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Make sure that individual blocks and elements of a flowsheet behave as expected. Make sure the flowsheet starts converging from a reasonable point. Start with simple unit operation models. For example. If possible. converge the flowsheet with a DSTWU before switching to RadFrac.Strategies for Flowsheet Convergence Some general guidelines are: Start small. select a tear stream that remains relatively constant. Provide good initial guesses. before slowly combining them into a larger simulation. Sensitivity analysis might help here. .
Strategies for Flowsheet Convergence Check physical properties. and unit specifications. variable accessing. Make sure they are calculated correctly in the entire operating range of the simulation. Analyze warnings and error messages. . Evaluate tear stream choice. Check for correctness. spelling.
797 3 1 5 13.0574 5 1 3 0.57095E+02 Block: B9 Model: FSPLIT Block: B10 Model: MIXER Block: B1 Model: RSTOIC Block: B2 Model: FLASH2 Convergence iterations: OL ML IL Err/Tol 1 1 10 45.87879 . Max Err/Tol 0.Control Panel Messages • • • • • • • • • • • • • > Loop $OLVER02 Method: WEGSTEIN Iteration 198 5 vars not converged.609 4 1 5 7.720 2 1 10 20.
>> Loop nested one deep. Max Err/Tol 0.Control Panel Messages Each time the convergence block is executed in a recycle convergence loop.18603E+1 where: Block = Convergence block ID Max Err/Tol = Maximum error/tolerance for the unconverged variables > = Symbol indicating nesting level of the convergence loop > Outside loop. messages appear with the following format: > Loop Block Method: WEGSTEIN Iteration 9 Converging tear streams: 34 vars not converged. and so on . >>> Loop nested two deep.
Max Err/Tol 0. . messages appear with the following format: >> Loop Block Method: SECANT Iteration 2 Converging specs: H2RATE 1 vars not converged.0.36525E+03 Convergence is achieved when the value of Max Err/Tol becomes less than 1.Control Panel Messages Each time a convergence block for a design specification is executed in a convergence loop.
Debugging Convergence Problems Specify blocks to be independent of flow rates (e. Check and confirm or alter calculation sequence.g. specify fraction instead of flow rate for Fsplit. . or distillate/feed rate instead of distillate rate for RadFrac).
Reinitialize the simulation when appropriate.Debugging Tear Convergence Problems In case of steady convergence progress without finally achieving convergence the number of maximum iterations should be increased (either globally under Convergence / Conv Options or locally within a certain block). It might be helpful to disconnect a recycle stream in order to obtain a good intial estimate and to investigate the sensitivity. Try Broyden and Newton methods instead of Wegstein. .
look out for skipped and unconverged unit operation blocks. 2. . or had unexpected results that might affect recycle convergence. Check the Control Panel and results sheets for blocks that did not complete normally. Run the simulation using the default sequence generated by Aspen Plus ® . had errors.Summary 1. Examine simulation results.
Try different specifications.Summary 2 cont. Change options. Increase number of iterations. . Provide better estimates for tear streams and/or design variables. Some common reasons for these problems are: Problem Incorrect block specifications. Action Correct them. Not enough iterations. different algorithm options. Convergence specifications. Algorithm options. or increase the number of iterations. Feed conditions too far off.
Check whether adjustments in the tolerance values or the algorithm parameters or a change of the algorithm itself is needed. If the flowsheet is modified.Summary 3. . rerun the simulation and go back to step 2. Check for unconverged design specifications. 4. Alter the calculation sequence. 6. if necessary. 5.
The Golden Rules of flowsheet modeling • Start as simple as possible • Stay simple as long as possible • Add necessary complexity one item at a time • Test non-trivial additions separately .
Jack Ponton The School of Engineering. Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering. Konrad Hungerbühler ETH Zürich. • Prof. Dr. . University of Edinburgh.Acknowledgement • Prof.