You are on page 1of 4

The previous session outlined the different types of common rail system.

This section details the main common rail system components, and will explain the HPO type supply pump.

1 HPO Type Supply Pump Construction and Features

The HP0 supply pump is mainly made up of a pumping system as in conventional in-line pumps (two cylinders), a PCV (pump control valve) for controlling the fuel discharge quantity, a cylinder recognition sensor (TDC (G) sensor), and a feed pump. (Refer to the cutaway sample.)

External View

PCV (Pump Control Valve) Delivery Valve Element (Plunger & Cylinder)

Overflow Valve

Cylinder Recognition Sensor {TDC (G) Sensor}

Feed Pump

Pulsar for TDC (G) Sensor Cam 2


Cutaway Sample
The HPO type supply pump supports the number of engine cylinders by changing the number of peaks on the cam. The supply pump rotates at half the speed of the engine, and the relationship between the number of engine cylinders and the supply pump pumping is shown in the table below. By increasing the number of cam peaks to handle the number of engine cylinders, a compact, two-cylinder pump unit is achieved. Furthermore, because this pump has the same number of pumping strokes as injections, it maintains a smooth and stable rail pressure.
Number of Engine Cylinders 4 Cylinders 6 Cylinders 8 Cylinders 12 2 4 Speed Ratio (Pump : Engine) Supply Pump Number of Cylinders Cam Peaks 2 3 4 2 Number of Pumping Rotations for One Engine Cycle 4 6 8

SERVICE TECH Vol.475 04-12

2 HPO Type Supply Pump Components and Functions

Component Feed Pump Overflow Valve PCV (Pump Control Valve) Cam Pumping Mechanism Delivery Valve Cylinder Recognition Sensor Tappet Plunger Function Draws fuel from the fuel tank and feeds it to the pumping mechanism. Regulates the pressure of the fuel in the supply pump. Controls the quantity of fuel delivered to the rail. Actuates the tappet. Transmits reciprocating motion to the plunger. Moves reciprocally to draw in and compress fuel. Stops the reverse flow of fuel pumped to the rail. Detects the engine cylinders and sends a signal to the engine ECU.


Feed Pump

The feed pump, which is integrated in the supply pump, draws fuel from the fuel tank and feeds it to the pump chamber via the fuel filter. There are two types of feed pump, the trochoid type and the vane type.

Trochoid Type
The camshaft actuates the outer/inner rotors of the feed pump, causing them to start rotating. In accordance with the space produced by the movement of the outer/inner rotors, the feed pump draws fuel in from the suction side, and pumps it out the discharge side.
Outer Rotor To Pump Chamber

Suction Port

Discharge Port

Inner Rotor From Fuel Tank Camshaft

Vane Type
The camshaft actuates the feed pump rotor and the vanes slide along the inner circumference of the eccentric ring. As the rotor turns, the pump draws fuel from the fuel tank and discharges it to the PCV and pumping mechanism.
Rotor Discharge Port Eccentric Ring

Suction Port Camshaft


SERVICE TECH Vol.475 04-12



PCV: Pump Control Valve

The PCV (Pump Control Valve) regulates the quantity of fuel discharged from the supply pump in order to regulate the rail pressure. The fuel quantity discharged from the supply pump to the rail is determined by the ON/ OFF timing of the signal output from the ECU to energize the PCV. In the actual circuit, the signal is output from the engine ECU to PCV1 and PCV2 as shown in the diagram below. The engine actuates the camshaft, and the cam actuates the plunger via the tappet to pump the fuel sent by the feed pump. The PCV controls the discharge quantity. Fuel is pumped from the feed pump to the element, and then to the delivery valve. (Refer to the cutaway sample on page 9 to view the element and delivery valve.)

PCV (Pump Control Valve)

PCV Relay IG Switch

+B Plunger PCV1 Engine ECU

Tappet Cam


Camshaft Feed Pump Pulsar for TDC (G) Sensor


Cylinder Recognition Sensor (TDC (G) Sensor)

The cylinder recognition sensor uses the alternating current voltage generated by the changes in the lines of magnetic force passing through the coil to send the output voltage to the ECU. The cylinder recognition sensor generates a recognition signal for the engine cylinders. Construction and operation of the engine speed sensor installed on the engine side is the same as that of the cylinder recognition sensor. This type of sensor is known as an MPU type. In addition to the MPU type cylinder recognition sensor, there is also an MRE type that outputs a rectangular voltage wave to the ECU.

MPU Type

MRE Type


SERVICE TECH Vol.475 04-12

3 Supply Pump Operation

3-1 Supply Pump Overall Fuel Flow
Fuel is drawn by the feed pump from the fuel tank and sent to the pumping mechanism via the PCV. The PCV adjusts the quantity of fuel pumped by the pumping mechanism to the necessary discharge quantity, and this fuel is pumped to the rail via the delivery valve.


Fuel Discharge Quantity Control

The plunger pumps the fuel sent from the feed pump, and the PCV controls the discharge quantity in order to adjust the rail pressure. Actual operation is as follows.

PCV and Plunger Operation During Each Stroke

Suction Stroke (A) On the plunger's descent stroke, the PCV is open and low-pressure fuel is suctioned into the plunger chamber via the PCV. Pre-Stroke (B) Even when the plunger enters its ascent stroke, the PCV remains open while it is not energized. During this time, fuel drawn in through the PCV is returned through the PCV without being pressurized. (Pre-Stroke) Pumping Stroke (C) At a timing suited to the required discharge quantity, current is supplied to close the PCV. This closes the return passage, and pressure in the pumping mechanism rises. The fuel then passes through the delivery valve and is pumped to the rail. Specifically, by varying the timing of the PCV closing (the end point of the plunger pre-stroke), the discharge quantity is altered to control the rail pressure. Suction Stroke (A') When the cam exceeds the maximum lift, the plunger enters its descent stroke and pressure in the pumping mechanism decreases. At this time, the delivery valve closes and fuel pumping stops. In addition, the PCV opens because it is de-energized, and low-pressure fuel is suctioned into the pumping mechanism. In other words, the system goes into state A.
Suction Stroke Pumping Stroke

Cam Lift Open Valve PCV Operation Closed Valve When Discharge Quantity Increases When Discharge Quantity Decreases Pre-Stroke

Pump Operation PCV Return From Fuel Tank Pumping Mechanism Plunger (A) (B) (C) (A') Closed Valve Pumping the Required Discharge Quantity

To Rail Delivery Valve

SERVICE TECH Vol.475 04-12