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Imagine having a high-definition TV that is 80 inches wide and less than a quarter-inch thick, consumes less power than most TVs on the market today and can be rolled up when you're not using it. What if you could have a "heads up" display in your car? How about a display monitor built into your clothing? These devices may be possible in the near future with the help of a technology called organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLED is a flat display technology, made by placing a series of organic thin films between two conductors. OLED stands for Organic EL (ElectroLuminescence), and is the phenomenon of light emitted by organic materials to which a voltage has been applied Organic light emitting diodes have been receiving a lot of attention over the world as a new type of display technology. OLED’s have many advantages over conventional display technologies. First, the fabrication process is easy, and devices are thinner and lighter than those fabricated by cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology. Second, there are also some advantages over liquid crystal (LCD) displays: greater viewing angle, lighter weight, and quicker response. Unlike LCDs, which require backlighting, OLED displays are "emissive" devices, meaning they emit light rather than modulate transmitted or reflected light. Since only the part of the display that is actually lit up consumes power, the most efficient OLEDs available today use less power. Based on these advantages, OLEDs have been proposed for a wide range of display applications including magnified micro displays, wearable, head-mounted computers, digital cameras, personal digital assistants, smart pagers, and mobile hones as well as medical, automotive, and other industrial applications. Video wallpaper - just a millimeter thick - could transform your living room wall into a flat screen and electronic film as thin as a sheet of paper could serve as your screen for the internet, the news, images or games. In future, all of this will be possible thanks to organic light emitting diodes, so-called OLEDs. ECE Department 1
RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology
2.1 OLED STRUCTURE
Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) operate on the principle of converting electrical energy into light, a phenomenon known as electroluminescence. They exploit the properties of certain organic materials which emit light when an electric current passes through them. In its simplest form, an OLED consists of a layer of thin luminescent material sandwiched between two electrodes. When an electric current is passed between the electrodes, through the organic layer, light is emitted with a color that depends on the particular material used. In order to observe the light emitted by an OLED, at least one of the electrodes must be transparent.
The basic OLED cell structure consists of a stack of thin organic layers sandwiched between a transparent anode and a metallic cathode. The basic structure of OLED is shown in fig.1. The organic layers comprise a hole-injection layer, a holetransport layer (HTL), an emissive layer and an electron-transport layer(ETL). When an appropriate voltage (typically a few volts) is applied to the cell, the injected positive and negative charges recombine in the emissive layer to produce light (electroluminescence). The structure of the organic layers and the choice of anode and cathode are designed to maximize the recombination process in the emissive layer, thus maximizing the light output from the OLED device. Both the electroluminescent efficiency and control of color output can be significantly enhanced by "doping" the emissive layer with a small amount of highly fluorescent molecules. Like an LED, an OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material
RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology An OLED consists of the following parts: • • Substrate: The substrate which is made of glass, clear plastic, or foil. The substrate is used to support the OLED. Anode: The anode is made of natural graphite particles, which is transparent and is the second layer. The anode layer removes electrons from the conductive layer when a current flows into the devices. • Organic Layers: These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers. Conducting layer: The third layer is the conducting layer. This layer is made of organic plastic molecules. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. Emissive layer: The fourth layer is emissive layer. This layer is also also composed of organic plastic molecules, but has a different function. The emissive layer removes electrons from the cathode layer which causes light to be made. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene.
Cathode: The final layer is the cathode. It may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED. The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. Tungsten is used.
Fig 2.1. Structure of OLED
A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Their levels of conductivity range from those of insulators to those of conductors. layers may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile. an anode and cathode terminals. for example the first light-emitting polymer device synthesized by Burroughs et al involved a single layer of poly (pphenylenevinylene).2. OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs. Fig. or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.1.2. As well as conductive properties. The thickness of this layer is approximately 100 nm. most basic OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE: A typical OLED is composed of an emissive layer. The layers are made of special organic molecules that conduct electricity. Multilayer OLEDs can have more than two layers to improve device efficiency. in which charge-carriers (e-h pairs) recombine to emit photons in an organic layer. and so they are called organic semiconductors.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 2. a substrate. The first.1 OLED working The organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a p-n diode. This causes a current of ECE Department 4 . a conductive layer. through a process called electrophosphorescence as shown in fig.
That is why this layer is called emissive. ECE Department 5 . Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. and the anode withdraws electrons from the conductive layer. the emissive layer becomes negatively charged. the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer. Indium tin oxide is commonly used as the anode material. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. The emission of light is shown in fig. In this condition. Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer. Thus. The device does not work when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer.3. holes move to the anode and electrons to the cathode. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current. because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer. Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays. Soon. the brighter the light.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode. while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes. the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons. in other words. accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region.
Fig.2 Emission of light ECE Department 6 .RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology .2.1.
or spin coating of polymers.4. Therefore the overall thickness (and weight) of the structure is mostly due to the substrate itself. 1. In addition to the luminescent material itself. Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) . Then one or more organic layers are coated by either thermal evaporation in the case of small organic dye molecules. The two electrodes add perhaps 200 nm more to the total thickness of the device. These metals are chosen for their low workfunctions in order that they provide efficient injection of electrons.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 3. This can be done in three ways. FABRICATION OF OLED OLEDs are typically fabricated on a transparent substrate on which the first electrode (usually indium-tin-oxide which is both transparent and conductive) is first deposited. lithium-aluminum or calcium) is evaporated on top. This process is expensive and inefficient ECE Department 7 .In a vacuum chamber. Fig. Lastly. other organic layers may be used to enhance injection and transport of electrons and/or holes.the basic structure is shown in fig. the metal cathode (such as magnesium-silver alloy. the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates. The total thickness of the organic layers is of order 100 nm.3 layers of OLED The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying the organic layers to the substrate.
1 – 1 Torr) chamber. The OVPD process offers the possibility to deposit high-quality.1 OVPD process OVPD Process Features • Higher Deposition Rates. For patterned displays.3. organic films with better performance and cost characteristics than achieved using today’s conventional vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) process. Deposition rates with OVPD can be several times higher than the rate for conventional VTE processes because the OVPD deposition rate is primarily controlled by the flow of the carrier gas. OVPD offers multiple advantages and end-user benefits. a shadow mask can be placed very close to the substrate. low-pressure (typically 0. the materials are entrained and transported by an inert carrier gas such as nitrogen as shown in fig. separate. pressure and temperature as process control variables. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLED’s. ECE Department 8 . thermallycontrolled cells. The OVPD process employs an inert carrier gas to precisely transfer films of organic material onto a cooled substrate in a hot-walled. Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) – Vapor phase deposition is an OLED manufacturing technology with the potential to increase the performance and reduce the cost of OLED production. Gas flow rate. Once evaporated from these heated cells. The organic materials are stored in external. The materials deposit down onto the cooled substrate from a manifold located only several centimeters above the substrate.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 2. Fig.5.
With threevariable process control OVPD offers more precise deposition rates and doping control at very low levels. where the materials are transported to the substrate by an inert carrier gas. sharper or graded layer interfaces can be more easily achieved. reproducible pixel profiles can be obtained. This feature should translate into lower raw material cost. • Shadow Mask Patterning. the substrate. Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs ECE Department 9 . In addition. Because the Aixtron AG-proprietary showerhead can be designed to maintain a constant source-to-substrate distance. OLEDs are sprayed onto substrates just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing as shown in fig. It utilizes the advantages of gas phase deposition. Because the mask is above. The OVPD process can provide better film thickness control and uniformity over larger areas than VTE.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology • Higher Materials’ Utilization. materials’ utilization is much better than with VTE where the materials deposit everywhere. • Larger Substrate Sizes. 3. This also may render OVPD more adaptable to in-line and roll-to-roll processing for flexible displays. • Better Device Performance. Thus precise. OVPD is an innovative technology for the thin film deposition of small molecular organic materials. less downtime and higher production throughput. OVPD offers better shadow mask-to-substrate distance control than is possible with VTE up-deposition. multiple materials can be co-deposited in one chamber without the cross-contamination problems commonly experienced in VTE systems.6. OVPD may be more readily scaled to larger substrate sizes. its thickness can be dictated by the desired pattern shape rather than the need for rigidity. As a result. instead of below.With inkjet technology. Because the organic materials do not deposit on the heated surfaces of the chamber. Inkjet printing .
3. and offers a total solution covering all the aspects of making displays using ink jet printing.2 Inkjet printing ECE Department 10 . CDT has installed the largest ink jet printing facility of its type. Fig. gives reliable operation and high uptime.Fast. The focus for the efforts is a solution which is:Proven. produces high resolution PLED displays. Recognizing the importance of developing this field of expertise and supporting it licensees and partners in scaling up for production.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens or electronic billboards.
When a particular row is selected. A video output is thus displayed on the panel by scanning through all the rows successively in a frame time. It is formed by providing an array of OLED pixels connected by intersecting anode and cathode. To get a passivematrix OLED to work. PMOLEDs have strips of cathode. TYPES OF OLED OLED design can be mainly classified into two. they do not typically operate at their intrinsic peak efficiency. video data signal and multiplex switches. ECE Department 11 . The more current pumped through each pixel diode. In addition.7. An external controller circuit provides the necessary input power.cost and low-information content applications such as alphanumeric displays. When PMOLEDs are pulsed with very high drive currents over a short duty cycle. the brighter the pixel looks to our eyes. their power consumption is significantly higher than that required by a continuous charge mode in an active-matrix OLED. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. the column and row data lines determine which pixels are lit. organic layers and strips of anode. electrical current is passed through selected pixels by applying a voltage to the corresponding rows and columns from drivers attached to each row and column. which is typically 1/60 of a second.1 PASSIVE MATRIX OLED (POLED) The passive-matrix OLED display has a simple structure and is well suited for low.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 4. 4. Passive matrix(PMOLED) and Active matrix (AMOLED). current-sourced drive electronics to operate effectively. Data signal is generally supplied to the column lines and synchronized to the scanning of the row lines. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips as shown in fig. While PMOLEDs are fairly simple structures to design and fabricate. they demand relatively expensive.
The TFT array continuously controls the current that flows to the pixels. signaling to each pixel how brightly to shine. This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs especially well suited for portable electronics where battery power consumption is critical and for displays that are larger than 2” to 3” in diagonal. Fig. the active-matrix TFT backplane acts as an array of switches that control the amount of current flowing through each OLED pixel. passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices. largescreen TVs and electronic signs or billboards An active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) display consists of OLED pixels that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array to form a matrix of pixels that illuminate light upon electrical activation. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2. but they consume significantly less power.1 passive OLED 4.the typical structure of active OLED is shown in fig.4.to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones.2 ACTIVE MATRIX OLED (AOLED) Active-matrix OLED displays provide the same beautiful video-rate performance as their passive-matrix OLED counterparts. In contrast to a PMOLED display. where electricity is distributed row by row. Typically. one to start and stop the charging of a storage capacitor and the second to provide a ECE Department 12 . Even with the external circuitry. this continuous current flow is controlled by at least two TFTs at each pixel. PDAs and MP3 players.8.
active-matrix OLED has an integrated electronic back plane as its substrate and lends itself to high-resolution. for the entire frame scan). ECE Department 13 . because of the TFT’s in the active-matrix design.e. As a result. a defective pixel produces only a dark effect. the AMOLED operates at all times (i.4. avoiding the need for the very high currents required for passive matrix operation. each pixel element can be selected to stay “on” during the entire frame time. or duration of the video.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology voltage source at the level needed to create a constant current to the pixel. Fig. In an active-matrix OLED display. or size of an active-matrix OLED display. Since OLED is an emissive device. like found in LCD’s. unlike LCD displays where light must pass through aperture. leaving the possibilities for commercial use open to our imaginations. resolution. high information content applications including videos and graphics.. Also. each individual pixel can be addressed independently via the associated TFT’s and capacitors in the electronic back plane. That is. Therefore. there are no intrinsic limitations to the pixel count. the display aperture factor is not critical. which is considered to be much less objectionable than a bright point defect.2 Active OLED In contrast to the passive-matrix OLED display.
ECE Department 14 . PHOLEDs are being studied for potential use in large-screen displays such as computer monitors or TV screens. Fig. even when compared to other OLEDs. where approximately 25% of the electrical energy is converted into light. as well as general lighting needs. using the principle of electro -phosphorescence to convert up to 100% of the electrical energy in an OLED into light. rather than require the use of light bulbs which distribute light unequally throughout a room. and to backlit liquid crystal displays (LCDs) where as much as 90% of the light from the backlight is reduced by the color filter array and other display components.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 5.1 Phosphorescent OLED Due to their extremely high level of energy efficiency. This would allow entire rooms to glow uniformly. 5. OLED TECHNOLOGY 5.1 PHOSHORESCENT OLED (PHOLED) PHOLED Phosphorescent OLED technology and materials make it possible for OLED to attain up to four times greater efficiency than previously thought possible. One potential use of PHOLEDs as lighting devices is to cover walls with gigantic PHOLED displays. Universal Display Corporation pioneered this technology with our partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California. This compares favorably both to traditional fluorescent OLED technology.
Today. PHOLED materials may also be compatible with laser induced thermal imaging (LITI) and other novel deposition/patterning techniques. now under development In addition. Universal Display Corporation's proprietary PHOLED technology and materials offer excellent performance with: • Record-breaking power efficiencies that translate into up to four times lower power consumption with less heat generation. and potential compatibility with amorphous-Silicon (a. bright colors for monochrome and full-color applications.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology A significant advance for the OLED industry. as well as poly-Silicon (poly-Si) TFT backplane technologies for active-matrix displays. scalability to larger sizes based on reduced power losses and enhanced light output.Si). These performance features make PHOLEDs well suited for passive-matrix and active-matrix displays. higher efficiencies and longer lifetimes to ECE Department 15 . Innovation has led us to develop a suite of PHOLED materials with excellent spectral. and are also compatible with OVPDTM organic vapor phase deposition systems. Long operating lifetimes with spectral stability over time. solution-processible PHOLED materials are under development for use with ink-jet printing equipment. under similar conditions. as well as lighting and other opto-electronic applications PHOLED technology and materials are also well suited for use in a variety of manufacturing processes. • • Vibrant. efficiency and lifetime performance characteristics. We continue to develop additional materials and device architectures with enhanced performance.2” full-color. This compares favorably with 180 mW for an equivalent backlit LCD and 240 mW for a fluorescent OLED. active-matrix PHOLED operating at a brightness of 200 candelas per square meter (cd/m 2) consumes only 125 milliWatts (mW) under video-mode conditions (with illumination of 30% of the pixels). Using our PHOLED technology a 2. such as expanded colors. PHOLED materials are commonly used in vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) systems today.
RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology improve OLED product performance and to lead to future generations of OLED products. such ECE Department 16 . desktop monitors. they may be integrated into car windshields. foils. and eyewear. TOLEDs use a transparent compound cathode (top electrode) that allows light to emit from both surfaces (transparent on left) or selectively from the top surface by using an opaque substrate or film (top-emitting on right). or both top and bottom emitting (transparent). white light sources and much more.5. bottom-only emitting.2 TRANSPARENT OLED (TOLED) TOLED transparent and top-emitting OLED technology uses a proprietary transparent contact structure to create displays that can be be made to be top-only emitting. silicon wafers and other opaque substrates for topemitting devices. • Transparency: TOLEDs can be 70% to 85% transparent when switched off. TOLEDs can greatly improve contrast. TOLEDs can significantly enhance display performance.2 structure of transparent OLED By comparison to conventional OLEDs. This feature paves the way for TOLEDs to be built into vision-area applications. Top qnd bottom emitting TOLED is shown in fig. architectural windows. Because TOLEDs are 70% transparent when turned off. including OLED TVs. nearly as clear as the glass or plastic substrate on which they are built. Their transparency enables TOLEDs to be used with metal. 5. Fig.10. making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight.
contrast ratio can be significantly improved over that in most reflective LCDs and OLEDs. Especially desirable for high-resolution. TOLEDs may also enable the development of novel helmet-mounted or "heads-up" systems for virtual reality. a top-emitting structure can improve the effective active area and the power consumption of the display by directing the emitted light away from the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane rather than through it. By using a low-reflectance absorber (a black backing) behind either top or bottom TOLED surface. • Top emission: Using the same transparent structure. Simple TOLED displays have the potential to be directly integrated with future dynamic credit cards. industrial and medical applications. and automotive windshields for navigation and warning systems. ECE Department 17 . This feature is particularly important in daylight readable applications. active-matrix OLED applications.e. SOLEDs) and hybrid devices.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology as architectural windows for home entertainment and teleconferencing purposes. Top-emitting OLEDs can also be built on opaque surfaces such as metallic foil (e. • Enhanced high-ambient contrast: TOLED technology offers enhanced contrast ratio. automotive components. to suggest a few. Top emitting TOLEDs also provide an excellent way to achieve better fill factor and characteristics in high resolution. TOLED technology can also be used for top-emitting structures for active-matrix displays and with opaque substrates. such as on cell phones and in military fighter aircraft cockpits. Potential TOLED applications include smart cards or displays on furniture.g. With portable products shrinking and desired information content expanding.. • Multi-stacked devices: TOLEDs are a fundamental building block for many multistructure (i. TOLEDs make it possible to get twice the display area for the same display size. Bi-directional TOLEDs can provide two independent displays emitting from opposite faces of the display.) and silicon wafers. high information. automotive parts and other opaque surfaces.content displays using active matrix silicon backplanes.
3 STACKED OLED (SOLED) The Stacked OLED (SOLED) uses novel pixel architecture that is based on stacking the red. By varying the total current through the stack.5. By modulating the pulse width. This improves display resolution up to three-fold and enhances full-color quality. SOLEDs may provide the high resolution needed for wireless worldwide-web applications. 11 instead of next to one another as is commonly done in CRTs and LCDs. green and blue (R-G-B) subpixel elements is individually controlled. Universal Display Corporation's SOLED technology may be the first demonstration of an vertically integrated structure where intensity. green.3 structure of SOLED A SOLED display consists of an array of vertically-stacked TOLED sub-pixels. With this SOLED architecture. and blue subpixels on top of one another as shown in fig. ECE Department 18 . To separately tune color and brightness. provide full color.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 5. By adjusting the ratio of currents in the three elements. in principle. brightness is varied. color is tuned. each pixel can. Fig. each of the red. gray scale is achieved. color and gray scale can be independently tuned to achieve high-resolution full-color.
all the pixels turn on green in a SOLED under the same conditions. This is especially advantageous when maximizing pixel density is important. the red and blue pixels are turned off in the SxS structure. For example. FOLED displays can offer significant performance advantages over LCD displays that are typically built on rigid glass substrates and contain a bulky backlight.valuable when color fidelity is important. 5. High resolution: SOLEDs also offer 3X higher resolution than the comparable SxS display. the eye may perceive the individual red. With the SxS format.to achieve the same. each pixel emits the desired color and. Compared to SxS configurations. SOLEDs offer compelling performance enhancements.or one-third the area -.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology The SOLED architecture is a significant departure from the traditional side-byside (SxS) approach used in CRTs and LCDs today. With a SOLED. This means that SOLED color definition and picture quality are superior. is perceived correctly no matter what size it is and from where it is viewed. individual pixels are frequently large enough to be seen by the eye at short range. when a fullcolor display calls for green. green and blue instead of the intended color mixture.4 FLEXIBLE OLED (FOLED) FOLED flexible OLEDs are organic light emitting devices that are built on flexible substrates such as plastic or metallic foil. • Nearly 100% fill factor: SOLEDs also maximize fill factor. thus. • Scalable to large pixel size: In large screen displays. The advantages of SOLED are the following • • Full-color tunability: SOLEDs offer dynamic full-color tunability for "true" color quality at each pixel -. it takes only one SOLED pixel -. ECE Department 19 . G and B) to generate fullcolor. By comparison. While it takes three SxS pixels (an R.
4 Flexible OLED FOLEDs Offer Revolutionary Features for Displays • Ultra-lightweight. earlier generation FOLEDs may provide limited conformability for applications that include a cell phone that conforms to the shape of your hand or a portable DVD player that has a curved surface to enhance the audience’s viewing experience. bend or roll a display into any shape . • Flexibility: FOLEDs may be manufactured on a variety of substrates. roll-to-roll processing (R2R) of OLEDs in the future. providing the basis for their truly low-cost mass production. These materials provide the ability to conform. especially. For example. bendable metallic foils. ECE Department 20 . • Durability: FOLEDs will also generally be less breakable. The potential flexibility of FOLEDs may also enable the realization of Universal Display Corporation’s proprietary Universal Communication Device.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology Fig. large-area televisions-on-the-wall. shirtsleeve cuffs and automotive instrument panels. FOLEDs built on optically-clear plastic films and thin. more impact resistant and more durable compared to their glass-based counterpart. thin form: The use of thin plastic substrates will also significantly reduce the weight of flat panel displays in cell phones. portable computers and. • Cost-effective processing: FOLED technology opens up prospects for highthroughput. For example. In the meantime.5. the weight of a display in a laptop may be significantly reduced by using FOLED technology. FOLEDs may someday be found affixed to curved helmet face shields.
ECE Department 21 .RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology Key challenges for FOLEDs relate to flexible substrates. flexible packaging and encapsulation. The standard sandwich construction that works well for glass-based displays is insufficient or problematic for FOLED displays where the ability to conform or flex the display is key. and cost effectiveness. thermal and dimensional stability over a broad temperature range. FOLED Packaging and Encapsulation To protect an OLED from the degrading effects of water and oxygen.S. thinner. They also offer potential near-term integration with backplane technology for active-matrix FOLED displays. While these materials offer many attractive features. Flexible Substrates Today. is much more challenging. the primary substrate candidates are thin plastics. Department of Defense is partially supporting our efforts with the objective of providing soldiers with lighter. flexible displays in the future. A ‘getter’ material is often incorporated within the package to eliminate residual water and oxygen or any that may find ingress through the seal. FOLED packaging. The U. the conventional solution for glass-based OLEDs has been to seal the OLED with a glass lid (or metal can) using an ultraviolet-cured epoxy resin. they also currently impose limitations with respect to thermal processing and barrier performance The novel use of metallic foil substrates for FOLEDs is a complementary approach to the glass and plastic displays that Universal Display Corporation has made possible through its proprietary FOLED and TOLED top-emitting technologies. however. Flexible metallic substrates provide excellent barrier properties. such as PET and PEN polyester films.
5 COMPARISON A luminous form An organic LED panel Self emission of light Liquid crystal Panel Back light or outside light is necessary Consumption of Electric It is lowered to about It is abundant when back power mW though it is a little light is used higher than the reflection type liquid Colour Indication form crystal panel Thefluorescent material A colour filter is used.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 5. panel in the case of one Answer time A wide for portable telephone Several us of 86 *C ~ -40 *C Several ns ~ -10 *C of panel The mass of panel use temperature range The corner of the view Horizontal 180 * Horizontal 120* ~ 170* Table 7. It becomes light weight With the one for the more than 1gm more portable telephone.1 OLED and LCD comparison OLED lighting Incandescentlight bulbs Fluorescent lamps LED ECE Department 22 .type in the future to 30inch type.Goal 100:14 6:1 the It is thin with a little When back light is used over 1mm it is thick with 5mm.Goal inch type. High brightness 100 cd/m2 6 cd/m2 The dimension of the Several-inches type in It is produced to 28-inch panel Contrast The thickness the future to about 10. of RGB is arranged in order and or a colour filter is used.10 gm than the liquid crystal weak degree.
living floor level spaces. lightweight High heatsource) Easy to reduce Flexible (when generation Energy size plastic substrate Closely efficient Environmentally used) approximates Uses sound Environmentally natural light hazardous sound substance (mercury) Anticipated applications Photographic Indirect lighting. Uses spaces such as lighting. include living Living spaces. illumination. etc. car premises. bedrooms. interior lighting. offices.2 Comparison With Existing Forms of illumination 6. lighting. etc. spotlights decorative commercial dining rooms or for retail spaces.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology Illustration Ultraviolet rays generated by an electric Emits light by Emits light by Emits light by current collide Principle of sending an electric applying a voltage applying a voltage with light emission current to a metallic to an inorganic to organic matter fluorescent filament semiconductor material to produce visible light Size of area Illuminates large illuminated is area (surface light Illuminates small between point Illuminates small source) area (point light light source area (point light Energy efficient source) and surface source) Low heatHigh power light source Energy efficient generation consumption (linear light Characteristics Long life Slim. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF OLED ECE Department 23 . and POP lighting Table 7. etc. offices.
the whole display can be built on one sheet of glass or plastic. whereas OLED has no backlighting function. So these screens often provide better user experience. Camera-class LCDs can typically reproduce 262. In general. the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED can be ECE Department 24 . OLED technology allows an increased brightness and a higher contrast. The plastic. organic layers of an OLED are thinner.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 6. . OLED has a so called off element which produces no light and consumes no power. In fact. the substrate of an OLED can be flexible instead of rigid.000 colors. This procedure requires fewer manufacturing steps than the manufacturing of LCDs. OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs. organic LED technology consumes less power. fewer materials are used. and. Because the organic layers of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED. Thin-film PolyLED technology will enable the production of full-color displays less than 1 mm thick • • OLED displays exhibit more than 16 million colors. Because the light-emitting layers of an OLED are lighter. Hence an LCD is not possible to display true black.1 ADVANTAGES • LCD technology engages a backlight. more importantly. • Because of the different manufacturing process it is possible to produce OLED display at a lower cost in comparison to liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or plasma displays. only a very limited number of process steps are needed. lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD. That is why new applications like displays embedded in clothes or roll-up displays are possible. As there is no backlighting they can have a thinner form and a more light weighted character. This is especially useful for devices that are supplied by battery power. • • Another advantage of OLED is that it has much better response time than other displays. • OLEDs can be printed onto almost any substrate with inkjet printer technology. so it should be cheaper to manufacture.
some are reporting that they already reached a lifetime up to 10. which is much lower than the typical lifetimes of LCDs or plasma displays. The development of the technology is restrained by patents held by Kodak and other companies. when used in flat panel displays. OLEDs produce their own light. LEDs and LCDs require glass for support.000 hours. Because OLEDs are essentially plastics. Blue OLEDs have only a lifetime of around 5. they have an inherent viewing obstacle from certain angles. so they have a much wider viewing range.000 hours and above. It is much more difficult to grow and lay down so many liquid crystals • OLEDs have large fields of view. Also. OLEDs do not require glass. and glass absorbs some light. 6. about 170 degrees.2 DISADVANTAGES • The major drawback is the limited lifetime of organic materials. they can be made into large. But there are various experimentations to increase the lifetime.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology multi-layered. This problem still needs to be solved to push OLED technology to be more successful in the future. • OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. • • Organic materials can easily be damaged by water intrusion into the displays. thin sheets. For commercial development of OLED technology it is often necessary to acquire a license. Because LCDs work by blocking light. Therefore an improved sealing process is necessary for OLED displays. ECE Department 25 .
promise to be not only more efficient but also easier on the eyes. It has an OLED screen type: 2. low-cost flat panel displays. but also other products use this new technology • Cellular/mobile phones There are many mobile phones that use OLED display.D. But displays made by OLEDs made from plastics and other organic (carbon-based) molecules rather than gallium nitride.D. the screen is lighted to its full brightness by a battery-draining lamp. the latest Nokia Nseries multimedia computer made to set new standards for mobile entertainment. gaming and sharing. Description Nokia N85. LG’s model VX8300 has an organic light-emitting diode display with 262. Other mobile phone manufacturers like Motorola. Most of them are cellular phones or portable music players. The current color flat-panel displays do everything backward.1 OLED DISPLAYS Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are attractive for the use in lightweight. they have long been viewed as an obviously better way to create displays. First. as their name suggests. APPLICATIONS OF OLED 7. Panasonic or SonyEricsson are also using organic light emitting diodes for their external displays. actually generate their own light while using very little battery power.E.6" OLED screen. Then a series of color filters and tiny liquid crystal displays. Along with an eye-catching 2.2Mbps HSDPA and has a 3Mp camera and a microSD slot.'s.IRVT).C. There are products that are powered by OLED displays. high-resolution screens for portable computers. block most of that light to create on-screen images. Since light-emitting diodes.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 7. or L. While conventional L. Nokia. supported 7. ECE Department 26 . OLED technology is already used in some devices.8" WQVGA AMOLED. they cannot easily be used to create small. The SAMSUNG SCH-W760 is able to record infra-red video (Samsung calls it Infrared Video Telephony .000 colors and a resolution of 176 x 220 pixels.'s work well in giant screens and advertising displays.
It delivers astounding performance in all the key picture quality categories. It boasts a 3 millimeter thin panel and offers unparalleled picture quality with amazing contrast. and LCD televisions will soon be a thing of the past. Proprietary color filters and a special micro-cavity structure enhance color purity to reproduce as much as 105% of the NTSC color space.000 to 1.000. resulting in more outstanding dark scene detail and a contrast ratio of 1. faster response times than LCD or plasma. Sony's OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) TV. The measurements of the XEL-1 are 87×253×140mm. OLED TV’s not only use less energy and take up less space in your house.V Plasma. and a rapid response time.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology • OLED T. a digital tuner. ECE Department 27 . and display more vivid colors than either of it’s predecessors. and a Memory Stick® media slot for viewing high-resolution photos. imagine a television screen as thin as a piece of paper that weighs no more than a few ounces. They are the future of TV…for now.000. They have a reported contrast ratio of 1. so flexible it could be worn around your wrist and is virtually indestructible. Or.000:1. OLED also creates unmatched color expression and detail and enables rapid response times for smooth and natural reproduction of fast moving images like those found in sports and action movies. Wide 178 degree viewing angle enables an outstanding viewing experience for everyone in the room. the XEL-1 The XEL-1 is an 11 inch display that is only 3mm thin. OLED technology can completely turn off pixels when reproducing black. exceptional color reproduction. The XEL-1 features the latest connectivity options including two HDMI™ inputs. the Sony 11 inch diagonal OLED TV can result in reduced power consumption of up to 40% per panel square inch compared to conventional 20-inch LCD panels. outstanding brightness. but they also deliver an even better picture than LCD and plasma technology does. y.
Thus the whole keyboard is highly configurable. this could be possible with OLED. The prototype of 40’’ tv has been displayed by several companies but their commercial producyion have not yet been satarted. • Digital cameras The Kodak EasyShare LS633 is the world's first digital camera with an organic LED display. strategy games or other purposes. It is also possible to configure a gaming keyboard layout for first-person shooters. • OLED keyboard Russian company has showed a prototype of an OLED keyboard. This is because organic light emitting diodes can be transparent. The keys are displayed with OLED technology. appearance and function of the keys are switchable. Its possible to associate keys with mathematical functions. Photoshop and other mainstream games and applications. While 15-inches is small. it easily trumps the world's first production OLED TV. There are preconfigured layouts for Quake. HTML codes or other special characters.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology LG's 15-inch OLED TV to be launched this December. The position. the keyboard looks awesome because of its LEDs. This vision can replace the boring old bulb in the middle of ECE Department 28 . A window could act as a normal window at day. but at night it can be used as a light resource. Other digital cameras with an OLED screen are from Hasselblad (H2D-39 and 503CWD for example). The keys can display icons as well as regular symbols. In addition. The Sanyo Xacti HD1 is a high definition camera that features an OLED display. • Windows that light-up at dark It is true.
• Kodak Wireless Frame Kodak's new ultra-thin 7. The new KODAK OLED Wireless Frame also features built-in WiFi technology that expands the user's experience by enabling access to pictures. when viewed from any angle. The viewing experience is further enhanced by Kodak Perfect Touch technology. OLEDs can mimic a natural feeling of light in the dark. weather. At the heart of the new KODAK OLED Wireless Frame is an ultra-thin. which automatically processes images to improve exposure. The panel comes with 2GB of built-in internal memory. they are transparent an ideal precondition for windows. and KODAK Image Science.2 OLED Lighting OLED lighting goes mainstream in 2011 says Displaysearch! Although OLEDs used in lighting applications are not expected to become popular in the next few years and will initially target niche markets.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology every room. If turned off. the panel can also link up to internet content from Kodak Gallery. It does not matter if its curved or flat . sports and more. 800x480 resolution. brightness and color.6-inch diagonal digital panel that produces stunning image detail. In case that's not enough. the technology has several advantages over that of ECE Department 29 .OLED sheets are flexible and ultra-flat. which optimizes image quality for display on OLED panels. 7. It is also imaginable that tables. but includes an additional built-in memory card reader and a USB port. It is getting even better: nearly every surface can become a lighting source.6-inch OLED Wireless panel boasts a 16:9 aspect ratio. cupboards or other furniture are used as a light source. as well as connectivity to online photo and video sharing sites and Internet content portals for news.000:1. videos and music stored on PCs in other rooms. and a white to black contrast ratio of 30. 7.
RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology conventional lighting. for example: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Low-power. thus reducing the cost for the whole lighting panel. thin. flexibility is another advantage. which may allow OLED lighting to be used when designing for spaces with limited conditions. but also to create exciting. OLEDs are a flat light source. In contrast. LEDs as main competitor are a point source technology which needs light distribution elements to achieve flat panel lighting. Such a characteristic could allow OLED lighting placed directly on ceilings rather than hang from them. portable Internet devices and palm size computers High-contrast automotive instrument and windshield displays Heads-up instrumentation for aircraft and automobiles Automobile light systems without bulbs Flexible. OLED lighting is more like sunlight. bright. In addition. daily-refreshable newspaper Ultra-lightweight. emitting diffuse light from a potentially large active area. electronic.3 PRODUCT CONCEPTS The OLED technology has the potential to not only improve existing products. The thickness of OLED panels for lighting applications could reach less than 1mm. high resolution. lightweight. new product possibilities. 7. They do not need light distribution elements. walls and partitions that double as computer screens Color-changing lighting panels and light walls for home and office 30 ECE Department . colorful cell phones Full color. electronic displays Full-color. wall-size television monitor Office windows. OLED lighting is more stable than that of ordinary lighting. First among the advantages is slimness. and highly efficient laptop screens Roll-up. Compared to LED or conventional fluorescent lamps. featherweight. In addition. which is more comfortable for viewing. form-fitting. rugged PDAs Wearable. durable. high-resolution. personal communicators Wrist-mounted.
home and office lighting and flexible displays.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology • • • • • Low-cost organic lasers Computer-controlled. Sony announced that it would be the first to market with an OLED television. Kodak was the first to release a digital camera with an OLED display in March 2003. the first of its size [source:Kanellos]. full-motion video camcorders 8.a device with an OLED display could change information almost in real time. the Easy Share LS633. In September 2004. Research and development in the field of OLEDs is proceeding rapidly and may lead to future applications in heads-up displays.000 times faster -. OLEDbased. ultra-slim TV.700 U. FUTURE SCOPE Currently. It lists for 200. billboard-type displays. Because OLEDs refresh faster than LCDs -. The XEL-1 will be available in December 2007 for customers in Japan. you could fold it up when you're done reading it and stick it in your backpack or briefcase. OLEDs are used in small-screen devices such as cell phones. ECE Department 31 . Sony Corporation announced that it was beginning mass production of OLED screens for its CLIE PEG-VZ90 model of personalentertainment hand helds. PDAs and digital cameras. Several companies have already built prototype computer monitors and large-screen TVs that use OLED technology.and like a regular newspaper. automotive dashboards.or about $1. motorcycle riders Medical test equipment Wide area. Video images could be much more realistic and constantly updated.S. electronic shelf pricing for supermarkets and retail stores Smart goggles/helmets for scuba divers. And in October 2007.000 Yen -. In May 2005. Samsung Electronics announced that it had developed a prototype 40-inch. The newspaper of the future might be an OLED display that refreshes with breaking news (think "Minority Report") -.almost 1.
CONCLUSION Now OLED is fast a growing technology. The field of applications for OLED displays has a wide scale. This could be possible because OLED allows transparent displays and light sources. ECE Department 32 . OLED is expected to conquer the market within the next few years. At night it could be switched on and become a light source. Researches are going on this subject and it is sure that OLED will emerge as future solid state light source. Aother vision is the transparent windows which would function like a regular window by day. One of the future visions is to roll out OLEDs or to stick them up like post-it notes.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 9. Organic full-colour displays may eventually replace liquid crystal displays for use with lap top and even desktop computers. .
REFERENCES  Antoniadis. Ph. 3/6/2007.Sony Readies OLED TV" ECE Department 33 . 10 (11): 30-34  Williams. Webster E.  IEE ECE-592-s Soft Electronics Final Paper Due may 4." Osram optical semiconductors. Martyn. (10/8/2007)  Michael J.com. 5/18/2005. "PC World . Felton (2001) "Thinner lighter better brighter. "Better Displays with Organic Films.  IEEE vol 93. No. "Overview of OLED Display Technology.top emitting oled  Kanellos." CNET News. Today's Chemist at Work." Scientific American. 8(2005) flexible display.". "New Samsung panel pictures inch-thick TV.D.RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology 10.com. Homer.2008  "DuPont shows new AMOLED materials and OLED displays" OLED-Info. (10/9/2007)  Howard. Michael.