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Edition Schedule N/W Analysis: Once a schedule is completed, schedule N/W analysis can begin to create a final schedule and may take the form of one or all of the following:
Critical path Method Schedule Compression What-if scenario analysis Resource leveling Critical chain Method
I would discuss about the Critical path Method and Schedule Compression Critical Path Method: It includes determining the longest path in the N/W diagram, the earliest and latest an activity can start and the earliest and latest it can be completed. Critical Path: The critical path is the longest duration path through a N/W diagram and determines the shortest time to complete the project. The easiest way to determine the critical path is to identify all paths through the network and add the activity duration along each path. The path with the longest duration is the critical path. Near Critical path: The Near Critical path is close in duration to the critical path . Some thing could happen that shortens the critical path or lengthens the near critical path to the point where the near critical path becomes critical. The PM should focus both on critical and near critical paths. Float: There are 3 types of floats Total Float (slack): Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed with out delaying the project end date or an intermediary milestone. Float and slack mean the same and either may appear o the exam Free Float (Slack): This is the amount of time an activity can be delayed with out delaying the early start date of its successor. Project float: Project float is the amount of time a project can be delayed with out delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by the consumer or management or previously committed to by the project manager.
first work through the network diagram doing the forward pass. Critical path activities that EF are delayed or have dictated dates can result in negative float. E D G H C Start F B En d A . To calculate the float and critical path using a forward pass and backward pass.Activities on the critical path almost always have ZERO FLOAT. ES Activity name Float LS LF LS LF Float=Late Start-Early Start LS or Float=Late finish –early finish Points to remember while drawing the N/W Diagrams: The first node of the diagram normally has an early start of zero.
Activity 2 can start after activity 1 is completed and has an estimated duration of 3 weeks. Follow the same for E and F before calculating the early start of activity G. You are the PM and have figured the following dependencies. back to these by computing the LS of activities B and G. Select the earlier LS to use for the LF of activity F. Activity 3 can start after activity 1 is completed and has an estimated duration of 6 weeks. In the above diagram the paths converge during the forward pass activities F and G. We need to select the later early finish of activities of D and A to use as the early start activity F. In backward pass to compute the late finish and late start we need to consider all the paths that flow backward into the activity. In the previous diagram. Calculate the float using the formula (LS-ES) or (LF -EF). A backward pass computes the LF and LS for each activity. we have convergence at the activities F and D . Once the forward pass is completed we need to go with the backward pass. The same process should be used on activities E and F before calculating the LF of activity D. You should do the forward pass on both the paths leading up to activity F calculating the early finish of activities D and A. The backward pass use the duration of the critical path as the early finish of the last activities in the network. To compute the early start and early finish in a forward pass we need to take into account all paths that led into that activity. since activity F cannot start until both the activities D and A are complete. Here we go with a example.It is important to look at where paths converge to correctly perform forward and back ward pass. as activity F must be finished before either activity B or G can start. Activity 1 can start immediately and has an estimated duration of 3 weeks. .The activities on zero float are on critical path. Now we need to do the forward pass at activities F and G. We need to take care of the convergence.We need to work from the end. Draw a N/W diagram and answer he questions below.
4. The resource working on activity 3 is replaced with another resource who is less experienced.4. so the critical path is 18 weeks long.2. End (shown with the bold arrows above) is the longest duration path and is therefore the critical path. What is the float of the path with the longest float? 5.3. End Duration 18 13 3 Activity 2 8 Activity 4 4 Activity 5 3 St ar t Activity 1 6 Activity 3 Total length is 18 En d Start 1.This activity takes 4 weeks. What is the float of the activity 2? 4. What is the duration of critical path? 2. Activity 5 can start after activity 4 is completed and after activity 3 is completed . Activity 4 can start after activity 2 is completed and has an estimated duration of 8 weeks.There are 2 paths here: Paths Start 1. 1.5.5. The activity will now take 10 weeks. What is the float of the activity 3? 3.End Start 1. . The duration of the activities add up to 18.5.2. How will this affect the project? We can answer it as follows: 1) The length of the critical path is 18.
LF-EF=14-9=5 or .2) The float is 5 weeks. ES EF Activity name Float LS LF LS LF ES=EARLY START EF=EARLY FINISH LS=LATE START LF=LATE FINISH LS 3 0 0 Sta rt 3 3 F=0 F=0 3 3 A2 A2 F=0 F=0 3 6 6 3 A3 F=5 8 14 Total length is 18 weeks 9 3 6 6 14 3 6 6 6 1 8 4 A4 F=0 14 18 4 14 1 8 A5 F=0 A1 A1 0 3 0 3 14 En d We can use either of the ways to calculate the float. This diagram shows how to calculate the float using the forward and backward pass. per the following diagram.
the critical path does not change. Requires good metrics.LS-ES=8-3=5 3) The Float is zero on the critical path. There are only 2 paths in this example:start. Crash.5 . There can be more than 1 critical path. I would also like to give an example for the schedule compression Activity Original duration Crash Duration Time Savings Original Cost(in Dollars) Crash Cost (in Dollars) Extra Cost(in Dollars) Cost per Month .Adding 4 more weeks to the length of the activity 3 will make that path 17. The length of the path activities 1.5. An activity on the critical path almost has no float. A critical path can change Generally a critical path should have zero float.Since it is shorter than the critical path.The length of the project is 18 and 18-13=5.3.The total float of the path with the longest float is 5. The length is still 18 weeks because activity 3 is not on the critical path. We can have negative float We can not leave a project with negative float.2. The following are the important points to remember. could save resources and cost.4. Fast Track: Adds risk Crash: Always adds cost Reduce scope: Could possibly save cost and time but negatively impacts customer satisfaction Cut quality: May increase risk. Reduce Scope and cut quality and their impact on project.5. 4) The float is 5 weeks.End) is 13. 5) It will have no effect.1. The critical path increases the risk. we need to compress the schedule I am also adding a few points related to Fast Track.1.3 and 5 is 13.The length of the non-critical path (Start 1.End.3.End and start.
000 $4.000 $27.000 $14.Crashing activities J and N would result in the least added cost----only $5.000 $36.000 $6.000 Crashing activities J and N is the least expensive option and so the choice of activities J and N is the best answer.000 $20. assuming that the activities listed above represent critical path activities? 2) How much would it cost to crash the project? Activities J and N J and K L and N L and K M Cost $5.000 $9. .000 $3.000 $14.000 $16.000 $7.000 $10.000 $2.000 $3.000.000 $14.000 $10.000 1) The project has float of 3 months.000 $25.000 $1.000 $9.000 $1.000 $17.J K N L M 14 9 3 7 11 12 8 2 5 8 2 1 1 2 3 $10.000 $27000 $26. Which activity or activities presented above would you crush to save 3 months on the project. 2.