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2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.

Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing (#05156G)

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PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS


Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing

J. GILBERT KAUFMAN

ASM International Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org

2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing (#05156G)

www.asminternational.org

Copyright 2008 by ASM International All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, July 2008 Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this book, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specication is essential. Therefore, specic testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Book Committee (20072008), Lichun L. Chen, Chair. ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of Product and Service Development; Charles Moosbrugger, Technical Editor; Ann Britton, Editorial Assistant; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator; Patricia Conti, Production Coordinator; Diane Grubbs, Production Coordinator; Rachel Frayser, Production Coordinator; and Kathryn Muldoon, Production Assistant Library of Congress Control Number: 2008925433 ISBN-13: 978-0-87170-839-7 ISBN-10: 0-87170-839-6 SAN: 204-7586 ASM International Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org Printed in the United States of America

2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing (#05156G)

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Contents
Foreword and Acknowledgments ..........................................................v About the Author ..................................................................................vii Chapter 1: Introduction and Background ........................................1 1.1 Source of Fatigue Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Style of Presentation of Fatigue Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.1 Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Designation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.2 Units Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Applicability and Cautions in Use of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3.1 Applicability of Small-Specimen Fatigue Data. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3.2 Residual-Stress Effects May Be Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3.3 Current versus Inactive Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2: Descriptions of Specimens and Test Procedures ................................................................5 2.1 Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Tests at Room Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Tests at Elevated Temperatures, with and without Prior Holding at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Flexural Fatigue Tests at Room Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4 Axial-Stress Fatigue Tests at Room, Subzero, and Elevated Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.5 Torsional Fatigue Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.6 Testing Laboratory Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.7 S-N Plots of Stress versus Fatigue Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.8 Modied Goodman Fatigue Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.9 Effects of Testing Machine Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.9.1 Sheet-Flexural Testing Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.9.2 Rotating Simple versus Rotating Cantilever Beam. . . . . . . . . 7 2.9.3 Specimen Preparation Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.9.4 Preparation for Cast Specimens and Relation to Residual Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chapter 3: Presentation of Fatigue Data ..........................................9 3.1 Alloy Presentation Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2 Temper Presentation Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3 S-N Curve and Goodman Diagram Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 Tabular Summaries of Fatigue Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.5 Inactive Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.6 General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Data SetSequence of Curves by Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Chapter 4: General Observations and Comparisons ........................................................427 4.1 Total Data Spread among Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Data Band Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Questions about the Existence of an Endurance Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Specimen Directional Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Correlations with Static Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

Chapter 5: Comparisons of Fatigue Properties of Various Alloys, Tempers, and Products..................................................................431 5.1 Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 5.1.1 1xxx Pure Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 5.1.2 2xxx Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 5.1.3 3xxx Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 5.1.4 4xxx Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 5.1.5 5xxx Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 5.1.6 6xxx Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 5.1.7 7xxx Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 5.2 Comparison of Different Wrought Products . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 5.2.1 Extruded Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 5.2.2 Thick Plate, Forgings, and Extruded Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . 434 5.3 Wrought Product Temper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 5.3.1 Annealed (O) Temper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 5.3.2 Strain-Hardening Tempers, H-Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 5.3.3 Heat Treat Tempers, T-Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 5.4 Comparison of Wrought versus Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 5.5 Comparisons of Some Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . 436 5.5.1 Premium-Strength Casting Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 5.6 Effect of Surface Cladding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Chapter 6: Inuence of Production Process Variables on Fatigue Properties ..................................441 6.1 Wrought Alloy Processing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 6.1.1 Effect of Type of Starting Stock for Forgings . . . . . . . . . . 441 6.1.2 Effect of Strain Hardening on Fatigue Strength . . . . . . . . . 441 6.1.3 Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on Fatigue Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 6.1.4 Coiled Sheet versus Flat Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 6.1.5 Effect of Continuous versus Batch Heat Treating of Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 6.1.6 Effect of Type of Quench Following Heat Treatment . . . . . 442 6.1.7 Effect of Precipitation Age Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 6.1.8 Effect of Stress Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 6.1.9 Effect of Additional Cold Work Following Solution Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 6.1.10 Variation in Fatigue Properties in Thick versus Thin Plate and Forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 6.1.11 Variation in Fatigue Properties in Large Cross-Sectional and Long-Length Extruded Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 6.1.12 Effect of Pressure Welds in Hollow Extrusions . . . . . . . . . 445

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2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing (#05156G)

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6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6

Casting Alloy Process Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Comparison of Casting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Improvements with Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Sand, Permanent Mold, and Die Casting Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Effects of Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Premium Casting Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Squeeze Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

Chapter 7: Effects of Microstructure and Microporosity ........................................................449 7.1 Effect of Degree of Recrystallization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 7.2 Grain Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 7.3 Ultrasonic Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 7.4 Microporosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Chapter 8: Inuence of Fabrication Finishing Variables on Fatigue Properties ..................................451 8.1 Surface Treatments and Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 8.1.1 Anodizing and Related Oxide-Based Coatings . . . . . . . . . . 451 8.1.2 Automotive Body Sheet Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 8.1.3 Porcelain Enameling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 8.1.4 Nitric Acid and Other Etchants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 8.1.5 Chemical Milling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 8.1.6 Extrusion Die Lines on the Surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 8.1.7 Surface Rolling and Peening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 8.1.8 Flash Coating with Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 8.1.9 Ni-SiC Electrochemical Plating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 8.2 Joining Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 8.2.1 Fusion Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 8.2.2 Flash Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 8.2.3 Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 8.2.4 Alforging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 8.2.5 Riveting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

Chapter 9: Effect of Temperature and Environment..................................................................455 9.1 High Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 9.1.1 Inuence of High Temperature on Fatigue Strength of Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 9.1.2 Effect of Long Holding Times at Elevated Temperatures for Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 9.1.3 Inuence of High Temperature on Fatigue Strength of Cast Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 9.2 Subzero Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 9.3 Effect of Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 Chapter 10: Effect of Stress Concentrations, Primarily Sharp Notches............................................463 10.1 Notch Severity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 10.2 Notches and Strain-Hardening Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . 463 10.3 Notches and Solution Heat Treating and Precipitation Aging Wrought Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 10.4 Notches in the Surface of Clad Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 10.5 Notches in Casting Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Appendix 1: The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Designation Systems ................................469 Appendix 2: Metrication of Aluminum Properties ..........................471 Appendix 3: Glossary..........................................................................473 Appendix 4: Abbreviations and Symbols ..........................................475 Appendix 5: Tabular Summaries of Fatigue Strengths....................477 Appendix 6: Fatigue Test Specimen Drawings ................................523 Alloy Index ..........................................................................................527 Fatigue Diagrams Index......................................................................539 Subject Index ......................................................................................557

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2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing (#05156G)

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Foreword and Acknowledgments


It is the objective of this book to address the potential usefulness of a broad summary of consistent data on the fatigue properties of aluminum alloy from a single source generated using consistent testing procedures and practices. In addition, the data illustrate the effects of many testing, product, and processing variables in a manner making many such comparisons useful. The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Alcoa, Inc. and in particular the efforts of Dr. Robert J. Bucci and his management in arranging and approving the release of the information contained herein. Alcoa, Inc. once again enabled the author to include many previously unpublished data and related information from Alcoas archives that add immeasurably to the depth and breadth of coverage. In that regard, the author would also like to acknowledge the helpful search and retrieval support from Nick Kotow and others at the Alcoa Laboratories Research Library. J.G. (Gil) Kaufman, FASM

2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Fatigue Data and the Effects of Temperature, Product Form, and Processing (#05156G)

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About the Author


J. (Gil) Kaufman has a background of over 50 years in the aluminum and materials information industries and remains an active consultant in both areas. In 1997, he retired as Vice President, Technology for the Aluminum Association, Inc., headquartered in Washington, D.C., and is currently president of his consulting company, Kaufman Associates. Earlier in his career, he spent 26 years with the Aluminum Company of America, where he managed engineering properties and fabricating metallurgical research, and 5 with ARCO Metals, where he was Vice President, Research and Engineering. Many of the data presented in this volume were generated over the period when the author was active in or managing the Alcod testing laboratory activities. Kaufman also served for nine years as President and CEO of the National Materials Property Data Network, where, working with STN International and Chemical Abstracts Service, he established a worldwide online network of more than 25 materials databases. Gil is a Fellow and Honorary Member of ASTM International and a Fellow and Life Member of ASM International. He has published more than 130 articles, including ve books, on aluminum alloys and materials data systems.

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