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ENGLISH GRAMMER In English there are three sentences. 1. Present. 2. Past. 3. Future. 1.

Present: Refers to an action which is done of that moment. 2. Past: Refers to an action done at some time in that past. 3. Future: Refers to an action to be done here after some times from now. Ex: He place. He plaid. He well plays. Under each direction we come across four subdivisions. 1. Presentence: 1. 2. 3. 4. Simple present. Present continuous. Present perfect. Present perfect continuous.

2. Pastence: 1. 2. 3. 4. Simple past. Past continuous. Past perfect. Past perfect continuous.

3. Future Tense: 1. 2. 3. 4. Simple future. Future continuous. Future perfect. Future perfect continuous.

PRESEN TENSE 1. Simple Present: [Verb+es, s, ies]. Ex: He loves his pet. He fries some papad. The earth goes round the sun. Simple present is used to denote the activities that are repeated and regular and also to refer to something that happens at the time of speaking. 2. Present Continuous: [Is / are / am / Verb+ing]. Ex: He is playing. They are going to a temple. I am writing a letter. An action which is going on at the time of speaking is called present continuous tense. 3. Present Perfect: [Has / Have + Past Participle]. Ex: He has completed his home work. I have written a letter. Note: They / We / I --- For that we use [Have]. He / She / It or Names ---- We use [Has]. The present perfect is often described as referring to the past but just completed action. 4. Present Perfect Continuous: [Have / Has + Been + Verb + Ing]. Ex: He has been writing from the morning. I have been running to catch the bus. Present perfect continuous refers to an action which started in the past and which is continuous in ever at the time of speaking.


1. Simple Past: [Was +Verb + Ed + d, ied]. Ex: He played. He was worried. Simple past refers to the action that happened in a past tense. 2. Past Continuous: [Was / Were + Verb + Ing]. Ex: He was writing a letter. They were playing food ball. Past continuous tense refers an action which was under progress some time in the past. 3. Past Perfect Tense: [Had + Past Participle]. Ex: He had written a book They had taken their thinks to Madurai. Past perfect tense is used to refer an action which to place to the past. 4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense: [Had / Been + Verb + Ing]. Ex: I had been working in this office for the past one month.

Past perfect continuous tense refers to an action which started in the past but which was under progress even at the time of speaking.

FUTURE TENSE 1. Simple Future: [Will + Verb or Shall + Verb]. Ex: He will play in the evening. He shall write a letter. Simple future refers to an action that will take place in future. 2. Future Continuous Tense: [Shall / Will + Be + Verb + Ing]. Ex: He will be playing cricket in the evening. They shall be leaving to Chennai tomorrow. Future Continuous Tense refers to an action which will be under the progress some where in future. 3. Future Perfect Tense: [Shall / Will + Have + Past Participle]. Ex: He shall have finished his work by this time tomorrow. Ramu & Sita will have married by this time tomorrow. Future perfect tense refers to an action that will be completed some time in future. 4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense: [Shall / Will + Been + Verb + Ing]. Ex: He shall have been writing a letter tomorrow. They will have loved their neighbor. Mr. Krishnan will have been living for 25 years in the same house by next January. By next summer of 2002 we shall have been constructing this house for 12 years. Future perfect continuous is used to indicate an action in future without completion but in continuation over a period of time that will end in future.