Food & Beverage Operations


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I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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The aim of the Food & Beverage Operations module is to provide students with an understanding of the operational & supervisory aspects of running a food & beverage operation for an international clientele in a range of establishments. To encourage an appreciation of the origins of such systems & to understand the various factors involved in meeting customer needs. Students will gain an understanding of food & beverage & its service in a variety of styles of restaurant & establishments & they will have sufficient knowledge to produce a broad plan for specified food & beverage operations.

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I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Learning Outcomes

Summary of Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module, students will be able to: Demonstrate knowledge of the key functional areas of the food & beverage operation Describe the kitchen operation including food production systems, methods of cookery, kitchen layout & commodities Demonstrate the different methods of purchasing & food storage Examine the appropriateness of the different methods of food & beverage service to manage customer expectations Develop & plan menus according to customer requirements Describe the different types & requirements of banqueting functions

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I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Syllabus – Part 1 of 3

● Restaurant concepts & types of outlets; banqueting, fast food, hotel, industrial, outside catering, institutional, in-flight, restaurant, public house & transport catering ● Typical organization structures & job titles in kitchen, restaurant & banqueting departments ● Food production systems including traditional, centralised, cook-chill, cook-freeze & sous vide ● The suitability of these systems to the operation. Methods of cookery. Kitchen layout & equipment. Commodities: food & non-food ● The policies & procedures for purchasing of food & non-food items for a hospitality operation ● The use of standard purchasing specifications & other recognised standards/brand names when ordering both food & non-food items. ● The correct storage of commodities. The security aspects of storing high value items ● Procedures for the issuing of stock items, including all records kept, & checks on the use of commodities
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Introduction to food & beverage operations

Food production operations

Purchasing & storage of goods

Suitability & cost of service styles ● Meeting managing customer expectations. plate service. self service. assisted service. Preparation & layout of food & service operations ● Preparation & layout of beverage service. counter service. service of alcoholic & nonalcoholic beverages & hot beverages ● Beverage menu & wine list ● Menu structure & trends ● Factors affecting the compilation of menus. Staff skill Page 8 www. room service.cthresources. menu development ● Catering for customer requirements & trends in modern diets. silver service. Production & sale of non-alcoholic & alcoholic beverages Menu planning .Syllabus – Part 2 of 3 Syllabus Food service systems ● Methods of food service. buffet.cthawards.

Staffing the event. organising & costing of an . planning. safety & hygiene considerations. body language.cthresources. Evaluation www.Syllabus – Part 3 of 3 Syllabus Providing excellent customer service in food & beverage operations ● Employee Page 9 www. team work. hygiene practices ● Attentiveness. effective communication. attention to detail Banqueting & functions ● Types of events. personal appearance. Menu & service styles ● Health.cthawards.

II.8 www. Assessment . Chapters 1 . Syllabus Page 10 www.cthawards.cthresources.Content I. Description Learning Outcomes III.

cthawards.Assessment Assessment This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination. set & marked by CTH. Any legislation & codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry & will not be country Page 11 www. CTH is a London based awarding body & the syllabus content will in general reflect this. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit & will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions & 5 x 4 mark questions in section A (40 marks). www. International centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practice to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not assess this local .cthresources. Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which candidates must select & answer three (60 marks).

Syllabus IV. Chapters 1 .com Page 12 .cthawards.cthresources. Description Learning Outcomes III. Assessment V.8 www. II.Content I.

7. 5. Page 13 www. 3. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting www. .Chapters 1. 6.cthresources.cthawards. 8.

cthresources. objectives & challenges of the sector ● Detail the diverse structure & scope of the sector ● Explain the complexity of the classifying the sector ● Describe & evaluate the characteristics & aims of a range of different types of food & beverage operations www.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Present the key Page 14 .

Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector 1.3 Trends in food & beverage 1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations 1.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Page 15 .4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry 1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challenge www.cthresources.cthawards.

Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.cthawards. Issuing www. Storing 6. Serving 3. Preparing Page 16 www. Receiving 7. Purchasing 8. Consuming 2.1 The food & beverage cycle Most food & beverage businesses operate within the cycle & the different stages of the cycle present both challenges & opportunities for operators . .cthresources. Cooking 5.

hygienic & safe environment Comfortable & well designed facilities Professional. attentive & friendly service Value for money Page 17 .1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations Most food & beverage operations aim to provide: Quality food & beverages A clean.cthawards.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.

com Page 18 . technological. economic.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector The main challenges of the hospitality industry & the food sector are:- ● Intangibility – such as ambiance ● Simultaneous production & consumption . social.where mass production is difficult for it requires large amounts of customers & producers in one placer which would cause environmental.cthawards. social. returned. cultural & economic problems ● Heterogeneity – where service experience may vary due to different producers & consumers with different needs & requirements ● Consistency – is difficult to achieve due to the intangible element in food & beverage ● Perishability – where unused hospitality services cannot be stored. claimed or resold Ownership – where the consumer only owns a hospitality product only for a certain period of time No guarantees – with little aftercare or service Imitation is easy – with no patents on service processes & easily copied by competitors Seasonality – where staffing & expenses are challenging to many restaurant operators External variables – that impact the running of the business such as political. legal & environmental change www.cthresources.

2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector Following are the main characteristics:- ● A vital part of everyday life ● Major contributor to the national economy ● Highly fragmented & complex ● Creates employment ● Encourages entrepreneurship ● Promotes diversity through many different food concepts & cuisines ● Fuels innovation ● Local multiplier using many other peripheral services ● Consumer led ● Competitive ● An opportunity to enjoy the company of friends.2) www.cthawards. family & colleagues ● Fulfils basic needs (see Fig .Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Page 19 www.cthresources.

com Page 20 www.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Food is a basic need for everyday life Self actualization Self Esteem Love & belonging Safety needs Physiological needs www.cthawards.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig .cthresources.

Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1. food sustainability & provenance Page 21 www.cthawards.cthresources.3 Trends in food & beverage Following are some key trends in the UK:- ● Guests become more sophisticated ● More emphasis on food safety & sanitation ● More casual/less formal & theme restaurants ● Increase in ethnic restaurants & ethnic food ● Growth in chains –all cuisines ● Increase in convenience food ● Increase in coffee chains – coffee culture ● Increased take out meals & home meal replacement ● Outsourcing outlets in hotels – co-branding ● More focus on healthier eating ● Increase in organic food .

com .Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.cthresources.cthawards.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry Fig 1.3 The United Kingdom Food Service Industry (2006) Page 22 www.

5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challenge The food & beverage sector is extremely diverse & fragmented that the size & scope of the industry creates a challenge when attempting to organise & classify it.cthawards.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1. Following are the classification approaches & options:- ● Commercial & non-commercial ● Size ● Ownership ● Star rating or quality ● Service method ● Food or beverage ● Concept or theme ● Revenue or turnover ● Location ● Meal time or meal period ● Customer type ● Cuisine ● Awards & schemes www.cthresources. It has many Page 23 .

com Page 24 Prisons www.cthresources.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Fig 1.4 Classification of food & beverage Food & Beverage outlets Commercial Non Commercial General market Restricted market Institutional catering Employee catering Hotels Travel catering Schools In-house catering Restaurants & snack bars Clubs University catering Contract caterer Fast food & take away Institutional & employee catering The military services Function & event catering .cthawards.

Nandos) Educational Institutions (schools. military Supermarkets – food retail ( food to go) Employee dining Outside catering Private clubs Street vendors Fine dining Themed restaurants (Hard Rock Café. . Caribbean) Restaurants (bistros. public houses. Planet Hollywood) Cafes & sandwich bars Fast food chains (McDonalds. motels. Malaysian. Bombay Bicycle Yo Sushi. brasseries. guest houses.cthresources. wine bars. roadside restaurants) Ethnic chains (Wagamama.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Introduction to the food & beverage sector Variety of food & beverage operations Shopping malls. food counters Ethnic restaurants (Chinese. cafeterias. Subway KFC. hostels) Leisure (museums. coffee shops.cthawards. snack bars) Page 25 www. healthcare. Japanese. French. fish & chips. theatres. air & marine) Welfare catering hospitals. cinemas) Conference centres Takeaway (kiosks. universities) Transport (rail. airports. colleges. Wendy’s) Accommodation (hotels. theme parks.

3 Management contracting .1 Self – operated 2.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.4 Outsourcing Page 26 www.2 Franchise agreement 2. Management options in food & beverage: main approaches 2.

the franchisee (the owner of the facility) pays fees to the franchisor (or franchise company) in exchange for the right to use the name.cthawards. large or a franchised situation Page 27 www. Furthermore. It could be a small.2 Franchise agreement Ninemeier (2000) explains: ‘ With a . and business methods of the franchisor. building design. the franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor’s business & quality standards’.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2. www.cthresources.1 Self-operated The owner or organisation manages the operation themselves.

5 Evaluation of Franchise agreement: Franchiser & Franchisee (Mc Donalds) www.cthawards.cthresources.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches Figure Page 28 .

com .Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches 2.cthawards. This could b don either in a hotel or in a non-commercial Page 29 www.6: Management contracting analysis www.3 Management contracting When an owner or operator of an establishment employs or contracts specialised hospitality or food & beverage service company to manage the whole or part of the operation. for example a university Figure 1.cthresources.

litchfieldbeach.7 Food & beverage outsourcing in hotels (Starbucks) http://www. Fig Page 30 www.cthresources. a new & emerging trend is where the hotel forms a partnership with a restaurant/coffee chain/bar brand that would operate from a designated area within the www. Therefore.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Management options in food and beverage: main approaches .4 Outsourcing Increasingly. hotels are realising that hotel-run restaurants are in some cases unprofitable due to many residents opting to dine at known branded outlets.

2 Food & beverage services in hotels 3.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.cthresources.9 Non-commercial food & beverage 3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operations www.1 Food & beverage in accommodation .8 Food & beverage in transportation 3. Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.3 Independent restaurants (small/medium enterprise – SME) 3.6 Public houses or licensed premises Page 31 www.5 Themed restaurants 3.7 Chained restaurants & bars 3.4 Ethnic restaurants 3.cthawards.

com Page 32 www.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations Main types of commercial & non-commercial food & beverage:Commercial ● Food & beverage in accommodation ● Independents operations ● Themed restaurants ● Public houses ● Fast food chains ● Transport services Non-commercial ● Military ● Schools ● Universities ● Hospitals ● Employee catering .cthresources.cthawards.

Food prepared on request to take away Page 33 www. size.cthawards.1 Food & beverage in accommodation Can vary depending on location specific areas. . goals.cthresources. pool café. Limited set menu available at set times on request Snack bar. cigar room. Executive lounge food & beverage services. 24hour full room service menu. Room service (limited throughout the night). Conference & banqueting. Bar. 5-star hotels Coffee shop. Mini bar. Coffee lounge/pastry counter. Bar.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3. Outside catering. Bar & lounge. Specialty 4-star hotels Budget hotels Bed & breakfast Hostel www. Employee dining Breakfast buffet. customer & quality. Guest amenities. Fine dining restaurant/s. Mini bar. ownership. Nightclub. Specialty restaurant. Vending machines. Vending. Employee dining Coffee shop. karaoke. In room guest amenities. Employee dining Breakfast. Conference & banqueting. delicatessen.

com .cthawards.8 The food & beverage structure within a 4-star hotel Food & Beverage Manager Assistant food & Beverage Manager Executive Chef Food and Beverage coordinator Conference and Banqueting Manager Conference and Banqueting Team Sous Chef Restaurant Manager Bar Manager Coffee shop Manager Chief Steward Restaurant Team Bar Team Room service and Mini Bar Manager Kitchen team Room Service team www.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations Fig Page 34 www.

2 Food & beverage services in hotels Most hotels operate multiple food & beverage outlets.cthawards. Outlets. The outlets could be:- ● Coffee shop ● Restaurant ● Fine dining ● Bar ● Lounge ● Executive lounge ● Conferencing & banqueting ● Outside catering ● Room service ● Mini bar ● Guest amenities ● Employee dining .Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3. products and services offered are subject to change from property to Page 35 www.

cthresources. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. many of the positions overlap. have a variety of service methods such as . As the team is much smaller. The restaurants could be themed ethnic. sit down or drive-through.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisation Restaurant Manager/ Owner Assistant food & Beverage Manager Restaurant Supervisors Kitchen Team Restaurant Team Bar Supervisor Kitchen Porters Cleaners Page 36 www.cthawards. Fig 1. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. cafeteria. take-away. and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner.3 Independent restaurants An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity.

As the team is much smaller.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisation Page 37 www. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. have a variety of service methods such as self-service. cafeteria. many of the positions overlap. and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner.cthawards.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity.cthresources. The restaurants could be themed ethnic. sit down or . Fig 1. take-away. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied.

relaxing environments for groups or individuals can get together to enjoy Page 38 www.cthawards. Manage by owners and operated around a central theme such as Chinese. . Japanese and Middle Eastern.4 Ethnic restraints These type of restaurants can be part of a chain but also independent in nature. For a example the Hard Rock Cafe. Beverages are the main products but they offer great verity of foods due to declining beverage sales. 3. entertainment or sport for example. They outsource their kitchen to chef entrepreneurs and the growth in gastro pubs.6 Public houses or licensed premises Public houses (‘pubs’) offer comfortable. 3.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.5 Themed restaurants These type of restaurants are operations that have a central theme throughout such as music.cthresources.

● The operations can be owned by a parent Page 39 www. ● Operations are normally themed around a central concept. causal or fine dining. ● Good infrastructure and support networks – training and purchasing for example. www.cthawards.cthresources. ● Can be national. a franchise or private . menus and operations in each unit. regional or global ● Operations normally duplicated and featured the same design. ● Service systems can vary from take-away.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.7 Chain restaurants and bars Key characteristics of chain restaurants ● Several units operating in different locations. ● Provide consistency and standardisation to customers. drive thru. dine in. ● Centralised purchasing and distribution networks.

Range from purchased snack on budget airlines or gourmet set menus for firstclass passengers.cthawards. Range from fine dining to trolley service.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3. The on-board catering is normally contracted out to a specialist Page 40 www. Fine dining is offered in first-class long journeys. www. Provide on-board kiosk where customers can purchase a basic selection of hot and cold food and beverages. move from carriage to carriage. Beverage can be range from trolley to full. Normally transfer large quantities in short period of time. The food is mass produced and prepared .8 Food and beverage in transportation Sea Range from cafeteria-style snacks on short routes to fine dining on cruise lines. Air Rail 3. Another common method is an on-board trolley service.cthresources.9 Non-commercial food and beverage Main focus is on providing nutritious food and beverages but the primary mission is not to sell food and beverages.

com Page 41 www. ● They carry out fully the food and service responsibilities for the institutions under .cthawards. closed environment. www. which is only supportive.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operations ● Non-commercial institutions hire commercial food service management(contract) companies from outside to manage food service in their institutions. ● The institution or workplace can free itself from the day-to-day concern of managing food service operations. ● These operations are planned to keep the expenses/ costs low. ● Normally large scale. ● Business levels are quite predictable making it easier for production and planning.cthresources. ● Emphasis is not placed on nutrition. ● Commercial food service management companies exist to make profit. ● They are professional food service companies.Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3. ● They are part of properties that exist for reasons other than the service of food and beverages. they are budget-oriented. delivered at particular times of day. ● Competition is limited as the service is provided in a private.

cthawards. Challenges and characteristics Food and beverage classifications and types Management options Commercial operations Non commercial operations Hotel food and beverage Military Independent operations Schools Page 42 www. themed and chain operations University Transport catering Employee .Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage Summary Introduction to food and beverage Objectives. . 3. 7.Chapters 1. 2. 5. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting www. Page 43 www.cthawards. 6. Page 44 www.Chapter 2 – Food production Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain kitchen organization and the responsibilities of key personnel employed ● Describe and appraise the different food production methods ● Identify the main food groups and commodities ● Describe the main considerations in kitchen designs ● Discuss the importance of achieving food cost ● Explain the importance of food hygiene and control www.

2 Kitchen chef characteristics Page 45 www.cthawards.4 Kitchen organization 1.cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities 1.6 The stewarding department www. Kitchen introduction 1.5 Partie system analysis .

com Page 46 www. to avoid customer waiting To provide quality meals for all consumers To prepare the right quantity of food Kitchen Objectives To meet or exceed the food needs of organization’s target market To create menus that will both attract and retain customers To utilize food stocks in the best way possible To achieve monthly financial food targets To minimize stock wastages www.1 Main objectives of the kitchen department To provide safe meals for all consumers To prepare food in the time .Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Fig 2.cthresources.

Fig Page 47 www. Their responsibilities can be.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Most kitchens will be managed by an Executive or Head Chef.2 Executive Chef job description www.cthawards.

com Front office & Reception Restaurant Page 48 www.cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication Fig 2.3 Executive Chef communication Purchasing & Stores Department Competitors Bar Genaeral Manager's office Customers External Suppliers Room service Housekeeping EXECUTIVE CHEF Accounts department Sales and Marketing Human Resources Stewarding Conference & Banqueting www.

Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.1Qualities of a good chef Ability to work under pressure Ability to multi task Creative Consistent Good palate Ability to work in a team Page 49 www.e.2 Challenges for a chef Fast paced and hot work environment Many stakeholders Risk of food poisoning In most cases a high level of competition High perishability of stock items Frequently changeable external environment (i.cthresources.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.2.2. food trends or scares) Unsociable work .

3 Opportunities for a chef Be creative and showcase skills Satisfy customers Acquire and pass on skills Meet lots of interesting people Learn and sample a wide variety of different food Travel Obtain awards for culinary expertise 1. studded earrings only for women Accessories – wristwatch. body piercings or tattoos should not be visible. no visible necklaces Trousers – pin striped.2.cthawards. clean hair. in good repair www. clean. maximum two rings.2. hair tied back if long.4 Chef presentation Appearance – trimmed hair. neatly shaven.cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1. no earrings on Page 50 www. well pressed Shoes – slip .

cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities The organizational structure of a kitchen will depend on a number of factors including : Size and kitchen space available Quantity of food output (demand) Number of food outlets to cater Sophistication and type of menu Equipment requirement Location where production is taking place (in kitchen or outsourced) Service methods ( . plated) Page 51 www.

com Commis Saucier Commis Poissonier Page 52 Commis Patiser Commis Entremetier www.cthawards. Fig 2.4 Kitchen organization “Partie system” is a method of kitchen organization which is formal. structured brigade and in most cases.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction .cthresources. only found in high quality kitchens and restaurants.4 The ‘Partie’ system Executive Chef Sous Chef Chef Tournant Chef de partie Grade Manager Chef de partie Saucier Chef de partie Poissonier Chef de partie Patiser Chef de partie Entremetier Demi Chef de Partie Grade Manager Demi Chef de Partie partie Saucier Demi Chef de Partie Poissonier Demi Chef de Partie Patiser Demi Chef de Partie Entremetier Commis Grade Manager www.

deputies in his/her absence Covers each section as and when required – has the skills and knowledge to cover all sections Responsible for the preparation of all cold savoury foods Responsible for all sauteed items Preparation and cooking of all fish dishes Preparation of desserts and pastries Preparation of all Page 53 www. soups and hot appetisers .cthawards.cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Role Sous Chef Chef Tournant Chef Grade Manager Chef Saucier Chef Poissonnier Chef Patissier Chef Entremetier Responsibilities Assistant to the executive chef.

they only focus on one section of the kitchen as opposed to learning a wide range of skills in more conventional kitchen systems.5 Partie system analysis Advantages Chefs specialize in a particular section of a kitchen Disadvantages Although chefs .com Page 54 www.cthresources. Staff can be ideal when particular section of the kitchen are not busy Can be expensive for the organization due to the large numbers of staff required Chefs becomes bored Each section has a support infrastructure to avoid any weaknesses Chef have a clear route f or progression Customers receives quality meals Kitchen managers are able to allocate responsibility and accountability to the various sections Kitchen managers are able to detect and monitor problems more easily www.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.

The benefits of this for the organization: Chefs become multi skilled and therefore more flexible Job satisfaction is more greater due to acquiring a more divers skill set Labour cost are more streamlined due to better utilization of labour www.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Many kitchens now provide chefs with opportunities to work and rotate in other sections of the Page 55 .cthawards.cthresources.

6 The stewarding department Stewarding is a sub department of the kitchen and it’s staffing requirements for a large operation are detailed below: Fig 2.5 Basic Stewarding organization chart in a large kitchen Chief Steward Assistant Chief Steward Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter .com Page 56 www.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction 1.cthresources.

Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen introduction Position Chief Steward and assistant Responsibilities • Report to Executive Chef and Food and Beverage Manager • Supervise team of porters • Schedule work of Porters • Create cleaning standards • manage and control equipment stores (in/out) •Responsible for the maintenance of hygiene within kitchen • Control of kitchen chemicals (COSHH) • Co-ordinate booking of any maintenance of kitchen cleaning contractors or casual staff • Responsible for inventory and maintenance of kitchen cleaning equipments • Carry out day-to-day cleaning of the kitchen • Operate the dishwasher machine • Clean kitchen equipment after use • Empty dustbins • Periodically sweep and mop floors • Clean kitchen work tops Page 57 Kitchen Porters .cthawards.cthresources.

Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen design and planning considerations 2. and include control. Each design element must work together. Kitchen design and planning considerations When planning a kitchen there are many factors to consider. safety. Poor planning often lead to. to create smooth running kitchen Page 58 .cthawards. Wasted capacity Poor stock rotation Employee accidents Low employee motivation Slow production and output Risk of food poisoning www. business yield and employee satisfaction.cthresources.

Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen design and planning considerations Figure Page 59 .cthresources. ventilation and air conditioning Service methods of restaurants Utilisation of space Communication with services LegislationEmployees working space ratios Health and safety of employees & customers HACCP requirements Menu types Equ8ipment requirements Supervision by managers Efficient communication between chefs Gas & Electricity Control of stock Refuse disposal Storage requirements (bulk & section) Drainage & plumbing Production methods Restaurant preparation area Allocation of cleaning space Ergonomics Task Lighting www.6 Kitchen design considerations Maximum Output Standards of organisation Work flow of employees Production efficiency POS Systems Space available Environmental regulations Heating.

6 Cook-freeze method of food production 3.evaluation 3.1 Production methods 3.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.4 Sous-vide .3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) 3.2 The conventional food production method Page 60 www.cthresources. Production methods and organisation 3.5 Cook-chill method of food production .7 The central distribution method of food production www.cthawards.

Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation And efficient kitchen is where the chefs prepare and cook food in minimal time whilst maintaining a very high standard. www.g. Ensuring all kitchen equipment is up to standard and ready to use.cthawards.: A sharp knife over a blunt one at all times. This could be achieved through a methodical and economical method of working by. Using electrical equipment for appropriate and worth while purposes.luxuryhomedesign. Source: http//www. Working systematically as possible The kitchen crew holding right postures in order to avoid fatigue and so forth. .com Page 61 www. when standing for .g. for instances a potato peeler for 4 portions of potatoes which is likely to take more time in putting the machine to use than the time taken to peel potatoes it self is unworthy.long periods of times standing correctly with weight evenly on both legs.

E. Preparing the mise en place thoroughly to ensure the follow-on of a smooth and efficient service. preparing those dishes first which demands more time to Page 62 www. starting from most frequently used items close at . Following a clear and continuous work plan. Positioning all work tops. sinks.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Ensuring all necessary equipment is ready and usable at the start of each working session. Storing all ingredients as close to the practical work area. Source: Caterer & Hotelkeeper www. and refrigerators within easy reach to eliminate unnecessary movements of chefs.g. opposed to a haphazard one. stores.

com Output .1 Production methods Food production is differing methods of preparing. Food Fresh Fresh cooked Fresh Prepared Canned Fresh Chilled Vacuum Dehydrated Smoked Salted Crystallised Acidified Pasteurized Bottled UHT Preparation Weigh/Measure clear/open Chop/cut Combine/mix Blend Shape/coat Form Cooking Blanch Warm Simmer Boil Steam Grill Sauté Brown Bake Roast Broil Fry Microwave Holding Chill Sous-vide Freeze Tray Hot Cupboard Cold Cupboard Regeneration Regithermic Microwave Convection Traditional Presentation Bain-marie Service flats Plates Trays Vending Buffet Trolley Dishes Foods in Process Page 63 www. cooking and serving food to produce meals to the customer.cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.cthawards.

1 Key considerations in food production Food hygiene Quality raw materials Foods should be stored properly Appropriate preparation for each food item Minimised wastage Employees should comply with handling regulations Foods should be cooked to proper temperatures Methods differ in relation to: Actual location where food is produced Total time from preparation to service Staff numbers required Level of hygiene and control Quantity of food produced www.1.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation .com Page 64 www.

chill Cook-freeze Food Production Methods Centralised distribution Sous-vide .cthresources.cthawards.7 Food production methods Conventional Page 65 www.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Figure 2.

cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation . Figure 2.cthawards.8.8 Conventional food production process Goods in to kitchen Refrigeration Freezing Dry Store Preparation (Mise en place) Ordered from customer Cooking Serving www.2 The conventional food production method The conventional method is used in most kitchen establishments and follows the process as shown in figure Page 66 www.

Method Baking Blanching Boiling Braising Boiling Fried Deep fried Grilled Poaching Roasting Sautéing Steaming Stewing Explanation Cooked in dry heat. usually by in oven by dry heat Browned or cooked in a small amount hot fat or oil Cooked in steam with or without pressure Simmering slowly in enough liquid to cover the food Adapted from cichy & wise (1999) www. then cooked slowly in a small amount of liquid Cooked by direct heat from above or below Cooked in fat or oil Cooked in enough fat to cover the food Cooked on a grill. in the oven Dipping the food in to boiling water or oil for a short time Cooked in a boiling or rapidly simmering liquid Browned in small amount of Page 67 www. over direct heat Cooked in a liquid .cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Food as given in the table below can be cooked in variety of methods during the food production process. just below boiling point (simmering) Cooked uncovered.

9 Sous vide process Goods in Prepared Cooked Portioned in to plastic pouches and vacuum packed Chilled and refrigerated Customer orders meals Sealed pouches placed in boiling water Reheated Pouch is cut open Food is arranged on plate and served .Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Page 68 www.cthawards.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) Figure2.

4 Sous – vide .com Disadvantages Capital investment in equipment and storage Not as fresh as conventional method Not able to adjust to customer requirements Not all foods suitable for sousvide method Negative stigma attached(Boil in the bag!) Page 69 .cthawards.evaluation Advantages Pouches retain freshness During re-heating juices are retained in pouch and not lost Individual pouches are labeled for easy stock rotation There is less risk of cross contamination during storage due to sealed pouches and labeling Less wastage as foods is used only when ordered Food can be produced and accurately portioned Chef does not need to be present for reheating and finishing stage Pouched can be frozen to extend life Inexpensive regeneration www.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.

The chilled food is regenerated in finishing kitchens which require low capital investment and minimum staff. Foskett et al. ( 2004) Figure 2.11 The cook. subsequently reheating prior to consumption.chill process Goods in to kitchen store Preparing and cooking Portioning Packaging Blast chilling Re-heating Consumption www.cthawards.cthresources. In controlled low temperature conditions above freezing point.5 Cook-chill method of food production Cook chill is a catering system based on normal preparation and cooking of food followed by rapid chilling and storage.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation .com Page 70 www. All most any food can be cook chilled provided that the correct methods are used.

Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3.freeze process Goods in Preparing and cooking Blast freezing Blast thawing Re-heating Serving www.12 The Page 71 www.6 Cook freeze method of food production The method is similar to cook-chill apart from refrigeration temperatures .cthresources. Figure 2.

cthresources.stangard-online.7 The central distribution method of food production Centralised food production is when food is produced in bulk-off .com Page 72 www.Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation 3. The method is frequently adopted by large chains who are looking to outsource all or part of their food production.cthawards. source.:http//www.

cthresources.freeze process Hotel or restaurant creates dish specification Central production unit (CPU) produces food off site Blast chilling CPU delivers food to hotel or other hospitality operation Operation stores food in refrigeration or freezers Food is thawed and en place Consumers order food Food is reheated and served .Chapter 2 – Food production Production methods and organisation Advantages CPU is specialised in food production Due to bulk production costs.11 The Page 73 www. prices are cheaper for buyers High levels of hygiene during production Disadvantages Pass control to another company Potential delays in delivery to operation Figure 2.

Few of food are detailed below. One way of organising ingredients is to categorise them into particular groups of families. Food classifications There are many different types and varieties of food.Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications .com Page 74 www. www.cthresources. .2 Vegetables Root Turnip Radish Potato Beet Leaf Spinach Lettuce Chicory Brassicas Cauliflower Brussels sprouts Broccoli Shoot Fennel Asparagus Artichoke Celery Fruit Avocado Aubergine Peppers Tomato Bulb Garlic Onion Shallot Squash Cucumber Zucchini Pumpkin Marrow Pods Corn Bean sprouts Peas Okra www.Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.1 Cheese Semi-hard Gouda Edam Emmenthal Soft Camembert Brie Mozzarella Blue Dolcelatte Stilton Roquefort Page 75 www.cthresources.

com Page 76 www.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.4 Fish Freshwater Trout Ecl Carp Salmon Seawater Mullet Mackerel Snapper Cod .3 Fruits Berries Blackberry Raspberry Blueberry Citrus Lime Orange Lemon Tropical Guava Mango Papaya Other Apples Melon Bananas 4.

cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Food classifications 4.6 Poultry and game Poultry Chicken Capon Goose Turkey www.5 Seafood Crustaceans Lobster Shrimp Crab Mollusc Octopus Oyster Mussel Page 77 Feathered game Woodcock Quail Partridge Furred game Rabbit Hare .

cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation 5. Food cost and control 5.1 Food cost Page 78 .3 How to achieve food cost targets? www.cthawards. . the following factors must be implemented to ensure a quality Page 79 www.Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control To ensure food is prepared to ‘optimum condition’. Dish specifications (standard recipes) Purchase specifications Qualified chefs HACCP implementation Functioning equipment Batch cooking Good supervision www.

www. the internal requisitioning system assists in keeping track of food consumption for each Page 80 www. It is normally around 28·30% as an industry guideline and can be considered as a performance measure for kitchen managers.1 Food cost Food cost is the percentage of total restaurant sales spent on the food .cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5. Food cost can be calculated as: Total cost of food consumption / total food sales x100% When there are more than one outlet (such as in a large hotel). .cthresources. www.14 Benefits of food cost Target for the Executive Chef Measurement of performance Food cost An industry benchmark Overall assessments of food management cycle Some organisations with food operations provide incentives for Executive Chefs if food coast targets are Page 81 www.Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation Fig 2.

com .cthawards.cthresources.3 How to achieve food cost targets? Fig 2. utilise food fully Only prepare what is needed Have and adhere to dish specifications for each dish Cook and serve foods correctly – avoid customer returns and complaints Employees eat employee food Store goods correctly DO not let foods spoil! Incorrect costing and pricing www.Chapter 2 – Food production Food cost and control 5.15 Key considerations for achievement of food cost target Qualified employees avoid errors Monitor food prices for fluctuations Monitor refrigerator temperatures Demonstrate first in first out (FIFO) roattion system No meals leave the kitchen unless posted through POS system All management meals through POS system Slow moving items utilised Discourage employees picking food in kitchen Lockable fridges Monthly and mid monthly food stock takes Good security procedures in place Remove poor selling items from menu monitor ‘Sales Mix’ Minimise food Page 82 www.

com Page 83 www.2 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) www.cthawards. Food poisoning 6.1 Main types of food poisoning 6.cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning .

cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning .com Page 84 www.1 Main types of food poisoning Salmonella Staphylococcus Clostridium Listeria www.

16: Impacts of food poisoning for a food & beverage operation Loss of business Employee turnover and loss of employme nt Illness to customer Fines and penalties from authorities Food Poisoning impact Poor ‘unclean’ image Possible closure by authorities Bad publicity .cthresources.Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure Page 85 www.cthawards.

Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.4C) and 140 F (60C) Discard old food Risk assessment Clean equipment between use Correct thawing Always cover and label foods Frequent hand washing Do not leave food hanging around in kitchen No pets or vermin (pest control) Uncooked. raw meats should always be stored on lower shelves Serve cold food cold Leftover food to be thoroughly cooked Sick employees should be sent home After preparation of .com Keep buns covered Food should be thoroughly destroyed before cooking Page 86 Clean kitchen surface frequently www.cthawards. pork and poultry Food should be cooked thoroughly Wash vegetables and food thoroughly Food hygiene training Keep foods outside the danger zonebetween 40F (4.cthresources.17: Ways in which to minimize a food positioning outbreak Implement HACCP Pay particular attention when dealing with eggs. keep refrigerated until cooking or serving Serve hot food hot Do not cross contaminate www.

Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning 6. This includes implementing regular checking systems and maintaining good records.2 Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) The HACCP system entails identifying potential risks during the food cycle and production stage and implementing controls to reduce those risks. Page 87 .cthresources. Page 88 .18: The HACCP food control process Analyse Hazards Identification of CCPs (Critical Control Points) CCP prevention measures Monitoring of CCP Prevention Measures CCP not met HACCP and CCP Log www.Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Figure 2.

com Page 89 www.cthawards.Chapter 2 – Food production Kitchen equipment 7.cthresources. . Kitchen equipment Large commercial kitchens have a wide selection of equipment to assist staff in their varying roles.

Chapter 2 – Food production Food poisoning Considerations when purchasing equipment Can we afford it? Can we get spare parts? Who requires training? Will it be easy to use? Guarantees Warrantees Will it add value? What is the company support if it breaks down? Where is the best location for this equipment? What training is required? What is the procedure for cleaning? Instructions for use? How long will it last? Who else has purchased Page 90 www.cthawards.cthresources.testimonials? What are the safety risks (risk assessments)? Has it been safety approved? .

cook – Page 91 www. fruit. fish & seafood Cooking methods Staffing Standard recipes .cthawards. vegetables. cook – chill. sous – vide &centralised Communication Food poisoning www.Chapter 2 – Food production Summary Kitchen introduction Organisation and structure Kitchen design Kitchen equipment Food cost and control Food classifications Production methods and organisation Objectives Food cost Cheese. poultry.cthresources. game.

com Page 92 www.Chapters 1. 5. 8. 4.cthresources. 2. 7. 3.cthawards. 6. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting .

cthawards.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain the importance and the process of selecting the right suppliers ● Describe the key standards required when Page 93 www. storing and issuing food and beverages ● Recommend the tools required for the effective control of finances and hygiene throughout the procurement and storage process www. .cthresources.

com .3 Departmental personnel 1. 4 Sample job description: Food and Beverage Manager Page 94 www.1 Departmental objectives 1.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.cthawards. Departmental goals and structure 1.2 Factors that impact purchasing 1.cthresources.

1: The purchasing cycle 1.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure Fig 3. Page 95 www. www.cthresources. storing and issuing of stocks. equipment. .cthawards. Issuing 2. These stocks could be in the form of: food. Storing The purchasing department is responsible for sourcing. Purchasing 4. Receiving 3. beverage.

1 Departmental objectives ● ● ● ● To meet financial targets To maintain quality To meet buyers' requirements To meet consumers' requirements Page 96 www.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure .

Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.3 : Purchasing considerations Availability of storage space The organization budget Standard of operations Time of Year (seasonality) Page 97 www.cthawards.2 Factors that impact purchasing Business Levels Geographic location of operation Organization Size and type Fig www.

receiving and department personnel ● • Maintaining the hygiene of stocks ● • Assisting with stock-takes and inventories Receiver Store man Cost controller ● Observing stock transactions ● Conducting impromptu stock –takes ● Checking stock documentation ● Identifying weakness in stock control ● Making recommendations for improved stock control ● Assisting with stock-takes www.3 Departmental personnel Purchasing department is managed and supervised by the Accounts department .cthawards.cthresources.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1. Person Purchaser Responsibilities ● Liaising with departments ● Researching suppliers ● Finding suppliers ● Receiving goods ● Checking goods ● Data entry of new stocks ● Maintaining of quality of stocks ● Issuing of stocks to departments• Updating stock records ● Obtaining quotations ● Researching market prices ● Negotiating prices ● Dealing with delivery personnel ● Signing for deliveries ● Liaising with Page 98 www. their responsibilities are given in the following .

com .com Page 99 www. writing) Innovative Proactive and reliable Able to work alone and within a team Duties ● To supervise in all aspects of purchasing food and beverage to ensure quality and profitability ● To support the Director of Food and Beverage and Executive Chef to order food and beverage ● To assist in accurate administration of all delivery notes.l listening.cthawards. requisitions and invoices in accordance with hotel and company standards ● Manage the receiving and inspecting of all food and beverage deliveries ● Maintain inventory controls and proper levels.4 Sample job description: Food and Beverage Manager (Skills & duties) Skills ● ● ● ● Strong communication skills(verbal . dating and rotation of all food and beverage items that are received www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure 1.cthresources.

exits. health and safety and security within the delivery area. storage area and kitchen ● To forecast weekly food and beverage cost figures in conjunction with other departments and hotel occupancy ● To maintain healthy inter-departmental relationships ● To promote awareness of health and safety within the department for associates and guests. extinguishers.cthresources. Example fire alert Page 100 www. conduct and appearance of himself and his departments are met ● To maintain healthy inter-departmental relationships ● To support the Financial Controller in monthly product line checks ● To be responsible for the safe keeping of all keys relating to purchasing and stores ● To maintain the highest level of cleanliness. ● To attend relevant training courses to aid self-development ● Adhere to all current legislation including food safety and health and safety ● Attend all food and beverage meetings and morning briefing when necessary ● Check all invoices for price fluctuations and take action where necessary www.cthawards.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Departmental goals and structure ● To ensure high standards of work . table clips etc.

com Page 101 www.1 Purchasing responsibilities 2.5 Financial control 2.6 Changes in product cost +/- www.3 Quality control .cthresources.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2. Purchasing 2.4 Selecting suppliers 2.2 Capital purchases 2.cthawards.

Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing .com Page 102 www.cthresources.1 Purchasing responsibilities ● Liaising with Suppliers ● Liaising with department managers ● Gaining approval ● Obtaining quotes for more expensive items ● Sending orders ● Maintaining records ● Market surveys on food prices www.cthawards.

Chef needs a new refrigerator 2.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing Page 103 www.Provides model.2 Capital purchases 4.cthresources.Purchaser selects best supplier offer and creates purchase order 5. brand and specification to purchasing department 3.Purchasing employee sources quotations from suppliers Supplier 1 Supplier 2 Supplier 3 www. Delivery of refrigerator .

The specification should: ● Set out clearly the standard required for each product ● Ensure mangers set out exact requirements in advance ● Provide the supplier ● Guide the supplier ● Minimise discrepancies on delivery ● Be used when bidding for contracts ● Act as a checking tool on delivery www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing .cthawards.3 Quality control Specifications The first step in achieving control in the purchasing of food and beverages is to create a product Page 104 www.cthresources.

com Page 105 www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing . do their payment terms meet the ● criteria of our accounts department? ● Will they add value to my product overall? www.4 Selecting suppliers The following questions needs to be asked when selecting suppliers: ● Are they reputable? ● Are they certificated? ● Can they supply the products that I want at the right quality? ● Are their prices competitive? ● Will they be consistent? ● Which other companies do they serve? ● Can they deal with the volume that I want? ● What are their credit terms.cthawards.cthresources.

com Page 106 www.05 kg My Supplier £3.cthawards.00 kg Supplier 2 £2.5 Financial control Purchasers periodically check market prices to ensure that suppliers are quoting competitively to give the best deal.75 kg . Supplier 3 £3.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2. www.6 :Bulk discounting High Cost Low High Low Quantity Ordered Page 107 www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing 2.6 Changes in product cost +/Changes in costs can occur due to. ● Seasonal availability ● Variations in the external environment ● Quantities ordered Fig .

Compare Purchase Order Page 108 www.Check stock available and order the difference.7:Purchasing steps 1.Order Goods .cthresources.cthawards.Idenify what stock is needed to meet business demands 3.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Purchasing Fig 3.

cthresources.1 Equipment 3.2 Product checks on receipt of delivery 3.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.6 Health and safety tips: receiving area www. Receiving .3 Delivery temperatures Page 109 www.cthawards.4 Meat checks 3.5 Beverages 3.

cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving .1 Equipment In order to carry out all the tasks of a receipt of a delivery .com Page 110 www. the receiver requires the following equipment to be available on the “receiving area” or “loading bay”: ● Scales ● Trolleys ● Thermometer and thermopin ● Sink ● Calculator ● Scissors and box cutters www.

Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.2 Product checks on receipt of delivery On the receipt of delivery the following checks should be carried out by the .cthawards. ● The delivery note matches the purchase order ● The products match any food specifications ● Checks the weight of items against delivery note ● Counts items purchased by unit against delivery note ● Checks prices against purchase order ● Checks expiry dates of items ● Checks temperatures of meats and fresh foods ● Checks for any breakages or damaged items ● Opens any boxes or containers to check inside Page 111 www.cthresources.

3 Delivery temperatures ● Most refrigerated items should be received at 41°F or below ● Dry goods are received at room temperature. www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving Page 112 .cthawards. packaged intact and in good condition ● Frozen products should of course be received frozen ● Signature of the receiving clerk who conforms accuracy of the order ● Company stamp Note: It is also good for the receiver to randomly check the temperature of the delivery vehicles.

4 Meat checks ● Check for excess blood seepage ● Ensure no cross contamination has occurred and all meats are separated ● Pork products should be wrapped in dry paper ● Frozen meats should be unthawed ● Poultry should have no strong smell ● Chicken meat should be golden Page 113 .cthawards.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3. not white www.cthresources.

cthawards.cthresources.5 Beverages Beverage checks include examination: ● For any breakages ● That seals are not broken ● That the vintages are correct ● That the label is in good condition www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving .com Page 114 www.

com .com Page 115 www.cthresources.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Receiving 3.6 Health and safety tips: receiving area ● Lift correctly and avoid lifting heavy items ● Wash hands frequently ● Keep area clear of debris and rubbish ● Sweep and mop regularly www.cthawards.

com .cthawards.2 Storeroom health tips and good practice www. Storage 4.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage 4.1 Perishability Page 116 www.cthresources.

Store Dry Refrigerated Frozen Temperature oC Room temperature 0 to 5 -18 to -24 www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage After goods are checked-in. Most establishments have a computerised system whereby all new products received are entered into the computer so that accurate stock levels are held.cthawards. Different types of goods have varying storage temperature .com Page 117 www.cthresources. as given below. stock is transferred into the correct storage facilities and records updated.

deluxe spirits shark's fin High cost Short life www.1 Perishability Storage requirements are based on each type of food item’s perishability. Fig 3. fresh meats .10: Categorisation of stock Perishability and cost Long life Dried food ( Page 118 www. Dairy items Fresh seafood.cthresources.fro zen food) Low cost Fruit.salads.cthawards.liquuers. canned drinks. caviar.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage 4.

weekly and monthly cleaning schedule ● Ensure all heavy goods are lifted correctly ● Avoid storing items to high ● Clean any spills as they occur ● Do not store anything on the floor that may cause an obstruction ● Cover dustbins to prevent infestation ● Enforce a pest control schedule ● Store goods in clear well –ventilated containers ● All products should have a label and an expiry date ● All fresh meats stored on lower shelves ● Refrigerate perishable ingredients promptly ● Ensure labels are clear and visible www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Storage ● A daily .com Page 119 www.cthresources.

7 Stock movement Page 120 www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing .4 Steps in requisitioning 5. Issuing 5.cthawards.1 Secure storage 5.8 Reports www.6 Stock rotation 5.2 Internal requisitions 5.cthresources.5 Issuing times 5.3 Issuing rationale 5.

com Page 121 www.cthawards.cthresources.11 Departments with main stock demands Main kitchen Room service Stores Bar Conference And Banqueting Mini Bar . 5.1 Secure storage For control of goods they should be kept in a lockable store room permitting access to only authorized personnel.2 Internal requisitions Fig3.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.

3 Issuing rationale Departments issues stocks to: ● Have the appropriate goods to run their departments ● Prevent running out of stocks ● Maintain departmental par stock levels The stocks are requested by completing an internal department requisition The purpose of the requisition form is to: ● Have a paper trail in stock movements ● Force departments to plan stock requests ● Accurately allocate cost expenditure and usage per department ● Document individual request and supply ● Use as a back-up when discrepancies in stock occur ● Act as backup when computer errors occur ● Detail consumption of stock items ● Be an internal accounting document between stores and the Page 122 www. .Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.

Departmental employee identifies what stock is required. Store person gathers stock items in readiness for collection 5. Store person updates stock records.unit adjustments have to be made or substitutes are provided.stock and units required. 9. 7. Both parties sign to confirm the goods issued. www. 4. In most cases-one copy of the requisition form goes to the department.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing Page 123 www.4 Steps in requisitioning 1. one to stores. 2. Department employee collects stock. . Department employee replenishes departmental stock levels. If items are not available . The requisition form is submitted to stores. 10. 3.departmnet. 6. one copy to the accounts department. and checks that all items and quantities are fulfilled.cthresources.cthawards. Department employee completes a requisition from detailing date.

00 Page 124 www. 9. Kitchen Rest and Bar Tuesday Kitchen Rest and Bar Wednesday Kitchen Rest and Bar Thursday Kitchen Rest and Bar Friday Kitchen Rest and Bar 11.00-9.00 am Banqueting Banqueting Banqueting Banqueting Banqueting www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.00 am.cthawards.00 am.5 Issuing times In busy organizations specific times are allocated to different departments for collection of orders Monday .

Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.a manual system whereby a small card is allocated to each stock item. the date .cthawards.cthresources. As stock is Page 125 . and where the stock went is recorded on the card. As stock is added it is recorded in the card.amount of stock. 5.Basically FIFO means using the oldest stock first.6 Stock rotation Stock is rotated and issued on a “FIFO” sysytem.7 Stock movement Bin Cards. which reduces wastage. www.

therefore it is important to manage stocks and ensure consumption or sage takes place before expiration. Expiry item report www. This report informs departments of stocks that is soon to expire. This information is passed to departments to be used in menu . Failure to do so will result in financial Page 126 www. If stock has been ordered it should be consumed.cthawards.8 Reports Slow item report This report monitors stock items that are not being requested by departments. Items past their sell by dates cannot be used.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Issuing 5.

2 Why stock-take? ● To have an accurate up to date count of each stock item ● To check the stock corresponds with consumption ● To identify any discrepancies in stock quantities ● To balance actual stock against in and out transfers.1 Inventory 6.and usually carried out on the last day of the month by personnel from the Stores and Accounting department .1. Page 127 www.Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Control 6.cthawards. Issuing 6.1 Stock –take inventory Stock need to be counted on a monthly basis .1.cthresources.

Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage Summary Purchasing Structure Purchasing Receiving Storing Issuing Control Goals and Objectives Responsibilitie s Equipment Temperatures Rational Stock takes Personnel Capital purchases Delivery checks Perishability Requisitions Specifications Health and safety Health and safety Stock rotations Selecting suppliers Reports Financial control The purchasing steps Page 128 .

5. 3. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting www. 8. 7. 6. . 4.Chapters Page 129 www. .com Page 130 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Justify the importance of service to food and beverage organizations ● Explain the methods adopted by food and beverage organizations to consistently meet customers’ needs and wants ● Discuss the key and their responsibilities in food and beverage service ● Compare and contrast the different food and beverage service methods www.cthawards.

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service


Introduction to service 1.1 The service gap 1.2 Strategies to achieving good service 1.3 Service personnel 1.4 Presentation and personal hygiene 1.5 Service staff: presentation tips 1.6 Structures 1.7 Traditional service organization

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

Customers have varying needs and expectations which the provider has to attempt to meet. Giving a high stand of service creates many advantages for the customer, the individual staff members and the organization as a whole. The advantages are:The customers A good experience Satisfaction Customer loyalty Positive word of mouth The organization Less discount Happy customers Good reputation Positive image Brand growth Awards Good reviews Develop market share Unique selling points (USP) Achieve financial targets Cost reduction Overall growth Page 132

The employees Employee retention Less turnover Recognition Praise and gratitude Opportunities to develop Positive moral Good work environment and atmosphere

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.1 The service gap Customer satisfaction can be achieved through consistently meeting the customer’s specific needs, wants and expectations. Fig 4.1 The service gap

Service gap
Customer expectation Service delivery Satisfaction achieved

Customer expectation Service delivery

Dissatisfaction Page 133

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.2 Strategies to achieving good services Fig 4.2 Factors necessary to achieve good service
Standards Regular audits
Good supervisio n

Incentives & rewards


Internal system

Good employees Meeting customer needs and wants


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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.3 Service personnel Employees play major part in the service experience. The level of service that customer receive will ultimately depend on server's technical skills, personality, experience and the team within which they work. Qualities of a good food and beverage server are: Good product knowledge Punctuality Excellent presentation Friendly and outgoing personality Positive attitude to customers Ability to work in a team Good memory Customer-oriented Honesty Professional conduct Sales-oriented Well organized Page 135

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.4 Presentation and personal hygiene One of the most important factor of food and hygiene service is the overall good presentation and high standards of hygiene of the service staff.

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.5 Service staff: presentation tips Positive image must be projected to the customer at all times and in doing so be aware with: Be clean and use deodorants (not strong smelling ones) Aftershaves and perfumes should not be overpowering Hands must be clean at all times with well trimmed nails Men should be clean shaven or with a well trimmed moustache or beard Woman should only wear light make up. If nail varnish is worn it should be clear Large earrings should not be worn Uniform should be clean, starched and well pressed at all times Breath should be fresh smelling Hair should be clean and well groomed. Long hair should be tied back and neat Shoes should be comfortable, safe and well polished Any cuts and burns should be covered with a waterproof dressing Any colds or other possible infections should be reported to the supervisor promptly Hands should be washed with hot water and antibacterial soap immediately after visiting the toilet, smoking, dealing with refuse or eating Staff should avoid touching their face and hair while on duty Jewellery should be kept to a minimum Page 137

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.6 Structure The structure and organization of service personnel vary in each organization. Factors that effect the organizational structure include: Labour budget Size of operation Quality of operation Service methods used Type of cuisine offered Type of customers Menu type Technology available Availability of skilled labour

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Introduction to service

1.7 Traditional service organization

A traditional, formal service structure within a restaurant is dependent on discipline and tradition, with all employees having particular role and responsibilities. Its top-down approach achieves high standards and customer satisfaction. Individuals are trained from the bottom-up learning the skills of their supervisor before progressing. It is normally found in a fine dining type of food and beverage operation, and is illustrated below.

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Introduction to service

Fig 4.3 Traditional fine dining restaurant structure
Restaurant Manager Headwaiter (Assistant Restaurant Manager)

Station Headwaiter

Station Headwaiter (Section supervisor)


Chef de Rang (Station Waiter)

Chef de Rang (Station Waiter)

Demi Chef de Rang (Assistant to station Waiter) Commis de Rang (Trainee)

Demi Chef de Rang (Assistant to station Waiter)

Commis de Rang (Trainee)
Page 140 Page 141 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Fig Host/ess Cashier Bar .3 Organization chart for a typical small casual restaurant Restaurant Manager Assistant Restaurant Manager Supervisors / Captains Waiter/ess Sommelier Bus Persons www.cthresources.

com Page 142 www.cthresources. www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service The following is a typical job description for a restaurant .

com . • Checking reservations and bookings. •Maximizing sales. •Guiding and motivating employees. • Checking lay out of service area or restaurant.cthresources. • Checking customer satisfaction during service. • Maintaining a safe. Position Restaurant or Catering Supervisor Responsibilities • Checking mise en place and preparation. log book. • Assigning table sections to service staff before shift. •Maintaining service standards. • Performing any duty paperwork such as POS reports. www. • Assisting the team where necessary during Page 143 www.cthawards. •Welcoming and looking after customer during their visit. • Communicating with kitchen and other support departments.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service The key responsibilities for each of the different types of service staff are detailed in the following table. •Dealing with any problems or emergencies promptly and efficiently. comfortable and pleasant atmosphere for customers and employees.

• Cashiering as . • On arrival collecting and safeguarding customers’ belongings such as jackets. hats and umbrellas.cthawards. www. • Assisting service personnel if required. • Welcoming and escorting customers to tables on arrival. • Checking satisfaction throughout the meal.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Position Host/ess Responsibilities • Answering the telephone and dealing with enquiries. • Thanking customers and bidding Page 144 www. • Collecting and updating customer information records. • Managing arrivals and staggering service. • Collecting customer feedback.cthresources. • Returning customers’ belongings on departure. • Providing general information. • Taking reservations. • Informing customers of any forthcoming promotions.

cthawards. • Communicating with bar. • Reporting any faults. • Reporting any customer . • Checking satisfaction throughout meal. • Recommending wine and beverages. • Taking customers’ orders. • Maintenance of wine www. • Using point of sales to order food and beverage. • Removing empty covers and maintaining customer tables.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Position Waite/ess Responsibilities Sommelier (wine waiter) • General cleaning of service area.cthresources. Page 145 www. • Completing mise en place. • Creating wine lists. • Working in a team. • Up-selling. • Collecting and serving food and beverages. • Serving wine and beverages. kitchen and stewarding. • Informing customers about food and beverage products.

• Refilling service areas during service with clean . www. • Taking service ware from service area to dish-wash. • Cleaning the still room.cthawards. • Taking food from kitchen to service Page 146 www.cthresources. • Run orders to the kitchen.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Introduction to service Position Bus Person Responsibilities • Mise en place duties. cuties and mise en place. • Taking laundry to the linen room.

com .1 Different service types Page 147 www.cthresources.4 Evaluation of different service methods www.cthawards.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2. Service methods and description 2.2 Evaluation of different service methods 2.3 A guide for staffing ratios for different service methods 2.

com Page 148 . The type of food and beverage method adopted on several factors which included the:- ● Size of operation ● Objectives of the operation ● Quality of the operation ● Nature of the menu ● Quantity of customers ● Budget of the operation ● Budget of the customers ● Customer needs ● Availability of resources www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Service methods vary from operation to operation.cthresources.

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions They also differ in relation to the required:- ● Quantity of personnel ● Skill level of personnel ● Level of interaction with the customer ● Level of dependency on either the service or food production ● Level of involvement by the customer Page 149 www.

It may also be used for functions. pays and receives the food and beverages.cthresources. (at a counter. at a bar in licensed premises. The customer is required to help them selves from a buffet or counter. including plated service and silver serving.cthawards.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2. cafes and in banqueting. It can be found in cafeterias and canteens. lounge and room service. Self-service Assisted service Single point service Specialized service www. in a fast food operation or at a vending machine) The food and drink is taken to where the customer is. The customer orders. This includes tray service in hospitals and aircraft.1 Different service types Table service The customer is served at a laid . trolley service. This is found in many types of Page 150 www. It's found in "carvery" type operations and is often used for meals such as breakfast in hotels. The customer is served part of the meal at the table and is required to obtain part through self-service from some form of a display or buffet. home delivery.

com .2 Evaluation of different service methods Method Plate service Description Food is prepared.cthawards. Large quantities of food then placed in containers and served from a table in the restaurant.cthresources. Uses : Conference & Banqueting Opportunities Challenges • Presentation • Quality • Portion control • Can serve large quantities of people • Customers have choice • Customers are part of the process • Fewer staff required • Service staff require less skills • Few customer complaints due to their decision-making • • Need high quantity and highly skilled chefs Customers sometimes have to wait for food delivery Buffet service • Queuing •‘All you can eat’ image • Food presentation can be affected •Food can run out • Food quality can be affected due to temperature and mixing of service cutlery • Foreign bodies in food www. placed on individual plates and delivered to the Page 151 www. Customers either help themselves or are assisted by either chefs or service staff. Uses : Hotel & Independent Restaurants Food is prepared in advance.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.

Server then transports to restaurant & it is placed in the centre of . conference & banqueting. interruptive & sometimes dangerous • Old fashioned www. Server transfers food using a large spoon and fork on to the customers plate from the silver platter. Server collects platter using a waiter’s cloth & goes to restaurant. Uses : Chinese & Middle Eastern cultures Food is prepared/cooked. • Less demands on kitchen • Visual for customers • Customers are in control of quantity and selection • Does not demand high skilled service staff • Highly convenient for customers • Food temperature can change • Food distribution can be inconsistent Silver / Russian service • Highly personalized service • Reduces pressure on kitchen • Require very highly skilled service staff • High labour cost •Kitchen loses control in relation to plate presentation • For customers service can be slow. Uses : Some fine dining.cthresources. Customers then help themselves by serving the food from the bowls onto their empty Page 152 www.cthawards. placed on hot silver platters/containers.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Family / English service Food is prepared & placed in bowls/dishes.

Server puts food on a portable trolley & transfer into front of house area. The trolley is placed next to the customer’s table and the waiter prepares/cooks the food in front of the customer. www.cthresources.cthawards. Then puts the food onto a plate & it is placed in front of the customer. Uses : Fine dining restaurant • Highly personalized service • Visual and aromatic • Waiter becomes the chef and artist • Entertainment for the customer • Customer feels more involved in the process • High labour cost • Not suitable with large Page 153 .Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Gueridon or flambe service Food is prepped but not cooked. .cthresources.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2.3 A guideline for staffing ratios for different service method Service method Guerdion Silver service Plated service Family service Buffet service Ratio 1 waiter : 10 guests 1 waiter : 20 guests 1 waiter : 30 guests 1 waiter : 40 guests 1 waiter : 50+ guests Page 154 www.

cthawards. Uses : Sea catering and work cafeterias Opportunities Challenges • Convenient for customer as has complete meal • Food temperature can change during transport Cafeteria service • Customers do the work • Promotes other food and beverage items • Customers have to queue www.4 Evaluation of different service methods Method Tray service Description Food is prepared & placed on plates/containers and put on trays. Food is transported for customers.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2. Collect food on tray & pay at Page 155 . Uses : Room service/ airline catering Guests move along a counter & make their selection. some prepared to order. Some foods are plated. All eating utensils & accompaniments are also placed on tray. Page 156 www. Customers input money/card to vending . Uses : Employee cafeteria. The food is then prepared & customer collects it and pays for food a few minutes later from a window. Depending on type of machine customer either consume immediately or need to heat up in microwave. budget hotels. While in the car customer order through a tannoy system. Customer make request & collect food from dispatched area.cthresources. non-commercial catering establishments • Highly convenient for customers as do not have to leave their car • Customers occupies no table space leaving more room for other customers • Food quality can deteriorate Vending • Available 24 hours • High control as prepayment is required before purchase • Management data available on consumption preferences • No staff required • Low cost • Less wastage • Machine can malfunction • Impersonal • Limited choice • Electricity • Ongoing maintenance • Vandalism www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Drive-thru Used most in fast food chains (McDonalds). Customer then drives off with food.

kitchen packs food & it’s delivered to customer at destination on transport.cthresources. Uses : Conference and banquet events. Used mostly when customers are standing & no seating is available.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions 2. Operators takes the order & passes it to . Uses : Fast food chain & ethnic restaurants • Can cater to large numbers • Difficult for employees to move around between customers at times Home delivery • Extends business • Frees-up seat capacity • Transport can be unpredictable and delays in delivery due to traffic • Food temperature and presentation can deteriorate during transport • Can deter people from visiting the food & beverage facility directly Page 157 www. predinner events. Food is ordered through telephone to food service organization.4 Evaluation of different service method Cocktail Hot & cold food snacks are placed on large platter. Waiters collect them and offer customers. On completion.

customer pays for food in a takeaway container/ .com Page 158 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service methods and descriptions Take away Customer visit or telephones food & beverages operation and selects food over an order counter. Uses : Fast food chain & ethnic restaurants.cthresources.cthawards. Food is prepared and packed. • Extends business • Frees up seat capacity • Brand extension through packaging • Sometimes cheaper for customers • Litter www.

Service 3.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter 3. The service encounter 1. Post service Page 159 www.cthawards. Pre service 2.

Examples of mise en place for a formal restaurant are:● Polishing cutlery and crockery ● Polishing glasses ● Setting table covers ● Preparing the sideboard or station ● Preparing and cutting butters ● Preparing accompaniments ● Preparing ice buckets and stands ● Filling water jugs ● Lining trays ● General cleaning of furniture ● Vacuuming www.1 Preparation for service (pre-service) Mise en place Is the preparation in readiness for the start of Page 160 .cthawards. There are different types and quantities of mise en place required for different types of food service operation.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter 3.

To achieve a good standard of cleaning clear standards and schedules need to be implemented and monitored.cthresources.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Cleaning Cleaning and hygiene within the food service area is of utmost importance for customers and Page 161 www. Following will give an example of a Monthly Move sideboards Move sofas and vacuum De-scale coffee urns . weekly & monthly cleaning tasks:Daily Polish ice buckets Clean service trays Clean buffets Vacuum after each service Brush chairs down Weekly Clean sideboard throughout Clean windows and polish shelves Clean menus Polish fixtures Wipe chair and tables Polish lamps and lights www.

Clean all over tops. or furniture polish unless told to do so. so staff are fully aware of their responsibilities. slightly damp cloth followed by a dry cloth. Put all objects back onto small table Check positioning www. glass cleaner.cthresources. clean cloth . If you use a chemical or Page 162 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter A standard needs to be created to maintain quality and achieve consistency. together with a weekly cleaning roster. wipe the surface with a soft. A example is : Standard Steps Remove all objects on small table Dust the table Dust with clean. Apply about one cap of polish per small table. How to clean a table Methods Health & safety tips Place objects in a safe place away from where people can trip Do not use a chemical cleaner. Dust natural finished wood surfaces with only a dry cloth unless otherwise instructed.cthawards. brass polish or cleaner. legs and underneath.

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter The following table gives an example weekly cleaning roster:- Cleaning roster Clean sideboard throughout Clean windows and sills Wipe menus Polish tixtures Wipe chair and table legs Polish lamps and lights De-scale coffee urns Mon Peter Tue Wed Thursday Fri Sat Sun Julia Fred John Roelf Suzy Amira Page 163 .cthresources.

balsamic vinegar or mayonnaise Croutons Parmesan cheese Lemon wedges Tabasco sauce Tartar sauce Apple sauce Mint sauce or jelly English mustard Page 164 Dish or menu item Fresh salad Soups and some salads Minestrone soup and pasta dishes Fish dishes Oysters Fried fish Roast pork.cthresources. vinaigrette. Italian dressing.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Accompaniments Examples of accompaniments follow:- Accomplishment Oil and vinegar. thousand . duck or goose Roast lamb Roast beef www. Page 165 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Accompaniments continued … Cranberry sauce Horseradish sauce Worcestershire sauce Tomato ketchup Chutney Soy sauce Roast turkey Roast beef Irish stew Grills Curries Chinese and some Asian dishes .

staff will in most cases set-up the tables with a all the equipment required for customers to consume their meal before .com Page 166 www. The supervisor or manager will check the setting to ensure that they are correct.cthawards. well placed. clean and complete. A la carte place setting Napkin Fish knife Fish fork Side plate Side knife Water glass Wine glass www.cthresources.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Table set-ups or covers If the food service operation is not a buffet or cafeteria-style of restaurant.

com Page 167 www. Table d’hote place setting Side plate Fish knife Joint fork Sweet fork Side knife Water glass Joint knife Soup spoon Fish fork Sweet spoon Napkin Wine glass www. For .cthawards. 2. 3. Remove the fish knife and fork. Place a joint fork on the left-hand side of the cover.cthresources. place a steak knife and soup spoon on the right-hand side of the cover. A soup 1.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Table set-ups or covers continued… With an d la crate setting different cutlery are placed depending on what the customer has ordered.

Raffles Seafood Restaurant.cthawards. Peter speaking. ‘Good .Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Reservation When taking a restaurant reservation: ● Greet the caller.cthresources. how I may help you?’ ● Take the name of the customer ● Confirm the date of reservation ● Confirm the time of arrival ● Confirm the number of people in the party ● Ask if there are any special requests ● Take a contact telephone number www. for Page 168 www.

com .com Page 169 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Serving briefing Examples of information : ● Previous day’s errors and good points ● Inspect of uniforms and presentation ● allocation of section for the shift ( who is responsible for which tables or sections) ● Any guest reservations and specific needs ● Sales targets to meet for that particular service ● Dishes to promote or up-sell-sales goals ● Any information passed down from management www.cthawards.cthresources.

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery The service encounter Essential items for food service personnel Front of house food service personnel should be equipped with the following personal items: ● Waiter’s friend or wine opener ● Pen lighter ● Small notebook ● Service cloth Page 170 .cthresources.cthawards.

Service Page 171 www.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.cthresources.1 Standard of performance 4.3 Effective communication .5 Electronic points of sales (POS) www.2 Food and beverage service basics 4.4 Selling 4.cthawards.

These steps are normally referred to as the 'order of service' and detail the tasks to be followed from the time the customer arrives to his or her departure. establishments set-up procedures for servers to follow. .Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service To ensure consistency in the delivery of Page 172 www.cthresources.cthawards.

Approach table Page 173 www. then the host last Collect menus one by one Repeat orders back to customers for confirmation Thank customer and inform them of time for first course to arrive Check if they need anything else Wish them a good evening 2.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.cthresources. ensuring they are clean Check the name of the host before approaching Approaching the host say ‘Excuse me Mr.cthawards. then men.1 Standard of performance Example for standard of performance: Steps 1. Prepare to approach customers How Gather waiter’s order pad and pen Check if any dishes are not available Familiarize yourself with any dishes of the day or specials Collect menus. Smith may I now take you order? Take orders by starting with women. Finish . Take orders 4.

com Page 174 .cthresources.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4.cthawards.2 Food and beverage service basics ● Be punctual ● Always smile ● Know the products that you are serving ● Try to accommodate the customer’s needs at all times ● Check if you’re not sure! ● Do not oversell to customers ● Try to use a tray when carrying food and beverages ● use the customer’s name at every opportunity ● Anticipate customer’s needs and wants ● Carryout your duties in an efficient manner ● Work harmoniously with your co-workers ● Report any customer complaints or concerns to your supervisor promptly ● Report any maintenance defects promptly ● Ask if you find you need help during your work shift ● Be flexible in your approach to work ● Communicate any delays to your customers ● Respect your supervisor and your co-workers www.

com Page 175 www. Try to match your voice volume to the person with whom you are speaking. Speaking too quietly can also make it difficult for customers to hear you properly. 3. Speed – try not to speak fast or too slow.3 effective communication 1.cthawards.cthresources. Volume – try not to speak too loudly as this is most annoying to customers. . 2. 4.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4. Clarity – try not to mumble your words. Tone of voice – try to raise and fall your voice as this is more pleasant than a dull constant monotone.

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service 4. ability and knowledge. Suggested selling techniques : ● Recommend aperitifs or drinks before the meal ● Provide the wine list ● Promote branded drinks where possible ● Recommend double measures if appropriate ● Recommend dishes that are popular ● Describe hoe the food looks on the plate ● Recommend appetizers where possible ● Recommend items ● Provide recommendations on what dishes go together well ● Recommend side dishes with main courses ● Present menu items on platters where possible such as steak or seafood ● Show dessert menu instead of just asking customers want a dessert ● Have a trolley to tempt people www. Effective selling techniques require Page 176 .4 Selling Is a critical part of any food service employee’s job.cthresources. Page 177 www.5 Electronic points of sales (POS) Many large food and beverage operations now feature some kind of POS system.Chapter 4 – Food service delivery Service . A large proportion of the food service employee’s job is operating these terminals.cthawards.

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery



Post service

Page 178

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery


Following the end of service the food and beverage employees carryout a variety of duties including:
Servers General cleaning Organizing of dirty laundry Restocking stations for next shift Creating requisitions for new stock Cashiering Updating customer history records Distributing tips or gratuities Printing reports and reconciling sales receipts Completing hand over log in log book Post-service debriefing


Post-service debriefing includes:

● Praise for what worked well ● Discussing areas to be improved ● Reading out completed customer questionnaires ●Shift sales totals performance Page 179

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery


Food Service

Service personnel

Introduction The importance of service

Service methods

Importance of personal presentation



Post- service

Different approaches

Organisational structure

Mise-en- place

Order of service


Staffing ration


Service basics


Point of sale

Page 180

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

Page 181

Chapter 5 – Beverages


In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Explain the critical factors and considerations when designing and organising a bar ● Discuss key bar personnel their responsibilities and organisation ● Identify the different types of beverages used in a bar, their uses, methods of production and service ● Understand the importance of control within bar and discuss a range of methods that can be implemented to maintain control

Page 182

Chapter 5 – Beverages

Introduction and overview

1. Introduction and overview 1.1Types of bar operations 1.2 Hotel bars 1.3 Bar personnel 1.4 The importance of sales

Page 183

Chapter 5 – Beverages

Introduction and overview

1.1 Types of bar operations

● Hotel bars ● Independently run bars ● Public house ● Bar chains ● Nightclub operations ● Wine bars ● Employee bars in the work place

Page 184

Mini bar • Mini bars are small self-service bars located in customer’s bedroom. www.cthresources.cthawards. Conference and Banquet bar • This bar is located within the conference and banquet area and is in most cases only in operation when event are taking place. The bar acts as a central dispense and serve beverages to service personnel who place order from different outlets.Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Page 185 www.2 Hotel bars Independent bar theme • A bar concept within a hotel. Open residents and non-residents Support/Adjacent bar • The bar supports a restaurant or dining facility where customers can have aperitifs and appetisers prior to using the restaurant and digestifs after Service/Dispense bar • This bar would be situated ‘back of house’ and is not visible to .

com Page 186 .Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1.3 Bar personnel Staffing within a bar depends on many factors . ● Quality standards ● Size of operation ● Turnover of operation ● Theme or concept ● Customer type ● Times of operation www.

1: A typical bar operation Head Barperson or Bar Manager Assistant Bar Manager Supervisors Bartender www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Floor Staff Page 187 www. . and the position provides many challenges to include: General ● Meeting goals and targets ● Achieving 100% customer satisfaction ● Attracting and retaining a skilled team ● Minimising wastage ● Maximising sales ● Maitaining standards Specific ● A competitive environment ● Adhering to the licensing laws ● Being constantly innovative ● Running promotions ● Minimising theft by employees ● Strict cash control monitoring ● Inventory management ● Dealing with intoxicated guests www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview The bar is managed by a senior staff member to oversee its Page 188 www.

cthresources. ● Bartenders ● Floor staff Their job roles and responsibilities: Bartenders Setting-up bar area for service (mise en place) Serving customers who visit the bar or sit at the bar Preparing and dispensing drinks to floor staff Controlling the beverages Keeping front and back bar areas clean and well presented www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Most hotels and bars organise their staffing Floor staff Setting-up floor area service (mise en place) Greeting customers who enter the bar Taking drinks and food to tale customers Serving drinks and food to table customers Clearing and resetting tables Page 189 . . spirits and cocktails Awareness of licensing laws relating to the service of alcoholic beverage service Ability to sell Understanding of the correct methods to store and control beverages To deal with difficult or intoxicated customers Knowledge of point of sale Page 190 www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview Personal and professional characteristics of good bar staff Personal Friendly Conversationist Well organised Creative Efficient-ability to multi-task Good memory of customers and their particular preferences Professional Good knowledge of production and service of wines.cthawards.

sports and quizzes ● Relationship marketing ● ‘Get to know your customer’ www.cthresources.4 The importance of sales Employee sales and sale activities are an integral part of any bar operations. Sales can be achieved through many different ways that include ● Employing sales-oriented individuals ● Training employees on how to sell and up-sell ● Encouraging suppliers to provide product knowledge training ● Creating sales incentives for employees ● Providing quality products that customer want ● Displaying eye-catching table ‘tent cards’ and promotional literature ● Discount techniques – ‘Happy Hour’ ● Product promotions ● Entertainment – live .com Page 191 www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Introduction and overview 1.

cthresources.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment 2.1 Questions and considerations in bar design 2. Bar design and equipment 2. glassware and consumables Page 192 www.2 Bar .

An airport bar has to emphasis speed and accessibility in its layout.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment The layout of a bar depends on the type of operation. Each type of operation presents its own limitations and Page 193 www. For . The layout of a restaurant bar will need to accommodate the storage requirements of wines and champagnes Kotschevar and Tanke (1996) www.cthresources. the poolside bar at a resort hotel will have a special refrigeration and sanitation concerns.cthawards.

cthresources. what products are we serving. employee service and storage? •Do we want to create a quite. customers can access products and services easily. flaring bartenders? •What products will be available? •How much do we want to achieve? Page 194 www. relaxing or intimate atmosphere? •Who will be the target consumers. conference delegates. goals and revenues? •To ensure that employees can serve efficiently.1 Questions and considerations in bar design Theme Allocation of space Atmosphere Type of customer •What will be the underpinning theme of the bar? Music. bar equipment) •How will entertain our customers. DJ. students. pinball machine. live music. dinner or all day? •How much do we have to spend on design? •Will we use stools. sports or cocktail bar? •How much space you will be required and allocated for •What skills will they need. booths or couches and what proportion of each? How is this linked to atmosphere. Employees Furnishing Equipment Entertainment Menus Financial targets and projections www. resident or non-residents? What will the business mix be? Operating times Budget Table and seating arrangements Traffic flow •Will it be open for lunch. business. Speakers. loud. colour and material •What equipment will we need to achieve our goals ( . minimise customer queuing.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment 2. jukebox. tables.cthawards. how many employees? •What quality. dance floor. Page 195 .Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Other factors to consider in bar design are ergonomics and sales. including: ● Sufficient space for customers to move and to get to the bar ● Comfortable furniture ● Good lighting to display products ● Equipment easily accessible for staff ● Sufficient amounts of equipment for staff to carry out other duties ● Server needs to be able to see customers ● Clear price lists www.

. This can be typically categorized into four main areas ● Fixed equipment ● Portable equipment ● Glassware ● Consumables www. glassware and consumables Most bars are divided and oraganised into two main areas.cthresources. Bars require different types of equipment for the employees to carry out their job functions efficiently.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment 2. the ‘front bar’ and the ‘back bar’.com Page 196 www. The front bar is the area that is not visible to the customer and is the main service point for the barman. The back bar is visible to the customer and is the main area for product displays and merchandising.cthawards.2 Bar .

com Chopping board A skip Ice tongs Juice press Coffee machine Optics Service trays Cigar lighter .com Cocktail shaker Wine coolers Strainers Broken glass box Cigar cutter Spirit measures Selection of glassware Drip trays Page 197 www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Examples of fixed equipment Refrigerators Sink and running water Point of sales terminal Shelving Ice machine Coffee machine Draught beer system mirrors Glass washing machine Bar lighting Post mix machine Blackboards and signage Examples of portable equipment Drinks liquidiser Ice buckets Cutting knives Dustbins Juice containers Water pitches Wine baskets Waiter’s friend www.cthresources.cthawards.

In addition. Important tips for employees when using glasses include: ● Pick up glasses from the base and place holding the stem ● Never touch the rim of a full glass ● Only carry a safe amount of glasses at any one time ● Try to use trays where possible in front of house areas ● Ensure you see the right type of glass for the beverage being served ● Ensure the glass is clean on the exterior and inside. to being used for the service of beverages the glassware can also add to the design and decoration of the Page 198 www. without any marks or stains ● Ensure the glass is in good condition and cannot cause any harm www.cthawards. colour. size and shape depending on the .Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Glassware Glassware can range in quality.cthresources. Page 199 www. Olives Tabasco sauce Angostura bitters Cream Lemons Cherries Worcestershire sauce Sugar cubes Coconut Oranges Limes Sugar Salt Cucumber . as listed below.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar design and equipment Examples of consumables Paper napkins Coasters Cleaning materials Table matches Swizz stick straws Cocktail sticks Drink umbrellas There are also a variety of food items that would be stocked in a bar as accompaniments to different beverages. Page 200 www.cthawards.2 Post-service – close of bar www. Beverage service 3.1 Pre-service duties – open bar .Chapter 5 – Beverages Beverage service 3.

lights. oranges) ● Polish any glassware and re-stock on shelves ● Prepare complimentary items (nuts/olives) ● Polish any silverware ● Check daily food specials ● Check handover log book www.cthawards. Page 201 . and air conditioning (HVAC)and music ● Clean and prepare tables with tent cards. bud vase and ashtrays ● Check tables and chairs are in correct position ● Stock sideboards ● Collect fresh linen from linen room ● Fill bar refrigerators (use first in.Chapter 5 – Beverages Beverage service 3. heating. first out method) ● Prepare garnishes (cut lemons.1Pre-services duties – open bar ● Collect requisition and beverages from stores ● Collect float and guest list ● On arriving at the bar turn on equipment.cthresources.

cthawards.cthresources.2 Post service – close of bar ● Cash-up and balance takings ● Clean bar area ● Complete beverage requisition ● Complete log book ● Lock refrigerators and secure bar ● Remove all garbage ● Deposit ditty laundry ● Turn off equipment Page 202 www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Beverage service .

3 Beers Page 203 www.1 Types of soft drink 4.cthawards.5 Liqueurs 4. service and production 4.7 Wines 4. Types of beverage.2 Coffee preparation methods 4.6 Cocktails 4.4 Spirits 4. service and production 4.8 Service of Wine .cthresources.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage.

cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of Page 204 www.5: Classification of beverages Soft drinks Wines Beers Beverage s Cocktails Spirits Liqueurs . service and production Figure 5.

tomato and vegetable Page 205 www. soda. lager and lime Served hot and can be accompanied with any of the following – hot water. Oolong. serve chilled. tango. ginger ale. service and production 4. sweetener or lemon slices Teas English breakfast. Green. Darjeeling. sugar.cthresources. sprite.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage.1 Types of soft drinks Examples Mineral water Mixers or sodas Juices Syrups and cordials Still (eg Evian) Sparkling (eg Perrier) Coke.cthawards. Fruit and Herbal www. with or without ice Normally served diluted or as a dash in other beverages. apple. Earl Grey. ice only on request Can be served on their own or as a mixer with another drink. tonic. Lap sang Souchong. cranberry. tonic Orange. Iced. diet coke. . mango. with slice of lemon . lime and orange cordial service Serve chilled. tall glass. For example. Ceylon. cold milk. ie gin and tonic Can be produced in-house or brought-in. bitter lemon.

with or without foam Chilled regular coffee.2 Coffee preparation methods Coffee type Filter cafetiere Espresso Americano Cappuccino Café latte Ice coffee Turkish/Egyptian Decaffeinated Instant coffee Explanation Traditional method of making coffee. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream Popular method of making and saving fresh coffee in individual or multi-portion .cthawards.cthresources. often finished with sprinkling of chocolate Shot of espresso plus hot milk. sometimes served with milk or simply single espresso topped up with iced cold milk Intense form of coffee made in special jugs with finely ground coffee Coffee with caffeine removed Coffee made from processed powder (often freeze dried) Source: lillicrap & Cousins (2006) www. service and production 4.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of Page 206 www. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream Traditional short storing black coffee Espresso with added hot water to create regular black coffee Espresso coffee topped with steamed frothed milk.

service and production Page 207 www.6: Draught beer system Source: www. Figure 5. A ‘draught beer dispensing system’ can be seen in many bars.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage.cthawards.3 Beers Most bars stock a good selection of local and international . cans or bottles. which are served in a selection of ways to include kegs (draught).kegworks.cthresources.

com .com Page 208 www. service and production Opportunities and challenges of stocking draught beer: Opportunities Serves large quantities of people Doesn’t requires as much strong as other methods No bottles or left over storage containers Environmentally friendly Fresh Customers feel that they are getting value for money Good taste Challenges Development of cellar system Spillage and spoilage Difficult to accurately account consumption Requires regular sanitation and maintenance Not all brands distribute their beer as draught Investment in training and monitoring Heavy Pilferage can be easy (hard to trace) Short shelf life www.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage.

drier in taste than ales Top fermented yeasts.39-45ºF Ales Dark beers or stout Non/low alcoholic English bitters. Bud light 8-12ºC. Tsingtao Characteristics Made from cold fermented yeast. service and production Beer classification Example lagers Carlsberg. 45-54ºF 5-8ºC Chilled 7ºC. carbonated. stronger than lagers Bitter in taste. normally light or pale in colour.7 ABV or less Service Serve chilled 4-7ºC. made from barley. . malt and hops 4. San Miguel.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of Page 209 www. Fosters. 39-45ºF www.cthawards. pales Guinness Barbican. Heineken.

serve neat or mixed Serve chilled. distilled from fermented grain.cthawards. molasses. Can be white. 37-43% ABV Clear grain spirit produced from juniper berries Made from agave . 35-60% ABV Distilled and produced from fermented sugar (molasses) and water. area of production. water and yeast Service Very chilled (Store in freezer before service). Origin Vodka Rum Eastern Europe Caribbean Characteristics Clear. potatoes. neat or mixed Serve on its own with lemon and salt or in cocktails Neat or mixed with a mineral or still water whisky Whisky (Ireland) Whisky (Scotland) www.4 Spirits Most spirits feature product variations that differ in taste. packaging and quality. service and production 4. golden or dark in coloure. neat or mixed Gin Tequila England Mexico Serve chilled.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage. beets. alcoholic volume. 38-40ABVProduced from barley. Coloure ranges from clear to Page 210 www.

cthresources. in cocktails and as accompaniments in specialty coffees. spices and spirits.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage. origin and flavour. They have long shelf lives www. These compounded spirits vary in . They are versatile in their uses and can be served on their own. They are colorful in appearance and contribute towards the atmosphere to the back bar.cthawards. Production methods can include the use of fruits.5 Liqueurs The range of liqueurs available on the market is Page 211 www. service and production 4.

Jamaica Ireland France France France Denmark .cthawards. India.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage. service and production The following table provides information on some common liquers: Liqueur Advocaat Anisette Amaretto Archers Arrack Bailey’s Irish Cream Benedictine Calvados Chartreuse Cherry brandy www. Italy.cthresources. Spain. Sri Lanka. Holland Italy UK Country of origin Holland Colour yellow clear Golden Clear Clear coffee Yellow/green Amber Green (45% ABV) Yellow (55% ABV) Deep red Flavour/Spirit base Egg/sugar/brandy Aniseed/neutral spirit Almonds Peaches/Schnapps Herbs/Sap of palm trees Honey/chocolate/cream/w hisky Herbs/brandy Francappel/brandy Herbs/ palnts/brandy Cherry/brandy Page 212 www.

service and production Liqueur Cointreau Crème de cacao Drambuie Galliano Grand marnier kirsch Kahlua Malibu Sambuca Southern comfort Tia Maria Coloure Clear Dark brown Golden Golden Amber Clear Pale chocolate Clear Clear Golden brown Flavour/Spirit base Orange/brandy Chocolate/vanilla/rum Heather/honey/herbs/whisky Herbs/berries/flowers/roots Orange/brandy Cherry/neutral spirit Coffee/rum Coconut/white rum Liquorice/neutral spirit Peaches/oranges/whiskey Coffee/rum Country of origin France France Scotland Italy France Alsace Mexico Caribbean Italy United states Jamaica Lillicrap & Cousins (2006) www.Chapter 5 –Beverages Types of Page 213 .cthresources.

The reason for this is that to promote cocktails. In situations where other more obscure cocktails are requested the bartender can ask customer for information and attempt to create the . It is for this reason that most hotels tend to train their bar staff to have knowledge in the preparation of the ‘main cocktails’ that are normally requested. service and production 4. There are hundreds of cocktail receipts and for most establishment to serve all of these would be unrealistic. accompaniments and time. Restaurant such as TGI Fridays have a full and extensive cocktail list and use this as one of their unique selling points to differentiate themselves from their competitors and attract Page 214 www.6 Cocktails The availability in cocktail in bars varies from full cocktail to none.cthresources. special equipment. glassware. establishments need to invest in training an extensive range of beverages.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage.cthawards. Cocktails can be classified into the ways they are made which include: ● Shaken ● Stirred ● Blended ● Build ● Mixed ● layered www.

7 Wines Wines are classifieds as: ● Red wine ● White wine ● Sparkling wine ● Dessert wine ● Fortified wine The main wine producing regions are: ● Europe – Italy. Germany and Spain ● Australia ● South Africa ● South America ● North America www.cthresources.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of Page 215 www.cthawards. France. service and production .

pineapple. spice Lillicrap & Cousins (2006) www. fresh. peaches. tropical fruits Cabernet Sauvignon Nebbiolo Merlot Red grapes Blackcurrants Roses. blackcurrants Muscat Riesling Sauvignon blanc Pinot Noir Syrah/Shiraz zinfandel Strawberries. . damson. sloes Plum.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage. nutty Apples Rose Page 216 www. blackberries Blackberries. tropical fruits Grapes/ rasins Apricots. peaches. bramble. tropical fruits. grapefruit. Prunes.cthawards. lime. black cherry. blackcurrants. service and production Different grape varieties used in wine production White grapes Chardonnay Chenin Blanc Gewurztraminer Ripe melon.cthresources. stony Gooseberries. plums Raspberries. Storing wines in wooded (typically oak) or stainless steel barrels before bottling The fragrance of a young . and sometimes flavored with herbs and spices Wine from the Bordeaux region of France Wine from the Burgundy region of France A generic name for a Red Bordeaux wine Sweet wines suitable for drinking with or after dessert Wine containing carbon dioxide. which produce bubbles when the wine is poured Page 217 www.cthawards.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage. usually fruity or flowery The complex smell of mature wine The feel and weight of a wine in the mouth Not sweet The year a wine’s grapes were harvested and wine making begun Wine and spirits. service and production Wine terminology Ageing Aroma Bouquet Body Dry Vintage Aperitif wine Bordeaux Burgundy Claret Dessert wine Sparkling Wine www.

service and production 4. ● Creates wine lists with the manager ● Meets with wine suppliers ● Organises wine training ● Maintains wine stocks ● Takes customers wine orders ● Recommends wines (wine with foods) ● Serves wines ● Manages the wine cellar ● Develops wine promotions Page 218 www.cthresources.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage.8 Service of wine Some hotels of a high standard would employ a Sommelier to assist the selection and stocking of wines. A wine sommelier.

3. service and production Page 219 www. serve other guests before topping up the host’s glass Replace back in ice bucket and top-up glasses when required www. 8. . 7. 11. 2.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of beverage. serve other guests before topping up the host’s glass Replace back in ice bucket and top-up glasses when required Red wine1 Collect wine from rack or cellar Check label that is the correct wine Place in wicker basket and collect side plate and waiter’s cloth Place on stand next to host’s table Using a waiter’s cloth present the bottle (label facing) for the host to check Place bottle back in ice bucket and using a ‘waiter’s friend’ remove outer foil Using waiter’s cloth remove any debris or mould from on top of cork Using waiter's friend slowly remove cork and place on table in front of host Using cloth wipe around the inside of the bottle neck Offer the host a small taste If satisfactory.cthresources.1 Wine serving procedure Steps 1. 9. 12 White wine Collect wine from refrigerator Check label that it is the correct wine Place in ice bucket and half fill with ice and water Place on stand and take next to host’s table Using a waiter’s cloth present the bottle (label facing) for the host to check Place bottle back in ice bucket and using a ‘waiter’s friend’ remove outer foil Using waiter’s cloth remove any debris or mould from on top of cork Using waiter's friend slowly remove cork and place on table in front of host Using cloth wipe around the inside of the bottle neck Offer the host a small taste If satisfactory. 6.cthawards. 4. 5.

com .Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of Page 220 www.cthresources. service and production Wine serving temperatures Degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) White and rose Sparkling wines Red wines 44-45 45 60-65 Degrees Centigrade (ºC) 7-13 7 16-19 www.

Merlot Chardonnay. Pinot Blanc Pinot Noir. Sauvignon Blanc. Merlot Chardonnay. Cabernet . Gewurtztraminer Adapted from Kotschevar and Tanke (1996) www.Chapter 5 – Beverages Types of Page 221 www. Riesling. Zinfandel. Sauvignon Blanc Cabernet Sauvignon. Food Cheese Caviar Soup Roast Chicken Duck Fish Prime rib (steak) Shellfish Wine type Cabernet Sauvignon. Pinot Noir Champagne A light styled white or red Chardonnay. service and production Food servers can assist customers by providing recommendations of wines and how they match best with particular menu items.

cthresources. Bar Control Page 222 www.1 The importance of bar control 5.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5.2 Control tools .cthawards.3 Cost considerations in bar management www. .Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5.cthawards.1 The importance of bar control ● Many beverages are perishable ● Many beverages are expensive ● Beverages are attractive to employees ● Bars tend to receive lots of ‘cash’ payments ● Bar work is not normally highly paid so cash cam prove to be a temptation to employees ● Bar work can attract seasonal and unskilled individuals ● Bar stock is difficult to control due to the many variations and combinations of beverages ● Over consumption by customers can lead to problems Page 223 www.

Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control . not just when problems occur ● Set up regular mystery guest visits ● Install a POS to assist with billing and control ● Carry out daily stock-takes with random beverages ● Create standards of performance for all drinks ● Empty bottles to be exchanged for full bottles ● No friends or family of employees in bar except without prior approval from manager ● Only supervisor permitted to carry out voids ● Do not allow junior staff to use “No Sale” key ● All mistake beverages or dropped bottles to be recorded and kept for inspection ● No cash on duty policy for employees ● No employee bags to be brought into bar area www.cthresources.2 Control tools ● Carryout thorough character and reference checks on new employees ● Install Close Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) and check tapes Page 224 www.

● Tips jar to be lockable ● Managers to change cash drawers regularly throughout the shift ● No drinks to leave the bar without written or electronic order ● No employees to bring empty bottles into bar ● No consumption of alcohol on duty by employees ● Employee cashing-up should not carry out X reading ● All customers consuming to have running bill ● Any entertainment to be pre-approved by manager ● Any ‘out of date’ stock to be kept for managers' approval ● Supervise and manage ‘under’ and ‘over’ pouring practices www.2 Control tools continued.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Page 225 .cthawards.

If these are not checked high cost will occur For example.cthresources. On receipt beverages should be checked for Page 226 www.cthawards. Ensure requisitioning is accurate and consistent-to and forms stores and departments To ensure end of month stock-takes are completed and ‘mid-month’ wherever possible Decrease profits Buy small and receive few discounts Accept all pries from suppliers and fail to bargaining Lapse controls on receiving beverage items. . quality. if champagne is stored too cold it will affect the quality Old stock must be used and issued first to make sure customers receive the most fresh items and to avoid items expiring Selling prices of beverages are set against product costs.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control 5. expiry and damage. Therefore.3 Cost considerations in bar management Increase profits Buy in bulk to receive better discounts Negotiate deals with supplier to receive product discounts Implementing strict controls on receiving and checking Select the most appropriate storage method to result in longer shelf life Implement ‘first In first out ‘ stock rotation system Be aware of product and seasonal price fluctuations in the market and adjust price accordingly Be aware of ‘slow moving items’ and ‘expiry items’ and implement selling strategies to avoid high wastage costs. if cost prices increase and adjustments to selling prices are not made a loss in profit will occur Beverage items that will expire and have expired cannot be sold Faulty and bad requisitioning practices will create irregularities in beverage stocks If no stock takes (or inventories) are made hotels or organisations cannot determine if beverage stock has go missing www.

bar checks. if a larger measure is given . different types of beer are different prices. therefore. random till checks. 100% loss If wrong or incorrect selling are Page 227 www. therefore. If no efforts made to increase stock turnover at all times expiry will occur To ensure that beverages are costed appropriately to reflect product cost and outlet’s sales goals To ensure the correct brands are sold on purchase To ensure ‘weights and measures’ and portions are correct and followed at all times To ensure that any wastage is recorded and accounted for To implement controls to ensure that theft is kept to a minimum To set sales incentives to move more beverage stock www. That the beverage has been served to the customer and no money has been received at all. etc.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Increase profits To ensure that all beverages sold in outlets are billed Decrease profits Beverages that are issued to the customers and no bill has been made can mean: 1.. the right profit will not be achieved For example. will be lost Broken bottles or faulty beverages must be accounted for and included in the stocktake reconciliation Checks on employee . security camera. If a guest wanted a Tsingtao and a Heineken was served by mistake and the customer was charged for Tsingtao a loss would be made All beverages are costed out per portion. That the customer has paid but the money has not gone in the till (has gone in the server’s pocket!) 2.cthresources.

com .com Page 228 www. a Spillage Report Form should be completed. explaining what happened. The bar shift manager should sign the form to show that he is aware of the spillage.cthawards.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Spillage report form If beverages are spilled.cthresources. An example of a spillage report form follows. www. Page 229 www. for example.cthawards.Chapter 5 – Beverages Bar control Standard recipe Standard recipes are used when mixing drinks to maintain consistency and quality. a standard recipe for a gin and tonic: Ingredient House gin Tonic Lime Swizzle stick Ice cube Quantity 1 Jigger 1 Small bottle Small Slices 1 3 pieces Method •Pour gin into a clean hi-ball glass over ice •Add tonic and mix with swizzle stick •Place swizzle stick inside drink and add slice of lime •Serve on tray with a coaster •Wish the customer an enjoyable drink . .com Page 230 www.cthawards.Chapter 5 – Beverages Summary Introduction Staffing Bar design and organisation Preparation for service Beverages Bar control Considerations Soft drinks Equipment and glassware Beer Spirits Liqueurs Cocktails Wins www.

com Page 231 www. 6. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting www.cthresources.cthawards. . 8. 3. 7.Chapters 1. 4. 5.

explain and critique the different types of menus found in operations ● Discuss the factors to be considered when creating menus ● Describe a range of tools for evaluating menus www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Explain the importance of the menu within an operation ● Page 3 .

production and service methods It drives your image .com . It is the ‘first impression’ of your establishment It communicates everything about your type of operation It dictates your staffing.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning The importance of the menu The menu is central to a food and beverage operation.chaletnarnia.cthawards. www. organisation.cthresources. quality and overall mission It is the main ‘sales tool’ for your product It differentiates you from your competition It can make or break you! www. Page 233 www.

cthawards.cthresources.1 Courses Page 234 www.4 Cyclical menus www.3 À la carte (ALC) menus 2.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2.2 Table d’hôte menu 2. Menu styles .

cheese www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2. some will have just one depending on their time. Page 235 www. meats. Characteristics Appetisers The first course The taster Smaller portion Can be hot or cold Normally savoury Follows the appetiser (not always) Larger portion size Savoury Can be hot or cold Must be expensive menu items Normally final course Can be small or large in size Sweet or savoury Can be served hot or cols Examples . cakes. budget or situation. gateaux.1 Courses Menus normally consists of three different sections. vegetarian. fish. salads. smaller variations of the main course dishes Main courses or entrée Grills.cthresources. fruit. large salads Desserts Ice creams. Some customers will have all three courses.

com .com Page 236 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles Other menus will offer more sections such as: Side orders Snacks or light meals Children’s meal Signature meals The variety of sections offered will depend on: The type of menu The type of theme or food The main menu formats found in commercial and non-commercial operations are: Table d’ hôte (TDH) À la carte (ALC) Cyclical menus www.cthresources.cthawards.

www. Easter.cthresources.cthawards. These menus would be normally run instead of the operation's full à la carte menu. 2 or 3 choices per course ● Are in most cases a set.2 Table d’ hôte menu A table d’ hôte is a 'set menu‘ which normally: ● Consists of three or more courses ● 1. Christmas) ● In Conference and Banqueting (choices will be limited depending on quantity of people) TDH menus are deal for catering to large numbers of people. all inclusive price TDH menus are mostly available: ● At lunchtimes ● For themed lunches and dinners (Valentines. They are sometimes used in restaurant operations during lunch and dinner service.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles Page 237 .

com Page 238 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles Table d’ hôte (TDH) menus: Opportunities for operation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Less costs overall. purchasing. Requires less chefs to be on duty as there is less food to prepare Can trial out new dishes before putting on full ALC menu Requires less skilled chefs as only a few dishes to concentrate on Requires less service staff due to simplicity Can incorporate slow moving or soon to expire food In some situations senior chef can implement TDH menus when there is a shortage of kitchen staff or skill Can used skilled chefs to perform other functions Challenges for operation Opportunities for customer ● Difficult to compete with ALC choice being provided by other establishments ● Food is served much faster as food is en place ● Easier and faster to select as there is less choice ● Appears good value as several courses for one set price ● Choice is limited Challenges for customer www. training and utilities Can run TDH menus during slow demand periods. preparation. .cthresources.

com Page 239 www.cthawards.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2.3 À la carte (ALC) menus À la carte (ALC) menus are found mostly in commercial food and beverage operations. These menus are characterised by: ● A large selection of options ● All menu items are individually priced ● Dishes are in most cases cooked to order ● Customers can consume several dishes depending on their situation .cthresources. .cthawards. storage.cthresources. wastage Greater customer expectations Challenges for operation Opportunities for customer Challenges for customer ● Lots of choice ● Select according to own particular dietary needs ● Higher quality ● Too much choice . labour.challenges and opportunities Opportunities for operation ● Attracts customers due to wide choice of dishes ● Able to showcase and promote culinary expertise ● Opportunities to increase sales ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Large quantity of dishes requires lots of purchasing. therefore . preparation and controlling High perishability – difficult to sell during slow demand periods Requires higher quantities of kitchen and service staff Demands higher skilled chefs due to more complexity More training for chefs and service personnel More things to manage therefore more opportunities for error More choice can results in longer wait times and reduction ins eat turnover Higher costs. utilities.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles ALC menus . can be more expensive Page 240 www. difficult to select ● Order to delivery times can be longer ● Running costs passed onto customer and.

Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu styles 2. Challenges and opportunities of a cyclical menu: Opportunities for operation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Less changes in the menu allows for easier planning Able to ensure menus are well balanced across the week Able to buy in bulk and achieve cheaper prices with supplier Employees become skilled and specialised in the production of particular dishes allowing for greater competency and efficiency Less training for employees Less errors Food can be prepared in advance and chilled Less skilled employees required Challenges for operation Opportunities for customer Challenges for customer www. The menus are pre-planned to meet the needs of the target consumers and are rotated ● Employees get bored due to lack of scope ● Customers get to look forward to particular menus on certain days ● Customers can get bored Page 241 www.4 Cyclical menus Most commonly found in non-commercial food operations such as schools.cthawards. hospitals and military . fortnightly or monthly.cthresources.

cthresources.10 Food 3.2 Trends 3.14 Nutritional balance 3.6 Menu cover 3.4 Operational and business considerations in menu planning www.3 Food needs 3.cthawards.7 Flexibility 3.8 Terminology 3.12 Textures 3.11 Colour balance 3.1 The consumers 3.5 Legislation in menu planning 3.13 Wording 3.16 Suppliers Page 242 www.15 Ingredient balance .Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3 Menu considerations 3.9 Layout and design 3.

cthawards.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Figure Page 243 www.3: Considerations in menu planning Priority Concern of Menu Planner Guests/ consumers Operation Food Likes & dislikes of target market Socio-economic factors Costs Consistency Availability of ingredients Portion size Ethnic factors Equipment needs Textures Demographic factors Skill requirements of chefs Size of restaurant (covers) Colour balance Religious considerations Nutritional balance Concept of value Service method – . buffet for example Aesthetic balance Food trends Storage facilities available Health & Safety legislation Provenance Environmental concerns Suppliers Competition Environmental legislation Design and flow of kitchen Menu cover & design www.

and in order to do so market research should be undertaken with your target group. such as nuts Food and beverage operators have an obligation to: ● Provide good quality ingredients ● Be truthful in what they advertise on their menus ● Inform customers promptly when items are not available www.cthresources.1 The consumers Attracting and retaining customers is .com Page 244 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3. The underpinning goal is to provide a menu that your consumers will want.cthawards. Consumers expect: ● To see a good variety of dishes on the menu ● To receive what is described on the menu ● To see descriptions accompany the main dish headings ● For the menu item to be available as advertised ● To be made aware of any specific ingredients that may cause an allergic reaction.

organic and produced without any artificial addictives. Consumers increasingly demand food that is healthy.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Page 245 www. Thailand and India.cthawards.2 Trends Vegetarianism Organic food Around 6% of the UK population is vegetarian. Exotic Healthier options Increasing obesity level are leading consumers to be more health conscious.cthresources. www. Consumers increasingly enjoy more exotic food from areas such as Japan. .

eggs. in the food production process the animal or poultry has to be slaughtered in a ritual way known as Zibah. www. legumes. poultry and fish. diary products and all other animal-derived ingredients. where food is supervised by a rabbi.3 Food needs Although there are basic needs and wants there are also customers with more specific requirements. or the laws of Kashrut. it has strict rules in the preparation and production stages. Halal Kosher Caters for members of the Muslim faith. Vegetarian Vegan Vegans do not eat meat.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.cthresources. Members of the Jewish faith would not consume items such as pork or seafood and would not mix diary and fruits. They eat beans. They eat primarily vegetables. vegetables and fruits. Vegetarians would not eat meat. Kosher food is food that meets Jewish dietary laws. grains. pulses and Page 246 . Similar to Halal.

cthawards. Cost considerations when planning and creating menus: ● The establishment’s target food cost ● The cost of ingredients ● Food seasonality ● The quantity of food used for each dish (portion) ● Food wastage during production ● Food production methods adopted www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Page 247 www. The food cost drives the pricing margins. preparation and production of the food items selected have to fit in with target costs to ensure margins are . The cost.4 Operational and business considerations in menu planning Costs Each establishment has a target food cost to be achieved.

however this can add value to the menu. depreciation.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Availability of ingredients: When compiling menus the chef need to take in to consideration the availability of ingredients in seasonality and suppliers.cthawards. Equipment needs: Some food such as fresh pasta and pizzas require special equipment if made in-house.cthresources. however as already stated seasonality is becoming a thing of the past with many foods being imported but at higher costs which impact the chef's budget. cleaning and control. Many establishments recognise that with equipment come Page 248 www. maintenance. www. training . If a dish is composed with a particular type of vegetable it should be checked that it is available all year . Food prices fluctuate in and out of seasons so it is imperative that food is used that is in season.

Similarly. If the menu is complex a full restaurant will require large amounts of staff and space to meet these needs. In this case. Size of food production and food service facilities: If the restaurant has a large seating capacity it is important to consider how the kitchen will operate when full. Storage is another consideration in relation to .Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Skill requirements of chefs: Chefs should be capable of serving the menu. the preparation should be carried out off-site and finished on site where possible.cthresources. www. but if the chefs do not have the skills to serve them complaints will be made. If a sophisticated menu is written it is all well and good. if food storage is limited menu items should be restricted to reduce storage requirements. Furthermore the employees will feel de-motivated and become dissatisfied when complaints arise.cthawards. Similarly. if the kitchen is small the space available for food preparation may be limited and so having dishes that require lots of preparation space may cause accidents and problems. If the menu is too complex it will slow up the service time when busy. Hence it is best to identify the right type of menu that can be provided. if a higher level of menu is required investment in new personnel or training should take Page 249 www. . variety. imperative that your menu is different and better than your competition. remember that they are probably visiting your establishment as well. ingredients used. evaluating your menu and repositioning theirs! www. plated and gueridon restaurant service methods will affect the type of food you serve. silver service. It is. Be sure to also carry out this analysis quarterly as competitors’ menus can change frequently. such as quality. presentation. Page 250 www. therefore.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Service method: Buffet.cthawards. If you differentiate your product you will increase your chances of attracting consumers. Competition: It is important to carry out regular competitor evaluations.cthresources. portion and service. price. Also. Consumers will select one competitor over another for different reasons.

com Page 251 www. Other words.5 Legislation in menu planning The Trade Descriptions Act 1968 is an Act of Parliament of the UK which prevents manufacturers. commonly used care needs to be taken with: ● Fresh salad ● Garden vegetables ● Homemade desserts Another important law is: ● The Sale of Goods Act 1979 ● The Food Standards Agency www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations .cthawards. retailers or service industry providers from misleading consumers as to what they are spending their money on.cthresources.

6 Menu cover Menu cover needs to: ● be attractive ● be eye catching ● set the scene ● communicate the theme ● be cleanable ● be replaceable www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Page 252 .

Change agent Ingredient prices change due to political and economic factors Food scares such as bird flu and mad cow disease Impact/ Action Menu prices need to be amended Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Create dishes Add to menu Advertise Menu changes Ingredients not available or too . restructuring – change in budget. staffing. remove form menu Items wanted due to social changes – red meat. theme Supplier problems www. healthier Page 253 www. Internal and external forces can affect the dishes that you offer. exotic food Internal. fat Items wanted due to social changes – organic. leadership.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.7 Flexibility Menus need to be flexible and adaptive.cthresources.

www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Page 254 www. Therefore. If customers do not understand the menu it may deter them from entering the restaurant/ In cases where more obscure terminology is used it is important to ensure that the service staff can explain meaning to customers. wherever possible. complex terminology should be .8 Terminology It is important to remember that your menu is an important communication tool.cthawards.cthresources.

e-mail and reservations number on the menu? ● Have we considered guests with particular disabilities. Questions that need to be asked when laying out a menu: ● Are all descriptions accurate? ● Is the font the correct size? ● Are my sections clear with the right food in each section ● Could I use different colours. bold or underline particular dishes to make them stand out? ● Have we communicated the brand well? ● Is the menu easy to clean? ● Do we have taxes and service charge information communicated well? ● Have we highlighted any potential allergies( eg:nuts)? ● Are my dishes easy to read? ● Have I fully utilised all the paper space well? ● If a menu item is not popular will it be easy to remove? ● Where will we store the menus ● Is the spelling and grammar correct? ● Do we need to consider getting menus translated into another language? ● Does the design fit ion with my target market? ● If prices change. can we amend the prices easily? ● Do we have the address.9 Layout and design Once decided on what dishes will be available the menu needs o be laid out correctly. blind.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.cthawards. there is a trend for electronic menus. visual impairment? Page 255 www. Nowadays.

standard recipes need to be created for each menu .cthresources. The standard consists of: ● Ingredients ● Weightings ● Preparation and cooking methods ● Serving temperatures ● Cooking times ● Equipment ● Health and safety ● Costings ● Photographs of final presentation Page 256 www.cthawards.10 Food Consistency: To enable consistency of dishes.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.

mixers. www. cooking trays. crockery and glassware.cthresources. sometimes items are portioned in units such as ten onion rings or five prawns. menu type and target food margin. In . The portion size is decided through consideration of the type of Page 257 www. Portion sizes are managed through using food production equipment such as ladles.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Portion size: Portion sizes are built into the standard recipe. time of day.cthawards. the customer type.

It is also important when creating a table d’hôte menu that colours are balanced between each course. www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations .11 Colour balance It is important to consider the colour combination of each dish. Customers should be able to ‘eat with their eyes’! If the colours on the plate are well balanced then it will be more appealing to the Page 258 www.cthresources.

hard. An example which features a variety of features: •a salad of grilled. sliced chicken •raw chopped carrot •crispy romaine Page 259 www.12 Textures Not only is colour a consideration in dishes but there is also a requirement for a range of . cutting and preparation techniques.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3. • braised beef • mashed potatoes • creamed carrots www. •bound with a creamy mayonnaise An example which does not feature a variety of features: •A main course of. Textures that are used include smooth. coarse and crunchy and can be created through using different cooking methods ingredients.cthresources.cthawards.

13 Wording The menu is a sales tool. Page 260 www.cthawards. it is therefore important to make your dishes sound exciting. Examples of words to encourage purchases: ● Tasty ● Chilled ● Juicy ● Traditional ● Fresh ● Authentic ● Homemade ● Crunchy ● Creamy .Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.cthresources. as the dish often cannot be seen before consumption it is key to fully explain and communicate the main features of the dish creating a visual picture in the mind of the potential consumer.

Trend: Some chained restaurants now inform customers of the calorific information for each dish. carbohydrates and vitamins. The different nutrients provide for the varying functions of the body and so it is important to offer a variety to meet the needs of different consumers and diets. www. with a balance throughout the menu of Page 261 .Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.14 Nutritional balance When compiling menus it is important to ensure that dishes are produced as nutritiously as possible.cthresources.cthawards.

15 Ingredient balance The overall menu and dishes should use a good variety of different ingredients to include: ● Vegetables ● Fruits ● Red meats ● White meats ● Fish ● Pulses ● Herbs ● Spices Page 262 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations 3.

Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu considerations Page 263 www. consistency of delivery and price? Is there a back-up supplier should there be any problems? .cthawards.16 Suppliers Your menu is as good as the quality of the ingredients used Are there suppliers that can deliver the menu items required? Are the suppliers able to consistently meet food specifications? Am I using the best supplier to provide food in relation to quality.cthresources.

7 Conference and Banqueting Page 264 www.cthresources.8 Room service department www.3 Executive lounge 4.2 Bar or lounge 4.1 Coffee shop 4.5 Leisure and recreational areas 4.6 Employee dining 4.4 Fine dining 4.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options . Menu options 4.

table d’hôte or a à la carte ● ● ● ● Provided separately in most cases Dishes smaller in portion. . salads and sandwiches In some cases: menus can double up as drawing or colouring menus to occupy children throughout the meal Brunch Lunch Children www. cheaper Consists of meals such as mini Page 265 www.cthresources.cthawards.1 Coffee shop Menu Breakfast ● Normally consists of hot (English or American) or cold (Continental) ● In large hotels: in most cases breakfast served in buffet style ● In addition an à la carte menu available for the guests who do not require the whole buffet ● Sometimes offered at weekends between 11 am to 2 pm ● Combination of breakfast and lunch food items ● Can be available as buffet or à la carte ● Depending on the operation ● Can be served in a variety of ways to include buffet.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.

com Page 266 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4. scones.1 Coffee shop Menu Dessert Afternoon tea Special or themed Beverages ● Can be either separate or part of the main menu ● Can also be promoted on . freshly cut sandwiches and a selection of hot teas ● Created for special promotions or calendar events (Valentines. ‘dessert trolleys’ and blackboards ● Normally available between 2 – 4 pm ● Menu offers sweets. Mother’s day) ● In most cases: set menus ● Drinks can be feature on the main à la carte menu as a separate menu www.cthresources.

wines. spirits. platters to share. liqueurs. Most bars provide Page 267 www. Depending on type of operation these can be advertised on separate menus if the bar has a particular focus.cthresources. Bar snacks .Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4. normally consisting of light snacks eaten to accompany the drinks being served.2 Bar or lounge Menu Drinks An extensive drinks menu featuring beers.cthawards. These can come in the form of finger food. sandwiches and salads. cocktails and soft beverages.

com Page 268 .cthresources. Complimentary soft drink throughout the day and complimentary beverages at a specified time in the evening.3 Executive lounge An executive lounge is an area within a luxury a hotel designated only for customers who stay in executive rooms.cthawards.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4. snacks and sandwiches throughout the day and complimentary hot canapés in the evening. Beverage www. Menu Food Executives can enjoy an a la carte breakfast menu.

Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options Page 269 www.4 Fine dining Menu A` la carte The menu provides a wide selection of dishes featuring the restaurant’s particular concept A menu offering an extensive range of . Some hotels feature a humidor with a selection of fine cigars A menu that offers coffee served with liqueurs Wine list Cigar Specialty coffee www.

com . waters and energy drinks. Page 270 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.cthresources.5 Leisure and recreational areas Hotels that provide leisure and recreational facilities may feature a menu to include fresh and vegetable juices.

Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4. When creating menus for employees the following should be considered.cthawards.cthresources. ● Demographic of workforce( Page 271 www. gender) ● Job roles(clerical or manual) ● HR budget for employee meals ● Numbers of employees on duty ● Hours of operation of each department ● Feeding night staff www.6 Employee dining Most hotels provide some type of catering for its .

com .com Page 272 www.cthresources. When catering for large numbers most departments feature a pre planned set of menus that vary to accommodate different budgets.7 Conference and Banqueting When catering for large numbers most departments is quite different from other departments with regard to its menu planning.cthawards. The advantages are ● Food can be bought in bulk and therefore cheaper prices achieved ● Frequently food in this department will be cook-chilled and not all food items are suitable for chilling ● It allows for specification ● It facilitates forecasting ● Menus can easily be sent out to customers by e-mail or mail www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4.

cthresources. Breakfast door menu Mini bar www.cthawards. On completion the customers hang them on their bedroom door knob and they are then collected by a room service employee. These menus are placed in customers’ rooms and are completed the night before by the guest.8 Room service department Menus A` la carte menu The main menu will be advertised either in the in-room directory of services or nowadays on the .com Page 273 www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu options 4. The mini bar menu is a priced list of all items on sale in the in-room mini bar.

Menu evaluation and performance 5.cthresources.1 Management information www.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu evaluation and performance .com Page 274 www.cthawards.

com .cthresources.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu evaluation and performance After menus have been created and implemented it is important to monitor them in relation to customer satisfaction and their financial Page 275 www. Customer satisfaction can be monitored through: Speaking to customers directly Questionnaires Mystery guest visits Observing customer plates – ‘garbage survey’ Sales per dish analysis Speaking to employees www.

1 Management information Menus can also be monitored by examining records from point of sales report. portion or selling price to achieve sales Position on menu for more visibility. Performance Stars Definition High profit High sales Dogs Low profit Low sales Workhorses Low profit High sales Puzzles High profit Low sales Action Keep on menu Remove from menu Amend ingredients. larger or more colourful font Page 276 www. The information is provided by: Sales per dish Profit per dish and can be listed by performance indicators as given in the following .Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Menu evaluation and performance 5.

cthresources.Chapter 6 – Menu Planning Summary The importance of the menu Menu style Menu consideration Menu options Menu evaluation Table d’hote Consumers Coffee shop A la carte The operation Bar and lounge Cyclical Food Executive lounge Briefings Fine Dining Leisure Employee Conference and banqueting Room Service Page 277 .cthawards. . Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting www. 3. 4.cthawards.cthresources.Chapters 1. 2. Page 278 www. 5. 6. Page 279 .Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● ● ● Explain the importance of quality to a food and beverage operation Discuss a range of methods operators can use to improve quality Evaluate a range of approaches to measure and maintain quality www.

Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.1 What is quality .cthresources.2 Importance of quality 1.3 Importance of customer satisfaction www. Introduction to quality Page 280 www.cthawards.

These may include Page 281 www.1 What is quality? It is difficult to accurately define quality. cost effectiveness and price. .cthresources.cthawards. delivery. ‘To consistently meet or exceed consumer expectations by providing products and services at prices that creates value for customers and profit for the company’.Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1. reliability. our expectations and our particular needs at that time. Woods & King (2002) ‘The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a stated or implied need’ British standards 4778 (1987) ‘Freedom from defects’ Kotler & Brown (2003) ‘Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations’. appearance. but in general quality perceptions is based on things such as our experiences. maintainability. www.

2 Importance of quality High quality Happy customers Retain customers Meet budget No discounts Employee gratuities and recognition Attract customers Positive image Growth Retain employees Market share Owners satisfied Good public relations Profit Competitive Open Low quality Unhappy customers Lose customers Under budget Discounts No gratuities and recognition Hard to attract customers Poor image Decline Lose employees Decrease market share Unsatisfied owners Bad public relations Loss Not competitive Close Wuest as cited kadampully et .com Page 282 www. (2001) notes ‘poor service leaves a guest unimpressed. discouraged and unsatisfied’ www.Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.

com Page 283 . with differing expectations People deliver service and people think differently Perception of quality are highly subjective Future cost of dissatisfied customers Bad news travels faster than good ones 100% staff/customer retention is unrealistic probably 80/85% is possibly achievable www.cthresources.cthawards.1 Quality challenges and issues in hospitality operations Fast production to sale cycle.Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.2.hard to check quality People factor.pressure to sell Complexity.hard to standardise Highly perishable product.multiple moments of truth Variety of stakeholders.

cthresources. 65% to 85% switchers are dissatisfied . 91% of customers who have an unresolved complaint will not return. A dissatisfied guest will tell ten other people about the Page 284 www.cthawards.Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Introduction to quality 1.3 Importance of customer satisfaction The cost of gaining a new customer is around six times the cost to retain an existing one. Rowe (1998) www. Only 4% of dissatisfied guests will complain.

Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.3 Expectations Page 285 www.6 Training 2.8 Quality schemes 2.cthresources.7 Quality sourcing . Quality tools 2.4 Standards of performance or ‘ standard operating procedures” 2.2 Effective market segmentation 2.4 2.cthawards.9 Service recovery and complaint handling www.1 Effective leadership 2.5 Effective human resource management 2.

Check the operation is physically capable of supporting the service specification at given volume of business 3.2: Integrated service quality management 1. 5. Check that the service systems and the staff are able to deliver to the customer the totality of the service specification (Including maintaining the desired service relationship) Monitor operational aspects Monitor customer satisfaction Feed back to original service specification and alter as appropriate 4. .cthresources. Page 286 www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7. Determine customer service specification in terms of: Level of service Availability of service standards Reliability of the service Flexibility of the service 2.

wants and expectations Quality schemes www.3: Standards for effective service quality Quality sourcing Effective human resource management Effective leadership and supervision Quality tools Quality feedback and monitoring systems Standards of performance (SOP’s) Effective market segmentation.cthawards.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools There are many actions that food and beverage operators can take to improve their service quality. Figure 7. meeting their Page 287 www.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools .com Page 288 www. introducing systems of service quality control with an ongoing. strong.cthresources. ‘A company must have leaders at the top who are totally committed quality service’ Woods & King (2002) Wuest as cited in kandampully et al. (2001) ‘management plays a vital role in the delivery of quality service’ www. It is their responsibility to ensure that quality is fabricated in to the entire organisation system. quality checking system to monitor and evaluate. This is achieved through researching the target market needs.1 Effective leadership To successfully achieve quality within an organisation it needs to be made clear and driven by the person at the top.cthawards.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Page 289 www. wants and expectations .com . To establish and maintain needs and wants the following steps are required. www. Research the target markets needs and wants Create the standard to meet needs and wants Implement the standard Supervise and maintain the standard Evaluate and adjust the standard.2 Effective market segmentation Its an important part of quality to consistently satisfy customer needs.cthawards.

cthawards.4 The market mixes link to quality The Marketing Mix Product Customer needs and wants Price Cost to satisfy Place Convenience to buy Promotion Source: Communication .com Page 290 www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7.

Expectations vary in relation to the type of the customer and situation.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.cthresources.cthawards. Figure Page 291 www. This ensure that you also meet what your customers expect to receive from their visits.3 Expectations Linked into needs and wants are expectations.5 gap analysis model – customers’ expectations Customer expectation Expectations exceeded Service delivery Customer expectation Expectations exceeded Service delivery Customer expectation Service performance gap Expectations exceeded Service delivery .

cthawards.4 Standards of performance or ‘ standard operating procedures’ ( SOPs) ‘Standards of Performance help with consistency because they detail exactly what must be done and how it should be done’ Ninemieir ( 2000) Advantages of performance standards for an operation include: Consistency of service Guides the employee in their work Supervisory tool for employees Supervisory tool for evaluating employee performance Assists in allocating cost per task accurately Page 292 www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage 2. Quality tools .cthresources.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Figure 7.cthawards.6 the standard process Standard training Implement standard Trial standard Customer Expectations Monitor standard Create standard Adjust standard Measure standard .com Page 293 www.cthresources.

cthawards.6 the standard process www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Examples of standards in a food and beverage operation are: How to clean cutlery How to take a pre-dinner reservation How to take a table booking over the phone How to complete a charge using a ‘point of sale’ machine How to open wine How to welcome a customer How to deal with complaints Figure Page 294 www.

Isolate the guest if possible. Beware of the guests self esteem. Avoid responding with hostility or defensiveness. Wuest cited in kandampully et al. don’t promise the impossible and exceed you authority. (2001) www. personnel may not perform adequately’. take complaint seriously. Although service policies may establish guidelines and performance Page 295 www. use guests name frequently. and don’t insult the guest. Follow up on the complaint even if its dealt with by someone else ‘Service standards are only as good as the restaurant performance. so that other customers wont overhear. Give the problem complete attention. Provide the guest with options.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools The following step-by-step guide can help you to deal with customer complaints. write down the key facts. Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Standard: how to deal with a complaint Listen with concern and .cthawards. Take notes. Set an time frame for the completion of the corrective actions. Monitor the progress of the corrective action.cthresources. show a personal interest in the problem. Never argue with the guest. Stay calm.

(2001) ‘ Service providers must involve all of their staff in each department in an in an effort to provide quality service’ There is a clear relationship between quality human resource management and the organisation achieving quality goals.cthresources.5 Effective human resource management ‘Wuest as cited in Kandampully et Page 296 www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2. Key goals and objectives Recruit the right people Keep employees happy Retain them .

com Page 297 www. Recognise and reward achievement Provide regular social events Sufficient number of tools to their jobs effectively Proper work environment Fair and effective leadership Practice empowerment Keep your employees happy Increased job satisfaction Less absence Improved team work Better service to customer Retain them Stronger team Familiarity with customers’ names Awareness of customers individual needs and wants ‘More than 65% of customers who will not return do so because of the way they were treated.cthresources.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools HR Recruit the right people Rationale Less complaints Less defects Less training Less risk Greater customer satisfaction How Job descriptions and job specifications Match the best candidate with job specification and description Complete reference checks Paper and pencil tests Qualified interviewers Employee trials Succession planning Regular training Regular performance evaluation and .cthawards. not because of the product’ Rowe (1998) www.

cthresources.6 Training Benefits to employees • • • • • • • • Prepares employees to do their job effectively Improves self confidence Improves motivation and morale Prepares for promotion Reduces tension and stress Provides an opportunity to succeed Provides high quality service Provides high quality products Makes the experience more pleasant and enjoyable Increases productivity Reduce costs Builds a strong team Reduces problems and defects Creates a better image Increases referrals Attracts potential employees Kavanaaugh & Ninemier (2001) Benefits to the guest • • • Benefits to the operation • • • • • www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Page 298 .cthawards.

cthawards.7 Quality sourcing It is important that all products sourced. Fixtures and fittings.lights Tools to achieve this include: Purchase specifications Ongoing customer research to determine satisfaction www.linen Equipment. meet the needs of the organisation’s and beverages Non-perishable.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2. Products should fit the needs of the target market Should fit the organisation’s financial requirements Meet the desired purchase criteria on arrival Should be better than the competitors Examples of sourced products in a food and beverage operation .com Page 299 www.crockery Furniture.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools 2.1 Sourcing considerations and limitations Budget available Availability of suppliers Seasonality Storage space available Page 300 .

7 Examples of quality schemes .Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Page 301 www. The schemes can be challenging but once successful offer many opportunities.8 Quality schemes A quality scheme is scheme that is purchased from an external organisation to improve the standard of products and services.cthawards. Figure 7.cthresources.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Opportunities Higher standards Customer retention Reduced complaints Increase in profits Happier employees Aids ‘ self marketing’ A competitive advantage A benchmark Independent assessment of quality Challenges Can be expensive! Difficult for small businesses to afford Can be difficult to achieve Page 302 .

The process normally consists of: Application to the quality organisation Visit and assessment Goal setting Regular assessment Award Ongoing reassessment www.cthawards.cthresources. their objectives and current situation.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality tools Most quality schemes are multi-dimensional focusing on different elements that works towards achieving . Schemes vary in cost and depth depending on the size of the Page 303 www.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality tools

Figure 7.8: Key areas of ‘hospitality assured’ quality scheme The Customer Promise

Customer Research

Business Planning

Operational Planning

Customer Satisfaction Improvement

Training and Development

Service Recovery

Service Delivery

Standards of Performance


Source: HCIMA Page 304

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality tools

2.9 Service recovery and complaint handling One of the goals of any organisation is to minimise the number of complaints it receives. How ever when complaints do occur:
Deal with it appropriately Ensure the customer leaves happy Ensure as on organisation to learn and prevent it from re-occurring.

Steps for dealing with complaints
Taking the complaint seriously Taking the customer to quieter area Listen careful whilst being sympathetic Get all the facts Make notes Appologise sincerely Provide options Use customer name throughout Assess level of complaint Get customers opinion on how it should be solved Thank Follow up Inform manager on complaint Follow up with letter Page 305

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement


Quality monitoring and measurement 3.1 Internal customer questionnaires

3.2 face-to-face feedback 3.3 Focus groups 3.4 Observation 3.5 Critical logs 3.6 Management of information 3.7 External methods 3.8 Secondary data

Page 306

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement

When an organisation has implemented quality tools to achieve quality products and services it is vital to measure the organisation’s success. Leaders committed to quality must make sure that tools are in place to measure their staff’s efforts at providing great service to guests. Monitoring can be carried out in many ways, whilst one way which it is done is either through research conducted internally or externally.
Internally Externally

Customer questionnaires Face-to-face feedback Focus groups Observation Critical log books Management information

Mystery guests External surveys Secondary data

Page 307

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement

3.1 Internal customer questionnaires Customer questionnaires are one of the most frequent research methods adopted by food and beverage operations. 3.1.1 The customer questionnaire process Create questionnaires Distribute questionnaires Collect questionnaires Process data Analyse data Communicate data to departments Page 308

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement

Customer questionnaire or feedback form

How it works
Forms are placed on tables or in bill folds for customers to fill out. Required to provide feedback on areas such as service, atmosphere, food and beverage

Easy and affordable to create. Many customers would prefer to write than speak out. Can follow up in some cases Easy to organise and evaluate feedback.

Low response rate Unhappy customers have normally left the premises by the time the data is collected Customers don’t have time to complete Bad feedback does not reach management

Page 309

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement

Questions that should be addressed when preparing a questionnaire: What do we want to find out? Who are we targeting to fill out these? How will we reach them? What questions should we ask? How many questions should we ask? Do we want to collect any other information? For example name, address or should it be anonymous? Do we want them to rate service and products or give real opinion? Where will we distribute or place them? How do we achieve a high response rate? How many do we want each day? What's our target? Who will manage it? How will we communicate the findings to our manager?

Page 310

reliable information for the desired topic. and the meeting is likely to be recorded. to gather opinions and suggestions. It usually is hosted by the general Manager or an employee of the Sales/marketing feedback Face-to-face feedback is normally carried out by the waiter or the manager in a rather informal manner. It is important to frequently check customer satisfaction throughout the meal as if they are dissatisfied.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3. 3.2 Face. It normally includes individuals that can provide the . The method is quick and cost effective.3 Focus groups A focus group is s set of people invited to a session by the restaurant or hotel.cthawards. www. Whatever feedback is received must be passed on to the relevant Page 311 www.

com .com Page 312 www.cthawards.cthresources. dining habits and specific needs Non-customers/competitor customers/potential customers Customers To gather opinions on customers to use in creating a new menu www.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Aim To determine satisfaction levels of customers Focus group members Existing restaurant customers To research Opinions on likes and dislikes in relation to the: •Menu •Service •Design How the restaurant can improve? •What is their perception or opinion on the restaurant? •What type of food they like? •What is important to them when eating out? •Where do they currently dine out and why? •What are their favourite dishes on the current menu? •What new would they like to see o the menu •Are the prices reasonable? •Are the portion sizes suitable? •Do they go to other places for dishes that we don’t offer? To increase business of Non-customers through identifying their opinions.

com Page 313 www. Examples Employees chatting Potential reason Overstaffed. or poor scheduling of resources understaffed Effects Waste High labour cost Bad impression for diners Customer complaints Discounts Slow service Employee stress Customers become dissatisfied Customers arriving go elsewhere Loss of revenue Poor image Hard to attract customers Employees rushing around Queuing at a buffet Empty restaurant during peak time Poor controlling of customer traffic Poor marketing Poor product and service Better competition www.cthawards.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement .4 Observation Within the organisation there is a wealth of information that can be used to improve quality whilst observation is an effective way of doing so. . These log books are found in departments and are a tool for supervisors and managers to exchange information between shifts.cthresources. The following is an example of a restaurant receipt (figure 7.6 Management of information Information is in most case logged by computers or past records and can be used effectively to provide a better service to customers.9) from a regular.5 Critical logs Departmental log books provide information activities which take part within the organisation. maintenance defects etc. Page 314 www. local customer Mr. 3.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3. Bridges. The logs consists of items such as complaints and issues.

08 Time: 18. Bridges Charge 20Dhs 20Dhs 100Dhs 30Dhs 30Dhs 80Dhs 280Dhs www.cthresources.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Jimbaran restaurant at The Splendid Hotel Dubai Table: 24 Server: Rashid No of Covers: 2 Quantity 1 1 1 1 2 1 Payment Method Number Customer Name Date: .47 Item Soup Caesar salad Seafood platter Cheesecake Coffees Sincere wine American Express 87664456696xxxxxx John Page 315 www.

7.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Page 316 www. These visits are normally contracted out and are carried out but an external professional company 3.cthresources.1 Mystery guests Meeting with owner or operator to discuss the requirements Mystery guest company creates measurement tool Mystery guest makes reservation like a normal customer Mystery guest carries out visit and audits services and products Completes a formal report and delivers findings .cthawards.7 External methods Mystery guests or mystery shoppers are employed by companies to visit their premises to conduct an evaluation of their products or services.

Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement Advantages Unbiased Conducted by experienced individuals Accurate Can be used as an development tool Employees are unaware of the mystery shopper Disadvantages Can be costly Many large chains use survey results to compare performance between Page 317 . www.

com .8 Secondary data Food beverage operations can also monitor consumer trends to help them cater to needs by viewing the following resources Academic books and journals Industry magazines Industry websites Industry reports Page 318 www.cthresources.7.Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage Quality monitoring and measurement 3.cthawards.2 External surveys Professional companies can also be contracted to carry out surveys with members of the public: Specific needs and wants Likes and dislikes Eating and dining preferences Dining habits Preferred restaurants Reasons for eating out 3. .com Page 319 www.Chapter 7 – Introduction to food & beverage Summary The importance of quality Quality tools Measurement Leadership Internal External Meeting needs. wants and expectations Standards of performance Questionnaires Mystery guests Face to face feedback External surveys Quality human resources Focus groups Quality sourcing Observation Quality schemes Critical logs Service recovery and complaint handling Management information www. Page 320 www. . 7. 4. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting www.cthresources. 6.cthawards.Chapters 1. 5. 8.

com .com Page 321 www. minimize expenses and maximize sales www.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Objectives In this chapter you will learn to :- ● Describe how the conference and banqueting department is structures ● Explain the stages in the customer inquiry process ● Identify and appraise the tools departmental managers use to maintain standards.

2 Challenges 1. Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.cthresources.cthawards.4 Conference and banqueting sales Page 322 .Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.3 Personnel 1.1 Benefits 1. Banqueting Relaxed Religious festivals Annual work parties Family celebrations Themed dinner and lunches Weddings .com Page 323 www.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) ● Very diverse with many different events types ● Can be small or large in customer numbers ● Pre-planned ● Can be profitable ● Competitive due to many establishments having large available spaces ● Often seasonal ● Can be delivered in a variety of locations ● Empty space is expensive Conference Formal Seminar Meetings Exhibitions Presentations and lectures Workshops www.

1 Event types Forum Convention Seminar Symposium Retreat Event types Congress Trade show Exhibition Interview Panel Page 324 www.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Fig .cthawards.

com .com Page 325 www.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Suitable venues to host events include : ● Conference centres ● Exhibition halls ● Hotels ● Large restaurants and bars ● Community centres ● Office cafeterias ● Ballrooms ● Church has ● Sports halls www.

com .cthawards.1 Benefits ● Can better utilize space and assets ● Can capitalize on annual events ● Can show case facilities ● Can receive additional revenue streams ● Potential for leads and follow on business ● Can attract local business ● Can provide better service as all brooked in advance ● Can achieve saving through bulk purchasing www.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Page 326 www.cthresources. Page 327 www.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) .2 Challenges ● Empty space is cost ● Pressure to fill space daily ● Competitive ● Large quantities of inventory and equipment ● Additional storage requirements ● Difficult to manage expectations because of large quantities ● Large quantities of casual labour www.cthresources.

3 Personnel Position Conference and Banqueting(C&B) manager Responsibilites Overall management of department Fully accountable for profitability of department Promoting department Recruitment of employees Attending meetings Dealing with complaints Planning and forecasting Administration Meeting customers Discussing menu options Creating menus Preparing the food Seving the food Overseeing and manageing events Training employees Booking casual staff Managing stock Managing customers' expectations Delivering standards Page 328 www.cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) C&B chef C&B Assistant manager & supervisor .

com .cthresources.cthawards.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) C&B sales manager C&B sales executive Event co-ordinator Waiters Porters Creaing sales & marketing plan for department Implimenting plan Competitor analysis Managing employees Motivating employees Yeild amangement Training Visiting clients and compenies Making presentations Showarounds Following up leads Taking reservations Creating contacts Maintain the booking dairy Banquet event sheets to departments Billing & deposits Setting-up functions Mise en place Serving customers Dealing with customer enquiries Moving furniture Setting-up furniture and equipment Assisting waiters Breaking down rooms Cleaning Page 329 www.

4 Conference and Banqueting sales Fig .2 Who are the customers? In-house customers Internation al companies Local businesses Internal company events and functions C&B Department Charities Local residents Event planners www.cthawards.cthresources.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Page 330 www.

cthresources.cthawards. Some approaches include : ● Employing a sales team ● Creating a database of customers ● Contacting potential customers ● Creating brochures detailing facilities available ● Employing an experienced C&B team ● Featuring C&B facilities on hotel or establishment’s webpage ● Advertising facilities in local media ● Sending information and visiting local businesses ● Promoting facilities internally in lifts and bedrooms ● Creating own events internally www.. various techniques have to be employed to fill Conference and Banqueting space.4 Conference and Banqueting sales continued .. Due to the competitive nature of the .Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) Page 331 www.

1 Enquiry 2.cthawards.3 The appointment and customer visit 2.9 Follow-up and evaluation www.7 Room set-up .com Page 332 www.6 The event 2.5 Food.2 The brochure or CD-Rom 2. beverage and service 2.4 The quotation and contract stage 2.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.8 Equipment 2. The event process 2.

Follow up 2. Visit Page 333 .3 The conference and banqueting process 1.cthresources.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Fig 8. Event www. Enquiry 5. Quotation www.cthawards. Page 334 www. company. contact number and e-mail ● Establish what type of event is required ● Establish what date and time is required ● Check diary and determine availability Trend : Most banqueting diaries are now computerized and are able to provide information to include: ● Up-to-date availability of each room ● Specifications of each room ● Capacities for each room ● Past history of company or customer.1 Enquiry When customers contact the hotel to make an enquiry: ● Thank person for calling ● Take down personnel information. name. room preferences and event type ● Room coasts based on supply. day and month ● Usage per company. demand and day ● Future availability and usage per room.cthresources.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process . event type and room type www.

cthresources. This includes: ● The service team’s roles and responsibilities ● Testimonials from customers ● Photographs of events ● Blue point of room dimensions ● Examples of room set-up ● People capacity per room ● Equipment available ● Menus ● Packages available ● Contact details ● Business card of C&B sales person www.2 The brochure or CD-Rom To promote the conference and banqueting facilities the sales office send out information packs (collateral) to acquaint customers with service available.cthawards.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Page 335 .

seating .3 The appointment and customer visit If the enquiry is for a large event or a new customer/company the sales assistant will attempt to secure an appointment and encourage the customer to visit the hotel to showcase the event facilities. The first impression of the customer must be positive. www.g. ● Relevant paperwork on hand such as. photographs and room details ● Accommodation for the attendees should be prepared & rooms should be available to display. a chef should be on hand to offer advice and suggestions with menu planning for the event.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. ● It is important to have rooms set-up for Page 336 www. The sales executive should be prepared for the appointment in the following ways: ● Have a quiet place to discuss the customer’s needs and requirements ● Key staff available to discuss particular needs (E.cthresources. If a customer is coming to discuss a meeting then a meeting room should showcase for the customer what can be expected. You should never try to show an empty room to a customer as this may lose you the sale ● Have a presentation packs prepared. a customer checklist ● It’s important to introduce the person to the employee who will manage their event. containing menus.

. special diets) ● Beverage requirement : (during the event. During the appointment general information is obtained or confirmed from the customer.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. cash bar in the evening) ● Equipment requirements ● Budget per person ● Billing information ● Bedroom requirements ● Car parking requirements www. . anniversary party ● Room set-up style : (classroom. profession) ● Customer with any special needs or requirements ● Event type : seminar. workshop.3 The appointment and customer visit continued .cthresources. Page 337 www. round tables) ● Food requirements : (menus. address. e-mail. fax.. meal times.cthawards. direct line) ● Date and arrival time ● Customer information : numbers and demographics (gender. ● Contact details : (telephone.

3 The appointment and customer visit Page 338 www. (E. Specific needs will be also expected for different events.cthawards.cthresources. wedding) ● Flowers ● Speeches ● Master of ceremonies ● Dance floor ● Disk jockey (DJ) ● Seating plans ..Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.

www. This signature creates a confirmed booking and contract between the customer and the establishment.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process .4 The quotation and contract stage The customer is sent a proposal detailing all the function’s requirements with pricing. The banqueting event order After the contract has been confirmed C&B sales creates a ‘ Banquet event order’. The customer pays a deposit to secure the booking depending on the contract. The customer would either make changes or sign the paperwork and return it to the Page 339 www.cthawards. This is an international document to communicate the event’s details to the relevant department.cthresources.

beverage and service Food In C&B menus are normally table d’hote due to frequency of large numbers.cthresources. It is shown below: Restaurants Large menu Uncertainty about which menu item will be selected Uncertainty about definite numbers that will visit restaurant Events (C&B) Small menu No uncertainty .numbers confirmed No uncertainty .Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. Producing food for banqueting events has many .all menu items fixed No uncertainty .cthawards.5 Food.customers arrive as Uncertainty about what time customers will come organized Food wastage after service No food wastage Page 340 www.

Beverage Beverage requirements varies according to the type of the event. A cash bar . The event organizer signs a bill at the end of the event to confirm consumption.cthresources.5 Food. beverage and service continued . (E. . and are available in different formats.where each guest pays at the time the drink is served.cthawards. beers and soft drinks served at the table.g.. If it’s a wedding sometimes the host pays a part of the bar bill in advance. www.. During a banquet events a table service can be provided whereby customers are offered a variety wines. A hosted bar – drinks are charged on a consumption basis. They can be in a fixed bar or set up in another room to ease queuing. Companies frequently use this method & the bill is sent directly to the company after the event.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. Bars may be available during the evening for delegates to relax and network. conference – Page 341 www. coffee & mineral water). .com Page 342 www. beverage and service continued . Service A variety of service methods include: ● Plated service ● Silver service ● Buffet service ● Family service ● Large events will be run using a more formal system where employees follow instructions by the head waiter or Maitre d’..5 Food..Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.

com Page 343 www.cthresources.6 The event Hotel executives meet weekly discuss forthcoming events on a week by week basis.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process .cthawards. Each department is issued with an event sheet to: ● Communicate information ● Follow-up on any particular event needs ● Address any questions ● Resolve any last minute prolems www.

Run through event details for the day 6.cthresources. Deliver event www. Welcome guests 7. Breakdown event 2.7 The event process 1. Brief staff Page 344 www. Check satisfaction . Set up event 8.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Fig 4. Signature and billing 3.

Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process Step 1. bars and equipment. All service staff are briefed on details to include: The company and type of event Chronology of event For the organizer. host and any VIPs to be identified Any special requests Allocation of tables Menu information Standards The event commences are planned. setting-up coffee stations. Deliver event . Run through events 4. Employees breakdown the event to include : Collapsing furniture Clearing tables Polishing cutlery Cleaning Re-setting for next day's event or sales promotion Page 345 www. Check satisfaction 7. laying tables. Set-up event 2. Any fedback from the customer is noted and communicated to service and other staff involved.cthresources.cthawards. Duties include: Serving food and beverage Dealing with customer requests Monitoring equipment Clearing tables It is checked throughout the event and at the end. Service staff follow banquet event order and any instruction from event supervisor. Billing www. Brief staff 5. Breakdown event Action The team will set up the event in advance of the customer and their guests arriving. Organizer or host signs the bill to agree all consumption and charges. (preparing furniture. Bill is settled depending on the contract . Welcome guests 3. registration tables. The C&B employee should check whether there's any last minute changes. Sales assistant/staff member managing the event greets the customer on arrival.

Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process .cthawards.cthresources.7 Room set-ups U-Shape Classroom Banquet Hollow square Lecture or Theater (chairs only) Horse shoe Page 346 www.

7 Room set-ups continued .Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2.cthresources.. Herringbone Workshop Circle Page 347 . .Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. C&B is the renting not only of equipment but also crockery.cthawards. glassware and Page 348 www. The same advantages apply. www.8 Equipment Rental advantages ● No strong space required ● No cleaning and maintenance required ● No depreciation ● Less management overall ● Less risk of theft ● No training required ● Modern equipment provided Trend.cthresources.

cthawards. Any feedback received should be communicated to the departments involved and used for future planning.Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting The event process 2. www.cthresources.9 Follow-up and evaluation A key part of C&B is to monitor customer evaluation after the event has taken .com Page 349 www.

Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting Summary Conferencing and Banqueting The event process Objectives and structure Benefits and challenges Enquiry Quotation and contract Personnel Event Sales Follow-up Page 350 .cthresources.cthawards.

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