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Ryan Wu Matthews 6th

Executive Branch Buzzwords

Ad hoc structure: It is a structure of the executive branch that features task forces, committees, informal groups of friends and advisors that deal directly with the president. - Clinton’s presidency ran under the Ad hoc structure. Cabinet: It is a group of government officials in the Executive branch that works under the president and includes departments, their secretaries and the attorney general. - The oldest departments include the department of State, Treasury, Defense, and Justice and their secretaries serve the president while advocating for their respective departments. Circular Structure: A structure in which assistances in the West Wing report directly to the president. - Under Carter’s presidency, a circular structure was used and it is also portrayed in the TV series, “The West Wing”. Divided Government: It is a case in which the Executive branch and the Legislative branch are controlled by different parties, often resulting in political gridlock as the two branches butt heads trying to get legislation passed. - The current government where Obama is the president is a divided presidency. Electoral College: It is the group of delegates that are chosen by the states and vote to elect the president directly. - Edgar Welden is one of the many electorates. Executive Privilege: It is the ability for the president to resist the influences of the legislative and judicial branch to some extent. - Nixon claimed that executive privilege was a legitimate reason for him not to hand over the Watergate tapes during his trial. Impeachment: It is the process by which an official in the government is accused of wrong doing and is put through trial to determine whether or not he will be removed from office. – Clinton was put through the impeachment trial but was not impeached because the Senate did not approve it. Impoundment of Funds: When a president refuses to spend funds appropriated by Congress, it is called an impoundment of Funds. – During Jefferson’s presidency, he refused to spend the Navy’s money. Pocket Veto: An indirect veto of a legislative bill by the president by retaining the bill unsigned until after the legislative session. – Lincoln used the pocket veto to stop the Wade-Davis Bill from becoming a law.

– Also created the Congressional Budget Office. Office of Management and Budget: It helps the President to create a budget. who had almost began his 4th term. Twenty-Fifth Amendment: It is the amendment that formally limited a president’s term limit to 2 terms. – One provision is that the president must inform Congress of any troop deployment within in 48 hours. – Presidents such as Nixon and Reagan had an executive branch under the Pyramid Structure. Executive Agreement: It is an agreement made between the executive branch of the U. The effects are decreased when the president is a controversial president. – Bush used executive agreements in Iraq. Veto: A veto is the president’s check on the legislative branch that shuts down the passage of a bill and sends it back to Congress to be reevaluated and voted on. Another is that if Congress does not approve of troop deployment. . – Lyndon B. It most likely helped President Obama for the 2013 fiscal period. War Powers Act: It was made because of Nixon’s actions in Cambodia. – George W. A normal veto can be overridden by a 2/3s vote. then it is the act that forces the president to spend all of the money appropriated by Congress within 45 days unless Congress gives concessions. Johnson was one such controversial president that if one rode his “coattails” would not find much success. White House Office: The White House Office is an office within the White House that is headed by the Chief of Staff. – The pocket veto is a type of veto but can only be used in specific situations and cannot be overridden due to the situation’s circumstance.S government and a foreign government without approval of the Senate.Ryan Wu Matthews 6th Presidential Coattails: When a member of the same party as the president earns more votes by riding on the on the coattail of a popular president. Unified Government: It is a government in which one party controls both the legislative branch and the White House. Budget Reform Act: If I am talking about the correct Budget Reform Act (1974). – The current Chief of Staff in the White House Office is Denis McDonough. it was created to limit the president’s war making powers and giving some of it to Congress. troops must be returned within 60 to 90 days. Bush had a unified government in his first term. Pyramid Structure: A method of organizing the presidential staff so that most members report to a superior with a few reporting directly to the president. – It was established by and for FDR.

Patronage: Patronage is the support. allowing the executive to pick and choose to pass parts of legislation. and many provisions. – Bush manipulates public into supporting war in Iraq through claiming that they had “weapons of mass destruction”. Rule of Propinquity: A rule that tells that those who show up when a decision is being made have power. and to appoint judges. Informal Powers of the POTUS: Presidents have the informal ability to manipulate public opinion. – It is being used among the White House Staff as they operate. – While the POTUS can veto to stop legislation. Congress can simply shut down legislation brought forward. – Wilson created the Treaty of Versailles that was shut down by the Senate. historically. carry out war to some extent. Lame Duck: It is an elected official who is approaching the end of his/her tenure. – It was last used by Clinton. such as “executive power” has been limited by acts such as the War Power Act. Shared Powers Congress: The President shares the power with the entirety of Congress to approve legislation. faithfully execute laws. can reprieves and pardons for federal offences. Also could mean that those who are closer to the president have more power. – Nixon was pardoned for the Watergate Scandal by President Ford. Formal Powers of the POTUS: He is the Commander in Chief of the military. can commission officers for the military. ambassadors. or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to one another. – The italicized portion needs the approval of the Senate.Ryan Wu Matthews 6th Line-Item Veto: It is an unconstitutional veto by the president that only blocks parts of a bill. Pardon: It is to be released from a charge that is often from a federal offense. make treaties. privilege. the power to create is the power to destroy. ambassadors and higher officials. encouragement. appoint officials to lesser offices. wield “executive power”. . – In the last month of Taft’s presidency he was a lame duck. and appoint judges. and especially an official whose successor has already been elected. Shared Powers with Senate: The President shares the power with the Senate to make treaties. unconstitutionally in both domestic and foreign affairs as the symbol of the nation and democracy. and act. – Logrolling and interest groups lobbying are all forms of political patronage. can receive ambassadors (foreign policy?).

Ryan Wu Matthews 6th Bully Pulpit: It is how the President pressures interest groups in changing public opinion to bend to his agenda. The Veto could curb spending. Checks and Balances on Exec. because it grants him complete control of the bill’s future. it worked especially well because he was popular. The president is most concerned with picking a running mate that appeals to the voters that he does not. because the president could easily eliminate elements of the budget and remove useless pork from a bill. 3. Branch: Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch Executive Branch Focus Questions 1. so they together my appeal to a greater spectrum of voters. The president can appoint a judge that will judge cases in a manner that supports him so that in the future. – Theodore Roosevelt used the bully pulpit to get some of his agenda passed. he will still hold his influence on the federal judiciary. 4. The president can use his veto to influence legislation. This is also his method that he is more effective at using. . 2.

. congress amended the Freedom of Information Act in order to better allow for the tracking of the spending of the president. An executive agreement is an agreement between the president and a foreign nation.Ryan Wu Matthews 6th 5. 6. An executive order can be used to pass a law that governs executive agencies or those working under the president. This allows the president to bypass the constitutional restrictions on what kind of treaties he is allowed to make. 7. 9. 8. The president will issue one when he doubts congresses ability to pass a law that fulfills his needs. Presidents have increased the usage of executive orders in order to combat the growing power of congress and the judiciary branch through court cases and certain acts that restrain the executive branch. After Watergate. The only constitutional duty of the vice president is so vote when there is a tie in the senate. The President’s ability to act militarily without being in war through the usage of his position as commander-in-chief has increased presidential powers since the 1945. 10.