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10-A

Of great importance for future applications is the combination of a spin with an orbital angular momentum. Since L depends on spatial coordinates and S does not, they commute [L, S] 0 (10A-1)

It is therefore evident that the components of the total angular momentum J, dened by J L S (10A-2)

will satisfy the angular momentum commutation relations. In asking for linear combinations of the Ylm and the that are eigenstates of Jz and J2 L2 L2 S2 S2 2L S 2Lz Sz L S L S (10A-4) Lz Sz (10A-3)

we are again looking for the expansion coefcients of one complete set of eigenfunctions in terms of another set of eigenfunctions. Let us consider the linear combination

j,m 1/2

Ylm

Yl,m

1

1 2

(10A-5)

It is, by construction, an eigenfunction of Jz with eigenvalue (m ) . We now determine and such that it is also an eigenfunction of J2. We shall make use of the fact that L Ylm L Ylm S Then J2

2 j,m 1/2

1) m m 0

3 4

1/2 1/2

1 1 1

Yl,m Yl,m

(10A-6)

l(l

1) Ylm m)(l

1

Ylm

1

1 2

2m(1) Ylm 2

2

[(l

3 4

m 2(m m

l(l

1) Yl,m

Yl,m

) Yl,m

(10A-7)

[(l

m)(l

W-43

W-44

Supplement 10-A

2

j( j

1)

3 4

2 j,m 1/2

j( j

1)( Ylm

3 3 4

(10A-8)

provided that [l(l 1) 3 [l(l 1) 4 This requires that (l m)(l m 1) [ j( j 1) l(l 1) 4 [ j( j 1) l(l 1) m] m 1] m m] 1] [(l [(l m)(l m)(l m m j( j j( j 1) 1) (10A-9)

which evidently has two solutions, j( j that is, j For j l 1/2, we get, after a little algebra l 2l m 1 1 l m 2l 1 (10A-12) l l

1 2 1 2

1)

l(l

1)

3 4

l l

(10A-10)

(10A-11)

(Actually we just get the ratio; these are already normalized forms.) Thus l

l 1/2,m 1/2

m 2l 1

Ylm

l m Y 2l 1 l,m

(10A-13)

1

l 1/2,m 1/2

(10A-14)

General Rules for Addition of Angular Momenta, and Implications for Identical Particles

These two examples illustrate the general features that are involved in the addition of angular momenta: If we have the eigenstates Y(1) 1 of L2 and L1z, and the eigenstates Y(2) 2 of l1m 1 l2m L2 and L2z, then we can form (2l1 1)(2l2 1) product wave functions 2 Y (1) 1Y (2) 2 l1m l2m These can be classied by the eigenvalue of Jz L1z L2z (10A-16) l1 l2 m1 m2 l1 l2 (10A-15)

which is m1 m2, and which ranges from a maximum value of l1 l2 down to l1 l2. As in the simple cases discussed earlier, different linear combinations of functions with

W-45

the same m value will belong to different values of j. In the following table we list the possible combinations for the special example of l1 4, l2 2. We shall use the simple abbreviation (m1, m2) for Y (1) 1Y (2) 2. l1m l2m

m-value 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 m1, m2 combinations (4, 2) (4, 1) (3, 2) (4, 0) (3, 1) (2, 2) (4, 1) (3, 0) (2, 1) (1, 2) (4, 2) (3, 1) (2, 0) (1, 1) (0, 2) (3, 2) (2, 1) (1, 0) (0, 1) ( 1, 2) (2, 2) (1, 1) (0, 0) ( 1, 1) ( 2, 2) (1, 2) (0, 1) ( 1, 0) ( 2, 1) ( 3, 2) (0, 2) ( 1, 1) ( 2, 0) ( 3, 1) ( 4, 2) ( 1, 2) ( 2, 1) ( 3, 0) ( 4, 1) ( 2, 2) ( 3, 1) ( 4, 0) ( 3, 2) ( 4, 1) ( 4, 2) numbers 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 2 1

There are a total of 45 combinations, consistent with (2l1 1) (2l2 1). The highest state has total angular momentum l1 l2 as can easily be checked by applying J 2 to Y (1)1Y (2)2: l1l l2l J2Y (1)1Y (2)2 l1l l2l (L2 1

2 2

L2 2 1)

2L1zL2z l2(l2 l2

[l1(l1 (l1

l2)(l1

This is j

will pick out one linear combination from each row in the table. These will form the 13 states that belong to j 6. When this is done, there remains a single state with m 5, two with m 4, . . . , one with m 5. It is extremely plausible, and can, in fact, be checked, that the m 5 state belongs to j 5. Again, successive applications of J pick out another linear combination from each row in the table, forming 11 states that belong to j 5. Repetition of this procedure shows that we get, after this, sets that belong to j 4, j 3, and finally j 2. The multiplicities add up to 45: 13 11 9 7 5 45

We shall not work out the details of this decomposition, as it is beyond the scope of this book. We merely state the results. (a) The produces Y (1) 1Y (2) 2 can be decomposed into eigenstates of J2, with eigenvall1m l2m ues j(j 1) 2, where j can take on the values j l1 l2, l1 l2 1, . . . , l1 l2 (10A-19)

W-46

Supplement 10-A

We can verify that the multiplicities check in (10A-19): If we sum the number of states, we get (l1 l2) [2(l1 l2) 1] [2(l1

2l2 n 0

l2 [2(l1

1) l2

1] n) 1) 1]

[2(l1

l2)

1] (10A-20)

(2l2

1)(2l1

(b) It is possible to generatize (10A-13) and (10A-14) to give the Clebsch-Gordan series

jm m1

(10A-21)

The coefcients C(jm; l1m1m2) are called Clebsch-Gordan coefcients, and they have been tabulated for many values of the arguments. We calculated the coefcients for l2 1/2, and summarize (10A-12) and (10A-13) in the table that follows. Note that m m1 m2, so that the m in (10A-13) and (10A-14) is really m1 below. C( jm; l1m1, 1/2, m2

m2 j l1 l1 1/2 1/2 l1 1/2 m2 l1 l1 1/2 m 1/2 2l1 1 m 1/2 2l1 1

m2 j j j l1 l1 l1 1 1 1 (l1 m2 m (2l1 0 1)(l1 1)(l1 m l1(l1 (l1 m 1) 1) m2 1

1) (l1

m)(l1 m) l1(2l1 1)

Supplement

10-B

A very useful mathematical device is the use of the Levi-Civita symbol. The symbol eijk is dened by the following properties: (a) It is antisymmetric under the interchange of any two of its indices. For example, e123 e213 ( e231) (10B-1)

and so on. Two consequences of this rule are (i) When any two indices are equal, the value of eijk is zero. (ii) e123 e231 e312 (b) e123 1 Some consequences of this denition are eijkeijm eijkeimn eijk AjBk [Li, Lj] 2

km jn km

(10B-2)

jm kn

(A B)i ieijkLk

(10B-3)

We may use this to write out Maxwells equations in a particularly interesting way. Maxwells equations in empty space have the form B E B E They may be rewritten in the form t (E icB) ic (E icB) (10B-5) 0 0 1 E c2 t B t

(10B-4)

Which bears some resemblance to the Schrdinger equation in that the wave function is complex, and that the rst-order time derivative enters into the equation. We may write the equation in a very suggestive way by using the Levi-Civita symbol in two contexts. First, the symbol may be used to give a matrix representation of the spin 1 angular momentum S. (We are actually working with the angular momentum matrix divided by that is, with the analog of /2.) W-47

W-48

Supplement 10-B

The square of the matrix is easily calculated. We have (Si)jk(Si)kl eijkeikl eijkeikl 2

jl

(10B-7)

We next need to check the commutation relations (Sa)jk(Sb)kl (Sb)jk(Sa)kl eajkebkl ebjkeakl eajkeblk ebjkealk ab jl ebameljm bl aj al jb [Sa, Sb] ieabmSm

al jb

ab jl

bl aj

ieabm( iemjl)

ieabm(Sm)jl (10B-8)

that is, Let us now rewrite our version of Maxwells equations. It reads t (Ei icBi) iceimn c(Sm)in or equivalently, i With the notation

i

xm xm

(En (En

iBn) iBn)

(Ei

icBi)

c(Sm)in

i xm

(En

iBn)

(10B-9)

(Ei

icBi), we get i

i

c(S pop)im

(10B-10)

The operator on the right side is the projection of the photon spin along the direction of motion. The complex conjugate wave function is easily seen to satisfy i

i*

c(S pop)im * m

(10B-11)

where the right side represents the opposite projection (helicity). We need both equations to obtain separate equations for E and B.

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