You are on page 1of 3

Alisha Reeve MUSE 258 Citation Teaching Kids to Sing 1992 Chapter 9: Resonant Tone Production Kenneth H.

Phillips Summary Resonance o Uniform vowels, full tone, projection o Constructive interference of sound waves in the vocal tract Acoustical properties that make complex sound waves Formants o Resonance frequencies in the vocal tract o Fundamental and formant frequencies combined o Humans cannot produce pure tones o Similar to the overtone series Not fixed like overtones, change with different vowels o Shape of the vocal tract changes the formants Vowel Production o Formants help to shape different vowels in different languages o Each vowel has from 5 to 30 formants o The first four are the most important Lower two provide the identity Upper two provide the quality The Resonators o Mouth and pharynx are the major two Also chest cavity, larynx, nasal cavity, and sinuses o Three parts of the pharynx Laryngopharynx Below the tongue Oropharynx Behind the tongue Naso-pharynx Above the soft pallet Can be closed off by arching the soft pallet If the laryngopharynx and oropharynx are constricted they will tense the pharyngeal muscle Pharynx must be relaxed for singing The Tongue o Provides shape to the oral cavity o If placed to far back can be a caused of loss of resonance o Muscles that can tense causing problems Genioglossus

Hyoglossus Styloglossus Palatoglossus Maximize Resonance o Pop singers do not use the pharynx to its full potential Rely the mouth as the main resonator Cannot project o Trained singers rely on an open and relaxed pharynx Larynx must be relaxed The Singers Formant o Extra formant to increase power o Allows the voice to be heard over an orchestra o Resonates in the pyriform sinuses Developing Resonance o Two characteristics Richness Formants lowered Brightness Formants raised o Fundamental and formant closely interacting leads to increased projection o Vocal tracts of children are not fully developed and cannot produce sounds as rich and resonant as adults Instrumentation in Voice Analysis o Ralph Appelman Vowelometer Shows the optimum resonance for vowels on a screen o Vowel Spectrum Analyzer Studies waveform complexities o Visipitch Analyses pitch accuracy Vowel Modification o Higher the pitch the more the jaw must drop o Pitches above F5 Must be modified o Formant frequencies are higher in children and so they do not need to modify vowels Vocal Vibrato o Slight undulation of pitch 5 to 6 cycles per second o Result of good breath management and a relaxed throat o Will develop naturally o Very fast vibrato Tremolo o Wobble

Change in amplitude and slowing of the vibrato cycle Resonant Tone-Production Training o Outline of the exercises o Vocal Resonance Sustained Humming Staccato Koo-koo The Attack Rolling Pulse Intonation Warm-up Tunes o Uniform Vowel Colors The Model Vowel Solfege Patterns Vertical Vowels Legato Movement Short Vowels Diphthongs o Vocal Coordination Pitch Exploration Upper to Lower Octave Lift Lighten Up Midvoice Balancing Ho-ho Choruses

Reflection As an educator I will find it necessary to understand how to shape uniform vowels and how those vowels are created. By understanding formants it is possible to realize how easily the vocal tract can become unaligned and thus produce vowels that are not pure. With an understanding of the resonators and how they act together I can teach my students the proper ways to sing vowels with good color that are uniform across the choir. These exercises will be helpful in training my students to achieve uniform vowels subconsciously and without direction.