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I. LAKES are bodies of water surrounded by land and it is has a small percentage of the earth's total water. A lake does not flow along a certain and it is larger than ponds CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO WATER TYPE A. highly acidic (caldera lakes) ex. Taal lakes ACCORDING TO TYPE OF NUTRIENTS a. low in nutrients (oligotrophic) b. b. moderately enriched (mesotrophic), TYPES AND LAKE FORMATION 1.) NATURAL LAKE A. FORMED BY METEORITE IMPACTS (e.g. Clearwater Lakes, Quebec, Canada). B. GLACIAL LAKE - Originated in a melted glacier. They are formed when a glacier erodes the land, and then melts, filling the hole or space that they have created. a. THERMOKARST LAKES- form by water seepage through cracks in the ground b. GROUND MORAINE LAKE- is the general term used for any accumulation of glacial origin including boulders, sand, and gravel. KETTLE LAKES- forms when a large piece of ice leaves a depression in the glacial drift; as the ice melts a kettle like hole is formed. c. GLACIAL SCOUR LAKES-formed when glacier eroded bedrock, carving basins that are now filled with rainwater. The Great Lakes are examples of glacial scour lakes. Tarn lake- It is formed when either rain or river water fills the cirque. A moraine may form a natural dam below a tarn. Paternoster lake- chain of lakes may develop in a valley with glacial steps; often each step will have a lake. d. GLACIAL RELICT LAKES=are remnants of giant lakes that were once filled with glacial melt water but now exist as separate bodies of water. ice dammed lake= Results when Ice build up blocking the flow of a river. C. TECTONIC ACTIVITY D. VOLCANIC ACTIVITY 2.) MAN MADE LAKES- water impoundments or water accumulated in reservoirs that do not occur naturally in the landscape. B. highly alkaline (soda lakes).ex. dead sea

c. highly enriched (eutrophic).

SOIL AND CLIMATE LACUSTRINE- living organisms that grows in lake, small and sandy like serve as geological strata Water temperature during summer month : The top layer stays warm at around (18.824.5 degrees C) middle layer drops dramatically, (7.418.8 degrees C) bottom layer is the coldest, staying at around (4.07.4 degrees C). "Winterkill." - ice blocks out sunlight that prevent photosynthesis. Without photosynthesis, oxygen levels drop and some plants and animals may die Largest lake in the world-CASPIAN SEA HUMAN INTERVENTION A. B. C. D. II. RIVER Is the body of water with current moving in one direction, it refers to as a streams, creeks or runs Some sources of rivers are spring, lake, damp, glacial melt water, boggy places and from raining flow or manmade places POTAMOLOGY scientific study of rivers CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVERS depending upon: 1. WIDTH River tend to be smaller in the beginning called headwater" 2. DEPTH holes- which are the deep spot of the river 3. CURRENT 4. MEANDERS- rivers bend and turns depending in geography of land switchback- river doubles back itself making U- shape 5. BANKS- undercut banks is usually a outside part of the river bend 6. BOTTOM TOPOGRAPICAL CLASSIFICATION OF RIVER A. ALLUVIAL RIVER- self formed and channel are shaped by the magnitude and frequency of the floods B. BEDROCK RIVER- typically has little alluvium mantling the bedrock over which it flows Eutrophication fish cages and landscape changes continuous water and pollution urbanization and transformation of natural lakes to manmade lakes.

HUMAN INTERVENTION IN RIVERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Improper way of throwing garbage Fisheries Deforestation Agriculture Urbanization


WETLANDS is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem Wetlands cover approximately 6% of the Earth's surface have also been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water Pantanal in Brazil is the largest wetlands in the world FOUR KINDS OF WETLANDS 1. MARSH- dominated by herbaceous such as grass, rushes and reeds rather than woody plant species tend to be growing shrubs. Water varies from 15-90cm depth TYPES OF MARSH a. Salt marsh b. Fresh water tidal marshes c. Fresh water marsh 2. SWAMP- wetland that is forested and occur on the shore of large lakes; has a depth between 2.5 cm- 5 cm 3. BOG- known also as mire, quagmire, muskeg. RAISED BOGS are bogs lie in depressed areas of high ground; it takes 10 feet (3m) high. PEAT harvested as a source of fuel. 4. FEN- when a peat land lies at or below sea level and is fed by mineral rich ground water it is called fen

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Conversion of wetlands for commercial development, drainage schemes, extraction of minerals and peat, overfishing and tourism siltation and pesticide discharges from intensive agriculture toxic pollutants from industrial waste and the construction of dams and dikes


ESTUARIES The word estuary derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea in which derived itself from the term aestus meaning tide or boiling of the sea Estuary is the semi enclosed coastal body of water having a free connection with the open sea and within which the sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater deriving from land drainage. Estuary is a sheltered enclosed or semi enclosed body of water where fresh and salt water mix.

What is negative estuary? In estuaries with very little or no river flow and high rates of evaporation, the salinity at the head of the estuary may actually be higher than the salinity at the mouth TYPES OF ESTUARY 1.Salt wedge estuary this type forms where a large river inputs lots of fresh water in an area where the tidal range is low or moderate 2.Well mixed estuary This type forms where rivers input smaller amounts of fresh water and the tidal range is moderate to high 3.Partially mixed estuary This type is transitional between salt-wedge and well-mixed types, and occurs in deeper estuaries with moderately strong tidal currents and greater amounts of river inflow 4.Reverse estuary or lagoon 5.Fjord

CIRCULATION WITHIN ESTUARIES a. Estuarine circulation b. Anti- estuarine circulation

ESTUARIES CAN BE GROUPED BASED ON CIRCULATION AND SALINITY OF WATER 1. Highly stratified 2. Moderately stratified 3. Partially stratified ESTUARIES MAY BE GROUPED BASED ON STRUCTURE 1. Tectonic estuaries 2. Coastal-plain estuaries 3. Bar built estuaries ADAPTATION OF ANIMALS IN ESTUARIES 1. Dealing with changes in salinity Ex. euryhaline- can tolerate a wide range of salinities stenohaline- species that can be tolerate only a narrow range of salinities osmoconformers- maintain osmotic balance e.g. Mollucs and polychaete worms osmoregulators-they keep the salt concentration of their body fluids more or less constant 2. Dealing with changes in oxygen level 3. Switch to anaerobic metabolism 4. Dealing with light changes intensity ex: photo acclimation or shade adaptation 5. Dealing with changes in temperature Eurythermal organisms that will able to live in varying temperature. FACTORS AFFECT THE DISTRIBUTION IN ESTUARIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Temperature Salinity Oxygen levels Predation competition

ESTUARIES FEATURES AND LANDFORMS Estuaries are found where rivers meet the sea. Estuaries are found where rivers meet chemically distinct lakes. Each estuary includes a variety of habitats. Some may be bordered by marshes. Estuary =Bays, harbors, sounds, and inlets are all estuaries. Bayous are formed by channels of slow moving water leading from a river or lake. Salt marshes form in estuaries in areas protected from high-energy waves. Tidal Mangrove forests surround wetland areas in southern estuaries. In mountainous areas, estuaries may be found in seaside fjords