and Mongolia maintatain a constant thermal low pressure over that area toward which blows the southeast summer monsoon. This brings high temperatures and heavy rains to nearly all of Japan south a Hokkaido. In winter, when the plains and mountains of Manchuria and Mongolia are very cold, a high pressure isdeveloped causing a cold dry wind to blow from the northwest. This wind crosses the Sea of Japan, picks up considerable moisture, and deposits it in the form of snow over all the mountainous interior and along all that coast of Honshu which faces the sea. The Pacific coast of Honshu and the Island of Shikkoku and Kuyshu are protected by the mountains of Honshu and Korea. Hence, with the additional influence of the Japanese current, the winters in southern Japan are quite mild and dry. v,$) Although Japan has lost her empire, she still occupies a geographically important position. Likewise her people remain in a favorable climate, Militarily., Japan's mountains and 17,000 miles of compartmented coastline still offer formidable barriers to a ground army. Her position, hbwever, although still shielded by oceanic barriers, is also a ,source of weakness, for it facilitates blockade. Furthermore, the loss of outlying possessions and the increased range of air power has made all Japan vulnerable to mass destruction. Offensively, the loss of these possessions has left Japan without stepping stones for offensive warfare. Geographically, then Japan has no existing power which would enable her to advance her national policies by force of arms other than a favorable climate which will continue to nurture a verile and aggressive people - a people who at one time dominated all of Eastern Asia and the Western Pacific.

26 April 46

Appendix A

ECONCOIC FACTORS
Japan's former quest of empire seems foolhardy when studying the Her four main islands are mostly mouneconomic structure of the country. can be cultivated, giving her an area less tainous and only 20% of the land than the state of Iowa to feed 7 0000,000 people. .'The arable land produces enough food, supplemented by'thefishi9g industry to provide' a subsistence from her dependencies or trade. diet for her people. ~Any increse~ Her position close to the Asiatic Mainland enables hef to dominate Because of her large industrial bmipletaly the trade routes to the East. population and capability of supplying goods for commerde she will continue to be a dominant figure in the commerce of the Eastern Asiatic Coast. Japan proper lacks such natural resources as 'fuel, mineral wealth, Her limited coal: production is and in fact in all industrial ra; materials. of low quality. Petroleui, found in two areas, furnishes only a small part The very small deposits of irpn ore and copper which of her requirements. In other metallic minerals and ores, with exist are produced at high cost. the exception of sulphur, she is woefully deficient. Japan's greatest natural resources are her abundance of labor, electric power, fish and raw silk., Since the beginning of the 20th centtury, she has become increasingly "industrialized. This 'industrialization has proBut, lacking the raw materials of industry, vided work for her people. Japan has been forced to base her whole economic structure on importatiot In of materials, exportation of finished goods, and the sale of services. and make her ih iastry and trade as self-sufficient an effort to expand B4e The result has as possible, they were heavily subsidized by the' government. been such that just prior to the war she had almost attained self-sufficiency Only in the manufacture of highly technical machine tools in manufacturing. depend on imports. did she still Because of the scarcity of fuel and the abundance of actual and potential sources of water power. for electricity, Japan made considerable use of this source of energy. All homes'had electricity except those in This power 'was used primarily in home production of rural communities. various articles for Japan s industry. Prior to the war Japan had a modern and efficient merchant marine to handle her overseas commerce and her vital inter-island communiadequate Although her railway trackage was small for a populous industrial cations. Rolling stock was modern and fairly adequate. nation, it was well maintained. Her, highway system was undeveloped due' to the small amount of motor transport. Air transport' had recently grown suprisingly because of military support. In world commerce, she was exceded only by Britain and the United States., Her telegraph and teleJapan's communications were inadequate. The use of wireless and radio was systems lacked modern equipment. phone restricted for government purposes, thus giving no incentive for the improvement of these systems. Japan spent consistently more than its income and financed her As her banks were governdeficiencies by means of loans from the people. caused her financial system to be ment or semi-government 'controlled this geared to government needs and spending.' of electronics, physics, medicine and machinery she In the fields has contributed nothing but has shown an aptitude for copying to fit her own ability and needs. Economically speaking, Japan's only resources are her geographic position in relation to the sea lanes of the world and the industrial achievements of her population. Her greatest weaknesses are her lack of vital raw materials to wage a modern war, her slow technological advances, Her exports her poor financial condition, and her, lack of a merchant marine. must be finished goods and her imports the raw materials for the manufacture She can continue of such products - she is not econ*mically self-sufficient.
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Appendix A

to be a highly industrialized nation but as to how big and how soon she can It depends on when the de-militarrebuild and recover, only time can tell. izing and occupation ceases and how the Japanese people take to the idea of being one of a family of nations using the democratic ideal,

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'Append ix A

POLIT ICAL

FACTORS

Prior to the war all authority in the Jepanese government stemmed from the Emperor who exercised his will through his chief advisors: the Privy Council, the Imperial Household, the Cabinet and the Military Board, The Diet, the Japanese bicameral legislature, theoretically enacted all legislation but actually was merely a sounding board of opinions of the people. The judiciary was under the minister of justice, and although there was a Bill of Rights insuring equality and justice, the various state and other police agencies were high handed, regimenting the people with the approval of the government. Various Political parties as we know them were non-existent. societies were allowed to exist only for the purpose of regimenting the Communism was non. people the idea of Jaoan's mission to rule the world existent because of the Japanese form of capitalistic - fascist government and the historical 'hatred of anything Russian. It is improbable that Communism will gain a wide foothold in Jsan if the Allied directives are properly implemented. Formerly, Japan was a factor to be considered in international politics, She had a far flung empire which she administered with tyrannical methods in order to obtaoin the maximum for the home isl.andp.. Outside of the empire she established trade and commerce wherever she could gain a foothold, but she refused to allow foreign capital even a toe-hold in Japan, After beginning her war of agression, all conquered nations automatically became members in the Japanese sponsored Asiatic Co-Prosperity Sphere,. The Japanese will was a matter with which all nations having Asiatic interests were forced to reckon. So much for the past - for the present, it appears that General MacArthur is supervising the reformation of the Japanese government from one of imperial dictatorship to constitutional monarchy in which the people will gain their freedom, Several political parties have spriung up and the first free election has just occurred, What type of government will finally be selected and what its structure will be remains to be seen, The Allies say it must be. a democratic one, and it must not have the means politically or industrially of waging war, Reviewing the political outlook in Japan it appears that .she still has a latent strength in the political unity which was achieved prior to the war through emperor worshio and regimentation. So far as the .United States is concerned she has a definite asset as a buffer state between communism and capitalism, Japan is not a nation whose will must be considered in international politics: in this respect she is bankrupt. Internally, her present government is extremely unstable, a factor which alone would render her impotent among the first-class nations of the world,

SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS In 1940, the 73,000,000 inhabitants of Japan proper outnumbered those qf Great Britain by two to one. The population was increasing naturally and was almost equally divided between males and females. About 50% of the total were estimated to have been in the age group 15 to 49. In 1935, the density of population was more than ten times higher than that of the United States, but lower than that of Great Britain or Belgium.. Because so little of Japan proper is suitable for agriculture, the effective density of population is higher than this ratio, would indicate. Japan's people are more homogeneous than those of any other large modern nation, the aboriginal Ainus, migratory Mongolians, and Malayans or Indonesians having been synthesized into one race on the western end of the Inland Sea about the first century A. D. This synthesis was aided further from the 16th century until the middle of the 19th when all foreigners were excluded from Japan. The race is now, however, under the process of dilution. Drew Pearson stated in one of his recent columns that 14,000 GI babes of Jap ancestry were about to make their bows Japanese culture, like that of every other nation, represents a grafting on native institutions of ideas and customs from other lands. From China, in the 7th ar 8th century, the Japanese borrowed their written language and Buddhism. It is from this religion that the Japanese originally obtained their attitude towards death. With the resurgence of imperial powers in 1867, State Shintoism - the belief in the emperor's divinity - began to appear. Every Japanese has since then been considered a Shintoist first, regardless of his other faiths. Since the war, Emperor Hirohito has renounced his divinity and the superiority of the Japanese' race. In the past thought control over all Japan has been practiced by the Japanese government. Today, however, the press, radio, moving pictures, legitimate theaters and schools are free to express themselves. As a result, Japanese magazines have increased from 32 to 306. Station JOAK, formerly government controlled, now features new free-expression programs. Among the newer ones are, "The Man on the Street," "The TWomen's Hour," and "The Voice of the People." In general, there has been a complete upheaval from th regimented propagandist concepts of life to uncontrolled free expression. Rages, hours, and working conditions of the Japanese are pitiful when compared to those of the United States. The average wage of Japanese ",orkers prior to the : = :war was two yen per ten to fourteenay, or at the former pre-war rate of dollar exchange, $1.00, Nevertheless, these conditions of long hours and low wages, administered by a highly intelligent governing class to an industrious working population, have been responsible for the sudden and successful appearance of Japan in the field of international industrial competition. possesses Although deprived of her colonial manpowurer, Japan still a formidable population, the age, sex structure, density, homogenity, industriousness, and religious characteristics of which render her a nation capable of agressive war insofar as these points are concerned. Countering these assets are the Emperor's renunciation of his divinity and the divine mission of the Japanese, the elimination of government sponsored propaganda, and the advent of real free speech. If the true impact of these events is manifest in the people, a definite crystalization of public thought - a forwarning of coming events - will be necessary before an act of agression could be perpetrated.

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Appendix A

MILITARY FACTORS
In view of the Allied abolition of. all Japanese military organizations it is believed that only a cursory glance at her pre-war military establishment is necessary. Prior to the war, Japan possessed an Army and Navy each headed by a minister in the cabinet who was a professional officer. These ministers were on the Board of Generals and Admirals which acted in an advisory capacity to the Emperor who was Commander in Chief. The Army was an autonomous, force comprising all branches including an air force. The same was true of the Navy. Both were well armed, trained and equipped with ractically unlimited funds to spend on continual training. Manpower was no problea since military conscription had been in effect since 1872. Early in childhood all Japanese were trained to believe in the might of Japan and her In aggressive warfare, Japan was dependent on ships to future in the world. supply her armies, Therefore, she was particularly vulnerable to sea and air blockade and attack. In the past Japan has been isolated from strong potential enemies by masses of land and water. Such isolation was a strong military asset inasmuch as it left her dominant in her sphere of influence. Technological advances in aircraft and the emergence of Russia as a military,power have no4

eliminated this asset.


In analyzing the power potential of Japan from a military' standpoint, if the Allies are successful in implementing their disarmament plans, the. military organization of Japan will cease to exist...she will be powerless militarily. Perhaps Japan's only asset from the purely military standpoint is her wealth of. trained manpower and her experience at having mobilized a large army. The resurgence of this power is doubtful, however, as a result of Japan's acquisition of a new liablility, Russia's rise to power in the Far East.

Appendix A

CAABTLTTIES

AN

a, LODLILIITATIO TN

IN TE'RNATIONL AFF, .?

Japan has the same course of action opento her as most of the other nations in the.world today, she may either join the democratic or the communistTwice in her past history, Japan has absorbed foreign ideas, once ic group. There exists, then, an absorptibn pattern which cultural'and once industrial. would lead us to believe that if the governrent of the United States as a member of the Supreme Allied Control Council formulates strong, sound and just policies toward Japan,, and if these are properly administered by -our occupational authorities, this once enemy may turn into a bulwark against communism in the As a power in world politics, Japan is no longer a nation to be Far.East. considered, her economic, political and military weaknesses being so great that retains geographically and they far outweigh the few assetsthat she still sociologically.

Appendix A

KOREA INTRODUCTION Korea's strategic position - that of a dagger pointing from the Asiatic continent into the heart of Japan - as early as 1894 led Japan into As a result of her victories in these war against both China and Russia. wars, Japan, in 190, annexed Korea and exercised complete control over her until the end of 'World War II. GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS Korea lies in about the same latitude, possesses about the same climate, and is similar in both area and size of population to the combined states of Vermont, the eastern half of Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Bordering directly on Chinese and RussianterritorDelaware, and Maryland. ies, and reaching to within 100 miles of Japan, Korea lies in a strategic position in Asia which is fraught with the danger of being again absorbed by stronger neighbors. A rugged mountain mass covers the north and north-east third of A long, nearly continuous mountain barrier extends along the peninsula. Several tributary the east coast and down to the southern end of Korea. These ranges and spurs extend southwest from the main east coast range, spurs present a series of natural defensive positions at intervals of 10-30 miles across lines of. north-south movement in the west; similarly, the steep ridges and hills separating small pocket lowlands serve the same purposes The winding rivers of at intervals of 1-6 miles across the east side. Western Korea, when at flood, also form obstacles to north-south movement. The natural mountain barrier and the few passes facilitate defense against in fact, virtually impossible. east-west movement, and render it, Throughout the peninsula, the soils are generally trafficable during the dry season. However, in the paddy areas, canals tend to restrict movement between November and early June, when the paddys are drained. Few of the rivers could be used as water-ways, but their valleys The rivers in northern Korea are are important as routes for movement. Those in the central section are from three to four months annually. frozen The rivers and streams in. southern Korea two to three months. frozen from Korea is often enveloped in fogs, which tend to restrict are open all year. movement by air. Most important artery of transportation is the double tracked railIt has many velroad running from Pusan, through the peninsula to Mukden. railroad skirts much of the coast of northeast Another nerable bridges. These two railroads are Korea, and connects with cross lines to Manchuria. Main road; winding through the mountains. interconnected by two cross lines' at Kyongsong. Much of Korea's traffic arteries form a great "X" intersecting is handled by coastwise shipping. The plentiful water supply is not safe for consumption without treatment. During the winter months, 'this water supply is concentrated principally in the lowlands because of the very rapid runoff caused by the lack of vegetative cover, and to the mountainous terrain. In the forested Mode than 2/3 of the country has been deforested. There is very areas, however, the foliage usually offers good concealment. in cultivated areas are low Most of the crops dense undergrowth. little groving, and, except in rice areas, offer no hinderance to cross-country movement. The south and west coasts are highly irregular with alternative beach-fringed lowlands and rocky headlands, and numerous off-lying islands, Broad drying mud flats and sandbars and a large rocks, reefs and shoals. tidal range, add to the difficulties of approach.

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Appendix. A

The east coast is fairly regular, with small beach-bordered pocket valleys separating from one another and from the interior. by steep mountains and swift streams, Approaches from the sea are relatively clear. Korea geography is best suited to defensive warfare. The nature of her coastline, the internal distances involved in movement of reinforcements and the lack of transport facilities would preclude the prevention of a determined enemy from gaining a foothold. Geographically, a free Korea is an asset to the United States as a barrier to any aggressive overland movement between. the islands of Japan and continental Eastern Asia. POLITICAL FACTORS: The Cairo Declaration pledged a free Korea in due coursesand that So today we find Korea, promise was reaffirmed in the Potsdam Declaration. after 50 years of Japanese domination and exploitation, undergoing complete political economic and social changes at the hands of the Allies. For the purposes of supervising the surrender and repatriation of the Japanese in Korea, the peninsula was devided along the 38th parallel into two approximately equal zones with the Soviets occupying the northern and the U. S. occupying the southern zone. At the Moscow Conference in December 1945 it was agreed that a joint U.S. - Soviet Corinission would be formed to assist the Koreans in setting up an interim democratic government for the whole peninsula and that a Big-Four Trusteeship to last not more than 5 years, would be established on a basis recommended by the Commission after consulting with the interum government. Koreansyanticipating immediate independence, have violently opposed the trusteeship. The U.S. has indicated that trusteeship may e dispensed with, however, -the Soviet has come out strongly in favor of #mposing it. Divergent Soviet and U.S. interpretations of the Moscow agreement in this regard have resulted in charges and counter charges between the two countries. The Moscow Conference also agreed that the U.S. and Soviet commands in Korea should meet together at an early date to consider coordination of policies# and uch a meeting bepgan in Seoul on 15 January 1946 at which the U.S. urged the removal of the barrier but the Soviets were willing to permit only limited and strictly controlled inter-.zone movement. The Joint U.S. - Soviet Commission met at Seoul on 20 March and on 18 April announced that it had agreed upon definite, preliminary steps toward provisional government. In the meanwhile in the north, the Russians have apparently set up a loosely organized regime with provinces and local peoples committees generally dominated by Soviet supported Communists. In the southern zone 'the American Military Government has taken over the central government and is giving Koreans ,increasing responsibility in administration and techInitially a multitude of political parties sprang into nical positions. From the~, 3 major groups have emerged; survive. existance and many still they are: the leftists and liberals (Peoples Republic) the conservative democrats (Provisional government), and he Communists. Further political unification has not been achieved and italikely that an interin government will have to be a coalition of all three groups. The rigid Allied division of Korea and the trusteeship issues are fast making Korea a testing gfound for Soviet-Americans relations, not only the Korean people but have aroused the immediate and hostile reaction of

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Appendix A

and seriously impeded political unity. Unification under one-supreme Allied Commander, and the announcement of a specific and early date of independence will do much to retain the confidence and suppDrt of the people and hasteh the formation of a 'stronEKorea. ECOiiONIC FACTO S Korean economy has long been closely linked with that of Japan for she served a. a source of raw materials, as a strategic military base, and as a convenient bridge for the movement of military supplies. Northern Korea is rich in mineral resources and water power and has become signlificantly industrial; central Korea-is both industrial and asgricultural; whereas southern Korea is essentially agricultural. UnAer Japan, she exported foodstuffs and war materials and imported rawr materials, consumers goods, xhachinery and vehi cles. The economy of Korea is Iredominately agricultural, In 1938, 747 of her 24 million people were engaged in farming as compared with 7% in commerce,'3 in manufacturing and 1% in minin., Her principal crop is rice. This and other cereals made up 78 of the gross value of the 1938 The United States is now expanding the production of crop production. cotton and developing agriculture in southern Korea. quipment shortag es at present hamper the fishing industry which in normal times is qu1ite large. The quality of Korea's modest forest reserves is poor and recent fuel shortages have caused uncontrolled cutting of timber, thereby further reducing this resource. The importance of her minerals lies in variety rather than in'the quantity of any particular ore. About 200 minerals are found here of which only 137 are used in industry-. Gold nd silver, iron, coal and graphite are the Four Great Miinerals of Korea. IMagnesite, molybdenumn, alumjte, mica and others are found in-various quantities. Korea lacks sufficient bituminous coal and coke and she has no natural petroleum. Bituminous coal is ow being brought into southern Korea 'from Japan for the operation of transportation systems. Additional coal is needed for'industry. Although industry has greatly expanded, much of it is still located in small plants. Korea's water power will support substantial development of large scale industry. In terms of value' of production, the relative standing chemicals, food processihg, of principal industries in 1939 was as follovs: Pig iFon, spinning and'weaving, metal working, and machine and tool making. steel and gold refining were the principal metal industries. The tool industry directedits attention to mining, electrical equipment and vess'els. Fertilizer was 'the chief product of the chemical indistry. Railroads were developed' for economic and military reasons along north-south lines. Highways are not well developed and serve as.:feeder lines Fuel and rolling stock shortages now limit 'transportation. to the railroads. Traffic on inland waterways is insignificant as fev streams are navigable., Korea has 7 principal ports which are adequate for her"needs. Her financial establishments were formerly owned and operated by Japanese. Now, in southern Korea, Japanese "banks are merged with Korean banks and the title of all properties, securities, and moneys formerly owned by the Japanese government,, its agencies or nationals is vested in the Military Government. Koreans have demanded an Allied policy on the disposition of these properties. Korea occupies an economic position which compares favorably with most countries in Asia. She has adequate food resources and enough industry a exportable surpluses of chemicals, fertilizers,. to provide her eventually light metals, gold,cement and miscellaneous goods. However, the development of these economic potentialities.is at present hindered by: (1) the division of the peninsula separating heavy industry in the north from agriculture in Ahe.

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Appendix A

south, (2) the difficulty under present conditions of getting plants into production, (3) the continual rise of commodity price levels, and (4) the acute shortage of transportation. Before Korea's basically agricultural economy can be fully stabilised, it is essential to reunite the country into one economic whole to resume the.production of needed consumer goods. SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS Korea a land of 22,633,875 in 1929, with a natural population She has a popgrowth of 1.8 to 1.9% per year. More than 97% are Korean. ulation density of 160 persons per square mile as compared with 42 in the, U.S. Prior to the Allied occupation, Japanese was the official lahguage. The Korean language, however, is simpler and more manageable than those of either Japan or China. Having an alphabet of only 25 letters, it readily to increasing the nation's cultural growth. becomes a tool which lends itself Modified somewhat by Western influence, the social structure of Ancestor worship Korea is based on family, clan, and supremacy of the male. prevails, and the people resent desecration of cemeteries and ancestral tombs. Shamanism, Confucianism and numerous primitive superstitious beShintoism, Buddhism liefs occupy the meditative periods of the majority. is Of these, the latter and Christianity are the "enlightened" religions. the most active and therefore the most influential. In olden times there were three classes of society; Nobility Under the (Hangban), Middle class (professionals, etc.), and the Laborers. Japanese, the nobility was subsidized and supported; the middle class wiped Today, the most influenti'al class is composed of those who have a nut. modern education, the Yangban, and Koreans who have attained wealth and Because of industrialization, position through collaboration with the Japanese. a new urban class has developed. desire for independence, is Korea'.s national consciousness, and its These probably the ruling factor in the nation's attitude toward other races. time in fifty dominant factors can now be discussed publicly for the first a free press and free thought. years,: there nov exits The standards of living are very low. However, under the military government, the distribution of foodstuffs is proceeding in an orderly manner, though in some provinces prices are rising. Advances have been achieved in Hospital Comprehensive relief measures are bing worked out. public health. bed space and medical supplies are adequate according to Korean standards. The bureau of police is now under the control of the Office of the of National Defense. Subject to the approval of the Director, the Director formation of any private police force or armed group is banned. Labor and labor organizations are in a chaotic state of sudden A council of trade unions was held in Seoul in November 1945 liberation. and was parti6ipated in by representatives of 1194 unions in 15 different
trades.

Productivity of labor in Korean agriculture in very low. The overall labor situation has been complicated by the scarcity of steady workers. Labor has been demanding more wages, and those seeking steady employment have become scarce because they earn less money than casual workers. On the positive side, Korea's ages and sex divisions are properly. balanced for war. She is very nationalistic in'her thinking, resenting any external influence on her political and social structure. Her language and alphabet will assist her in becoming a moulder of thought and ideals in Asia if she is permitted to develop freely as a nation.

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Appendix A

The disadvantages include the poverty of the people, the lack of a cohesive plan of government, the growing labor problems, and the extreme need for a middle class to assume leadership in the development of a new Korea desirous of, taking her place in the family of nations. MILITARY FACTORS Korea has no national armed forces; however, both the Soviet and the Americans have taken steps to organize Korean forces within their own zones. In the south, the U. S. has created a Bureau of Armed Forces and a Director of Natio'al Defense and plans to establish, train and arm a Korean Gonstabulary and boast 'uard which will be the only legal armed organization in south K6rea. The Soviets are reported to be operating a training center for a volunteer corps which 3,000 volunteers are currently attending. It is also reported thatKorean elements which fought with the ChineSe Communists' 8th Route Army are crossing into northern Korea-in numbers now exceeding 10,000, and that other Koreans in central China are being trained by Chinese Nationalists for eventual entry into southern Korea. Korea's population, comparable to that of Spain, could easily support a sizable force. Sinee 1932, many Koreans have had military experience. Korea, however, lacks the weapons and equipment with which to provide and maintain an armed force and her industry is not in a position to 'furnish them. She has no fixed defenses as such except those ,prepared by There were 6 air fields, 22 landing the Japanese and now made impotent. fields, 3 seaplahe bases and some 14 naval bases developed by the Japs. Without Russian or American influence her tactical doctrines would probably follow those of the Chinese. Under the trusteeship any force organized in Korea will undoubtedly In international affairs we can ignoreKorea be for internal defense only. power. as a military

CAPABILITIES AND LI RITATIONS TIN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS


Korea must accept peacefully and cooperatively the Big Four plan for the reestablishment of her independence. Under the guidance of trusteeship, Korea's lines of action will be so channelized that she will have no influence on international affairs. After attaining independence her most probable action will be to continue-to develop and strengthen her internal affairs, to exploit her natural resources, and to strive for the maintenance In view of her geographic of friendly relationships with her neighbors. position in relation to Russia, China and .Japan Korea as a strong independent nation should become a stabilizing factor in Eastern Asia and the Pacific. The removal of the present barrier along the 38th parallel, the economic and political unification of the country and the early termination of the trusteeship will do much to hasten Korea's assuming this position. However the proximity of Russia and the presence o Russian troops in Korea will. do much to spread communism and bring Kmrea under the Russian sphere of influence,

-14-

Appendix A

'' c.

APPENDIX .J to Regional Studies Subcourse CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF JAPAN AND KOREA IN WORLD AFFAIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY JAPAN JAPAN A WORLD PROBLE Timberly 952 1944 Carus and McNichols M103-2 M103-3 330.952

ITS sRSOURCES AND INDUSTRIES

GEOGRAPHIC FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL POWER 81(Confidential) 84(Confidential) 85(Confidential)

M103-1

JANIS

Chap X Section II

Oct 1944 A II B

CIVIL AFFAIRS HANDBOOK -JAPAN UiMASKED -

Hallet Abend

M952A

1941 1M206C 1943 1940

SOLDIER AND PEASANT IN JAPAN.

Herbert E Norman

JAPANS EMERGENCE AS A MODERN STATE INDUSTRIAL JAPAN --

Herbert E Norman 1941 330-952

Hy Tuan Yuan'330.952 Ashohi Isohi

ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF JAPAN 225

SCHEDULE

824

C&GSS
1946 January 14, 1946; March 18, 194.6 1946 E15 GI Roundtable

VWORLD ALMIANAC TfLE MAGAZINE NEWS~AEK

March 25,

WHAT SHALL BE DONE ABOUT JAPAN AFTER VICTORY? ARY SERVIJCE FORCES MANUAL M-354-9 -13 -16 Oliver, Robert I.

KOREA,

FORGOTTEN NATION --

Public Affairs Press Le, Hoon K. Chicago Press

1944

951.9

LAND UTILIZATION AND RURAL ECONOMY IN KOREA --

University of 1936 333.09519 C&GSS

REGIONAL SUR.EY CHINA

AND EASTERN ASIA

--

1st Command Class" C12807

Archives,

JANIS 75

- Vol

#1

of 2

Cohf.

Archives

1945

C9187 SCAP 1945 No. 2 & 3 N-l

SUMMATION

OF NON-=ILITARY ACTIVITIES IN JAPAN AND KOREA --

November and December,

Archives

N-12831
THE WORLD ALMANAC - 1946 -New York World - Telegram 1946

-1-

Appendix B

MODERN KOREA --

Grajdanzev,

Andrew J.

Institue

of

Pacific

Relations

1944,

951.9 G-2 PERIODIC REPORTS -USAFIK Archives S11909 Archives Nelson, M.F. 1945 FIELD ORDER #1 -TIME MAGAZINE NEWSWEEK Hq USAFIK (Confidential) 951.9 TS12118 University Press

FACTUAL DATA - KEYS AREA --

Hq. Tenth Army

KOREA AND THE. OLD ORDER IN EASTERN ASIA --

0-12634

8 October 1945, 28 January 1946

1 October 1945 MIS-WV GS

POLITICAL AND AMINISTRATION MACHINERY IN KOREA AND MANCHUFUO

(Secret) S12581 REVIEW OF THE FAR EAST G-2 SUMMARY -Vol. 4,5,10,13, & 14 MID 1945-46 (Secret) 1945-46 S-11970 S-9092

Hq. XXIV The Crps.

(Secret)

-2-

Appendix B

;.A

NO

I APP"" X to
Le iona1

Studies

ubcourse

CPAIILI1S AND

12 I't'I7O

t OF KU:;A A-i

JAPAN JN

IN

i"Li) A FFIRS

SLIDS

Japan and Her Pre-war Erpire School Slide No. 11-221

COMPARISON OF THE GEOGRAPHIC POSITION


AND SIZE OF JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES

'^

School Slide No.

11-22

26 April 46

Alppenix

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APPENDIX D to Studies Subcourse Regional

CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF KOREA AND JAPAN IN WVORLD AFFAIRS

MAPS

1.

Approaches to Japan,

1:7,000,000.

Orientation map of Korea, with

relation to her neighbor nations on the Asiatic continent and islands of Japan. 2. Eastern. Asia, 1:1,000,000 A.M.S. 5301. Relief and principal

routes of communication in Korea.

26 April 46

Appendix D

APPROACHES

TO

-T

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RESTRICTE

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APPENDIX

ORGANIZATION OF THE COIMJITTEE

Lt.

Col. R.

C. Gildart, F. A., C. Bridgewater, K. Carr, A. C. A. C.

Chairman GSC

Colonel F. Lt. Col. J.

(Cav)

Colonel C. D. Jones',

26 April 46

- /-

Appendix E

ORGANIZATION OF THE COvilTTEE

The committee was organized as follows for reaearch and preparation of written material:

Japan: Economic factors ) Political factors ) Geographical factors ) Sociological factors ) Col. Jones

Lt.

Col. Gildart

Military factors and conclusions:

Col. Jones and Lt.

Col. Gildart

Korea: Economic factors ) Political factors ) Geographical factors ) Sociological factors ) Col. Bridgewater

Lt.

Col.

Carr

Military factors and conclusions:

Col. Bridgewater and Lt.

Col. Carr

Oral presentation will made as follows: Japan: Korea: Lt. Col, Gildart Col. Bridgewater

26 April 46

Appendi

VI IVIVIj~l~lt9OO9lCllllllIIVIY I!V