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Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of


Dept. of Electronics & Communication

Submitted to Training Department IOCL, Mathura

Submitted by Peeyushama Pareek III Yr.


I am very happy on the completion of the Vocational Training at Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Mathura, for which I would like to thanks Mr.Jahangir,SITM under whose visionary enlightenment I was able to complete this report. I would also like to acknowledge the help and support by Mr.Suprakash Sen Gupta who spared his precious time for the sake of this report. He helped me at times when I required help.

Peeyushama Pareek





INDIAN OIL CORPORATION Indian oil corporation ltd. is the leading oil refining and marketing company of India which has a made in roads in to the international market. The corporation came into existence on 1st September 1964 after the merger of Indian Oil Company and Indian refineries ltd. Presently Indian oil operates 10 out of the 18 oil refineries in country. A new state of the-art refinery with 9.0 MMTPA capacities being set up at Para deep on the east coast. Indian oil also has the largest network of cross country crude and product pipe lines of 7575 Km, besides having the largest marketing share of about 56% in the country. In 2003, IOCL became the first Indian petroleum company to start its marketing operations overseas after it began retail operations in Sri Lanka and Mauritius. The Corporations state- of-the-art R&D centre at Faridabad has pioneered some major breakthroughs in lube oil formulations, bioremediations of oily sludge, refinery processes, pipe line transportation and development on bio-fuels. Presently it is working on an ambitious futuristic project to prepare the eco-friendly bio-diesel. In 2003, Indian oil Technologies Ltd. Was formed as a subsidiary company to market the innovative technologies of R&D centre, which presently has more than 90 national & international patents to its credit. IOCL also has full-fledged training centers to enhance skill and knowledge base of its work force and provide professional expertise to face market challenges. Indian Oil institute of petroleum management (IIPM) at Gurgaon, in Indian Oil management academy (IMA) at haldia and the Indian oil management centre for learning at Mumbai are the

premier learning centers of the corporation. All these progressive strides have earned Indian Oil its right full place in the global map of the petroleum industry. It was first Indian company to find place in the prestigious list of, fortune 500 companies & presently it is placed at 135. It also finds place of pride among the worlds biggest enterprises in Forbes Global 2000list.

MATHURA REFINERY AN OVERVIEW Mathura Refinery the sixth of Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. was commissioned in January 1982 to meet ever growing demand of petroleum products in Northwest region of country. Since then it has been the focal point of development in industrial and transportation sector in this region. This 7.5 million metric tonne refinery is Indias latest and modern refinery and every sixth barrel of crude oil refined in this country is from Mathura Refinery. Also it has the wide adaptability of processing over 30 types of crude oils. This ranges from indigenous Mumbai offshore crude to imported crude oils of Australian origin in the east and Nigeria and Venezuela in the Far West. Mathura Refinery has a distinction of having single largest capacity crude distillation and which has the unique engineering marvel of 67 meter long Crude Distillation Column. The crude to the refinery is received from Salaya in West coast through a dedicated cross country 1078 kms pipeline. Products from this refinery are dispatched through rail, road and Mathura-Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar pipeline & Mathura-Tundla pipeline. This contribution of Mathura Refinery is meeting the petroleum product demand of northwest India which is about 68%. The LPG bottling plant situated within Mathura Refinery premises bottles nearly 7 million cylinders per annum for catering domestic market. Major fertilizer industries at Kanpur, Panipat, Nangal, Bhatinda & Kota are supplied with Naphtha or Furnace oil / Heavy petroleum stock as fertilizer feed stocks from Mathura Refinery. Also thermal power plants of Nangal, Obra and Badarpur get fuel oil supply from this refinery. Apart from this Mathura Refinery is privileged to provide the necessary energy to the pulsating capital New Delhi and also boost the standards of the farmers belonging to the crop rich lands of Punjab & Haryana. The other important product, Bitumen has paved the transportation sector in the region of roadworthiness. To keep the environment clean

and green, Mathura Refinery recovers nearly 15000 kgs of sulphur everyday as a by-product from crude oil. The various products of Mathura Refinery are: Liquid Petroleum Gas for domestic use. Naphtha for fertilizer as feed. Aviation Turbine Fuel for civil and defense aviation purposes. Superior Kerosene oil for domestic use. High speed diesel oil for transportation. Furnace oil & heavy petroleum stock as fuel for industries. Petrol (Motor Spirit unleaded) for transportation. Light diesel oil for agro equipments. Bitumen for road paving. Propylene for high polymers. Sulphur for chemical industries.

Major Highlights Mathura Refinery was the first in Asia and third in the world in refining sector for being certified for coveted ISO-14001 for its excellent Environment Management System ( EMS ) in 1996 . Quality system of support services of Personal & Administration purposes& Medical Dept of Mathura Refinery certified confirming to Quality basis standard ISO-9002, 1994. Golden Peacock National Quality Award 1996 Mathura refinery is the first refinery in India to this distinction. Bagged first prize in National Energy Conservation Award 1996 in refinery sector from Ministry of Power. Jawaharlal Nehru Centenary Award for achieving best improved method of Energy conservation compared to its past best performance of 1994-96.

Eco Friendly Move Refinerys Concern For Environment

BS 7750/ISO 14001certified refinery Mathura Refinery is the first refinery in Asia and third in world to achieve this distinction. ISO 9002 certified company. SO2 emissions well within the prescribed limit by Ministry of Environment & Forest. Mathura Refinery compares well with international standard of air pollution i.e. WHO standards, Californian standards, Italian standards etc. Mathura Refinery is the first refinery in India to supply lead free petrol to the country as per Euro III standards. Mathura Refinery is the first refinery in India to supply Ultra Low Diesel to the country as per Euro III standards. An area of 18000 sq mtrs pasture of lush greenery inside the refinery (ecological park). Five ponds for polishing treated effluent water make a cluster of Bird Sanctuary. Effluent water increases the yield of certain crops by 14% to 18% when used for agriculture established through experimental farming by the Aligarh Muslim University. Over the years about 1,15,000 trees have been planted in Taj Trapezium Zone & about 18,000 trees at Mathura Region. Extensive plantations have been done at Mathura Refinery site & Refinery Township.

INSTRUMENTS AND ELECTRONIC DEVICES In Instrumentation we study the following instruments: PRIMARY SENSING ELEMENT Orifice, Pilot tube, venture, capillary tubes, and diaphragms are used in primary sensing element. Orifice is a primary flow measuring element

and is most commonly used in industries. It is cheapest and takes the form of a thin plate square edge orifice and is mounted in between the flanges. It provides the differential pressure as output.





In general the orifice has a champ ring near to bored circle through which the fluid is passed when it is placed in the flow pipe. The dimension of champ ring depends on the specific gravity, viscosity, temperature, and applied pressure of the fluid. The bored circle of the orifice is calculated and designed according to our requirement and according to the range of the process parameters. Materials used for the orifice plates are Stainless steel, Phosphor-Bronze, Brass etc.

TRANSMITTER: In process control system the transmitter is an important part of the control loop. It converts and transmits the process signal received from the primary detecting unit. As in our example the flow transmitter converts the differential pressure received from the orifice plate to current (4 to 20 mA) and transmit it to the controller. In Mathura refinery the transmitter used are FCX-A SERIES TRANSMITTER and ROSE MOUNT TRANSMITTERS. These are used as: 1. Flow transmitter 2. Pressure transmitter 3. Level transmitter FCX-SERIES TRANSMITTER This transmitter comes in two types: 1. FHC [analog type] 2. FKC [smart type] The FCX-SERIES differential pressure transmitter detects the differential pressure, level or pressure of various fluids and converts it into a current signal of 4 to 20 mA d.c. and transmit it. The input of this transmitter is 24 V d.c.

CURRENT TO PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS: The 3311 current to pressure transducer accepts an electrical input signal and produces a proportional pneumatic output. Typically it converts 420 mA to 3-15 psi (0.2 1.0 Kg/cm2). The most common application of the model 3311 is to receive an electrical signal from a controller and produce a pneumatic output for operating a control valve actuator or positioner. The model 3311 may also be used to convert a signal from pneumatic to current. This is an electronic I/P transducer. It has a single electronic circuit. The circuit contains a solid state pressure sensor that monitors output pressure and is part of an electronic feed back network. The self correcting ability provided by the sensor circuit combination allows the model 3311 to produce a very stable responsive output signal. PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION: ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT During operation the input signal is received by model 3311s electronic circuit compared to the output pressure from the booster stage. A Rosemount solid state pressure sensor is part of the electronic circuit and monitors the booster stage output. The silicon based sensor uses strain gauge thin film technology.


INPUT 4-20Ma




TYPICAL OUTPUT 3-15 psi (To valve actuator)

MAGNETIC ACTUATOR The electric circuit controls the level of current flowing the actuator coil which is located in the pilot/actuator assembly. A change to the level of coil currents made by the electronic circuit when it senses a discrepancy

between the pressure measured by the sensor and the pressure required by the input signal. It converts electrical energy to motion.

I/P TRANSDUCER (MODEL 3311) PILOT STAGE The patented pilot stage contains two opposed fixed nozzles. The supply nozzle and receiver nozzle. It contains the deflector, which is a moving element. The supply nozzle is connected to the supply air and provide high velocity air stream. The receiver nozzle captures the air stream and converts it back to pressure. The receiver nozzle pressure is the output pressure of pilot stage. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FLOW CONTROL UNIT ORIFICE (Differential Pressure) Control Valve





BOOSTER STAGE The receiver nozzle pressure controls the booster stage, which has a poppet valve design. An increase in receiver nozzle pressure positions the valving in the booster stage to produce an increase in the transducer output signal. A decrease in the receiver nozzle pressure positions the valving in the booster stage to allow exhaust to occur decreasing the output signal. CONTROL LOOP A general control loop for the flow transmitter is shown in the figure. Basically it has four parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PRIMARY SENSOR TRANSMITTER CONTROLLER I/P CONVERTER POSITIONER

PRIMARY SENSOR (orifice plate) Orifice plate is used as the primary sensing element. It is placed in the flow pipe, through flanges, in which the flow is to be controlled. Two orifices plates are used for the flow measurement. These plates are connected to the HIGH and LOW line of the flow transmitter. FLOW TRANSMITTER Flow transmitter has two inputs: 1. 24 volts DC input 2. Differential Pressure Signal from the orifice plates


It has one output, 4 to 20 mA current, which varies according to differential pressure signal, applied to it. Hence this current gives the measure of flow rate through the pipe. This is 4-20 mA current is applied to controller. CONTROLLER Controller has four terminals: 1. 2. 3. 4. SUPPLY INPUT SET POINT OUTPUT

24 V DC is applied to the supply terminal. I/P to the controller is 420mA current from transmitter. Set point provides the provision of controlling. By adjusting the set point the output of the controller can be adjust according to the requires process. This set point can be set automatically or manually by the operator. Controller has 4-20mA o/p. The o/p of the controller is based on the comparison of set point and the i/p variable. This o/p is then applied to i/p (current to pneumatic) converter. I/P CONVERTER It has two inputs: 1. 4-20 mA current from controller 2. Pneumatic supply (1.4 Kg/m2) from air compressor One i/p of the i/p converter comes from the controller and another from the air compressor (4-6 Kg/m2) through the regulator, which reduces it to 1.4 Kg/m2. I/P converter have one output:

1. Pneumatic signal I/P converter vary its output signal (i.e. pneumatic supply) according to the controller output current (4-20 mA). This variable pneumatic signal is given to positioner. POSITIONER The positioner gives a fast response to this signal and this also gives a feedback mechanism through which a steady state of control valve shaft can be achieved. Positioner output varies from 0 to 1.4 Kg/m2, which is sufficient to control the valve positioner. A position controller (servomechanism) that is mechanically connected to a moving part of a final control element or its actuator and that automatically adjusts its output to the actuator to maintain a desired position in proportion to the input signal. These instruments are available in three configurations: 1. Pneumatica pneumatic signal (usually 3-15 psig) is supplied to the positioner. The positioner translates this to a required valve position and supplies the valve actuator with the required air pressure to move the valve to the correct position. 2. Analog I/Pthis positioner performs the same function as the one above, but uses electrical current (usually 4-20 mA) instead of air as the input signal. 3. Digitalalthough this positioner functions very much as the Analog I/P described above, it differs in that the electronic signal conversion is digital rather than analog. CONTROL VALVE The final element of the control loop is a variable valve, which is operated by the positioner o/p, the opening and closing of the control valve depends on the controller o/p which finally travels through 1/P

convert, positioner to the control valve. Hence the flow rate is control and maintain as per the requirement.

A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or process. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of the following functions: Stopping and starting fluid flow

Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow Controlling the direction of fluid flow Regulating downstream system or process pressure Relieving component or piping over pressure

There are many valve designs and types that satisfy one or more of the functions identified above. A multitude of valve types and designs safely accommodate a wide variety of industrial applications. Regardless of type, all valves have the following basic parts: the body, bonnet, trim (internal elements), actuator, and packing. The basic parts of a valve are illustrated in Figure 1. VALVE BODY The body, sometimes called the shell, is the primary pressure boundary of a valve. It serves as the principal element of a valve assembly because it is the framework that holds everything together. The body, the first pressure boundary of a valve, resists fluid pressure loads from connecting piping. It receives inlet and outlet piping through threaded, bolted, or welded joints.


Valve bodies are cast or forged into a variety of shapes. Although a sphere or a cylinder would theoretically be the most economical shape to resist fluid pressure when a valve is open, there are many other considerations. For example, many valves require a partition across the valve body to support the seat opening, which is the throttling orifice. With the valve closed, loading on the body is difficult to determine. The valve ends connections also distort loads on a simple sphere and more complicated shapes. Ease of manufacture, assembly, and costs are additional important considerations. Hence, the basic form of a valve body typically is not spherical, but ranges from simple block shapes to highly complex shapes in which the bonnet, a removable piece to make assembly possible, forms part of the pressure resisting body. Narrowing of the fluid passage (venture effect) is also a common method for reducing the overall size and cost of a valve. In other instances, large ends are added to the valve for connection into a larger line. Valve Bonnet

The cover for the opening in the valve body is the bonnet. In some designs, the body itself is split into two sections that bolt together. Like valve bodies, bonnets vary in design. Some bonnets function simply as valve covers, while others support valve internals and accessories such as the stem, disk, and actuator. The bonnet is the second principal pressure boundary of a valve. It is cast or forged of the same material as the body and is connected to the body by the threaded, bolted, or welded joint. In all cases, the attachment of the bonnet to the bonnet to the body is considered a pressure boundary. This means that the weld joint or bolts that connect the bonnet to the body are pressure-retaining parts.

Valve bonnets, although a necessity for most valves, represent a cause for concern. Bonnets can complicate the manufacture of valves, increase valve size, represent a significant cost portion of valve cost, and are a source for potential leakage.


Valve Trim The internal elements of a valve are collectively referred to as a valves trim. The trim typically includes a disk, seat, stem, and sleeves needed to guide the stem. A valves performance is determined by the disk and seat interface and the relation of the disk position to the seat. Because of the trim, basic motions and flow control are possible. In rotational motion trim designs, the disk slides closely past the seat to produce a change in flow opening. In linear motion trim designs, the disk lifts perpendicularly away from the seat so that an annular orifice appears. Disk and seat For a valve having a bonnet, the disk is the third primary principal pressure boundary. The disk provides the capability for permitting and prohibiting fluid flow. With the disk closed, full system pressure is applied across the disk if the outlet side is depressurized. For this reason, the disk is a pressure retaining part. Disks are typically forged and, in some designs, hard-surfaced to provide good sealing when the valve is closed. Most valves are named, in part, according to the design of their disks. The seat or seal rings provide the seating surface for the disk. In some designs, the body is machined to serve as the seating surface and seal rings are not used. In other designs, forged seal rings are threaded or welded to the body to provide the seating surface. To improve the wearresistance of the seal rings, the surface is often hard faced by the welding and then machining the contact surface of the seal ring. A fine surface finish of the seating area is necessary for good sealing when the valve is closed. Seal rings are not usually considered pressure boundary parts because the body has sufficient wall thickness to withstand design pressure without relying upon the seal rings.


Stem The stem, which connects the actuator and the disk, is responsible for positioning the disk. Stems are typically forged and connected to the disk by threaded or welded joints. For valve designs requiring stem packing or sealing to prevent leakage, affine surface finish of the stem in the area of the seal is necessary. Typically, a stem is not considered a pressure boundary part. Connection of the disk to the stem can allow some rocking or rotation to ease the positioning of the disk on the seat. Alternatively, the stem may be flexible enough to let the disk position itself against the seat. However constant fluttering or rotation of aflexible or loosely connected disk can destroy the disk or its connection to the stem. Two types of valve stems are rising stems and non rising stems. Illustrated in figure 2 and 3, these two types of stems are easily distinguished by observation. (1)RISING SYSTEM- For arising stem valve, the stem is threaded and mated with the bushing threads of yoke that is integral part of, or is mounted to, the bonnet. Closed







(2)NONRISING SYSTEM There is no upward stem movement from outside the valve for a non rising stem design. For the non-rising stem design, the valve disk is internally and mates with the stem threads. CLOSED







Valve Actuator The actuator operates the stem and disk assembly. An actuator may be a manually operated hand-wheel, Manual lever, motor operator, solenoid operator, pneumatic operator, or hydraulic ram. In some designs, the actuator is supported by the bonnet. In other designs, a yoke mounted to the bonnet supports the actuator.

Except for certain hydraulically controlled valves, actuators are outside of the pressure boundary. Yokes, when used, are always outside of the pressure boundary. Valve Packing


Most valves use some form of packing to prevent leakage from the space between the stem and the bonnet. Packing is commonly a fibrous material (such as flax) or another compound (such as Teflon) that forms a seal between the internal parts of a valve and the outside where the stem extends through the body. Valve packing must be properly compressed to prevent fluid loss and damage to the valves stem. If a valves packing is too loose, the valve will leak, which is a safety hazard. If the packing is too tight, it will impair the movement and possibly damage the stem. Introduction to the types of valves Because of the diversity of the systems, fluids, and environments in which valves must operate, a vast array of valves types have been developed. Examples of the common types are the globe valve, gate valve, ball valve, plug valve, butterfly valve, diaphragm valve, check valve, the pinch valve, and safety valve. Each type of valve has been designed to meet specific needs. Some valves are capable of throttling flow, other valves types can only stop flow, other work well in corrosive systems, and other handles high pressure fluids. Each valve type has certain inherent advantages and disadvantages. Understanding these differences and how they effect the valves application or operation is necessary for the successful operation of a facility. Although all valves have the same basic components and function to control flow in some fashion, the method of controlling the flow can vary dramatically. In general, there are four methods of controlling flow through a valve: Move a disc, or plug onto or against an orifice (for example, globe or needle type valve). Slide a flat, cylindrical, or spherical surface across the orifice (for example, gate and plug valves).


Rotate a disc or ellipse about a shaft extending across the diameter of an orifice (for example, a butterfly or ball valve). Move a flexible material into the flow passage (for example, diaphragm and pinch valves). Globe Valves Single-Port Valve Bodies Single port is the most common valve body style and is simple in construction. Single-port valves are available in various forms, such as globe, angle, bar stock, forged, and split constructions. Because high-pressure fluid is normally loading the entire area of the port, the unbalance force created must be considered in selecting actuators for single-port control valve bodies. Although most popular in the smaller sizes, single-port valves can often be used in 4-inch to 8-inch sizes with high-thrust actuators. They are widely used in process control applications, particularly in sizes from 1-inch through 4-inch. Normal flow direction is most often up through the seat ring. Double-Ported Valve Bodies Dynamic force on plug tends to be balanced as flow tends to open one port and close the other. Reduced dynamic forces acting on plug might permit choosing a smaller actuator than would be necessary for a single-ported valve body with similar capacity. Bodies are usually furnished only in the larger sizes4-inch or larger. Bodies normally have higher capacity than single-ported valves of the same line size. Port-guided valve plugs are often used for on-off or lowpressure throttling service.


Rotary Valves Butterfly Valve Bodies Bodies require minimum space for installation (figure 3-9). They provide high capacity with low pressure loss through the valves. Butterfly valve bodies might require high-output or large actuators if the valve is big or the pressure drop is high, because operating torques might be quite large. Units are available for service in nuclear power plant applications with very stringent leakage requirements. Standard liner can provide good shutoff and corrosion protection with nitrile or PTFE liner. Standard butterfly valves are available in sizes through 72-inch for miscellaneous control valve applications. Smaller sizes can use versions of traditional diaphragm or piston pneumatic actuators, including the modern rotary actuator styles. Butterfly valves exhibit an approximately equal percentage flow characteristic.


V-Notch Ball Control Valve Bodies The V-notch produces an equal-percentage flow characteristic. These control valves have good rangeability, control, and shutoff capability. V-notch ball control valve bodies are suited to control of erosive or viscous fluids, paper stock, or other slurries containing entrained solids or fibers. Ball remains in contact with seal during rotation, which produces a shearing effect as the ball closes and minimizes clogging. Bodies are available with either heavy-duty or PTFE-filled composition ball seal ring to provide excellent rangeability in excess of 300:1.

V-notch ball control valve bodies are available in flangeless or flanged body end connections.

FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL VALVES The relationship between control valve capacity and stem traveling


The characteristic between control valve capacity and valve stem travel is known as The Flow Characteristic of the Control Valve Trim design of the valve affects how the control valve capacity changes as the valve moves through its complete travel. Because of the variation in trim design, many valves are not linear in nature. Valve trims are instead designed, or characterized, in order to meet the large variety of control application needs. Many control loops have inherent non linearitys, which may be possible to compensate selecting the control valve trim. The most common characteristics are shown in the figure above. The percent of flow through the valve is plotted against valve stem position. The curves shown are typical of those available from valve manufacturers. These curves are based on constant pressure drop across the valve and are called inherent flow characteristics. CONTROL VALVE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS


F L O W %


0 0 STEM OPENING % 100

Linear- flow capacity increases with valve travel. Equal percentage flow capacity increases exponentially with valve trim travel. Equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in existing Cv. A modified parabolic characteristic is approximately Midway between linear and equal percentage characteristics. It provides fine throttling at low flow capacity and approximately linear characteristics at higher flow capacity. Quick opening provides large changes in flow for very small changes in lift. It usually has too high a valve gain for use in modulating control. So it is limited to on-off service, such as sequential operation in either batch or semi-continuous processes. Hyperbolic Square Root The majority of control applications are valves with linear, equalpercentage, or modified-flow characteristics. Installed Control Valve Flow Characteristics

When valves are installed with pumps, piping and fittings, and other process equipment, the pressure drop across the valve will vary as the plug moves through its travel. When the actual flow in the system is plotted against valve opening, the curve is called the Installed Flow Characteristic. In most applications, when the valve opens, and the resistance due to fluids flow deceases the pressure drop across the valve. This Moves the inherent characteristic: A linear inherent curve will in general resemble a quick opening characteristic An equal percentage curve will in general resemble a linear curve.

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) A PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program, to control the state of devices connected as outputs. Almost any production line, machine function or process can be automated using a PLC. The speed and accuracy of the operation can be greatly enhanced using this type of control system. But the biggest benefit in using a PLC is the ability to change and replicate the operation or process while collecting and communicating vital information. A PLC consists of following main parts:


What is a PLC input/output? INPUT Sensing Devices Switches and Pushbuttons Proximity Sensors Limit Switches Pressure Switches OUTPUT Valves Solenoids Motor Actuators Pumps

The most essential components are: Power Supply - This can be built into the PLC or be an external unit. Common voltage levels required by the PLC (with and without the power supply) are 24Vdc, 120Vac, 220Vac. CPU (Central Processing Unit) This is a computer where ladder logic is stored and processed.


Indicator lights - These indicate the status of the PLC including power on, program running, and a fault. These are essential when diagnosing problems. The configuration of the PLC refers to the packaging of the components. Typical configurations are listed below from largest to smallest as shown in See Typical Configurations for PLC. Shoebox - A compact, all-in-one unit (about the size of a shoebox) that has limited expansion capabilities. Lower cost, and compactness make these ideal for small applications. Micro - These units can be as small as a deck of cards. They tend to have fixed quantities of I/O and limited abilities, but costs will be the lowest. Logical Sensors-Sensors allow a PLC to detect the state of a process. Logical sensors can only detect a state that is either true or false. Software - A software based PLC requires a computer with an interface card, but allows the PLC to be connected to sensors and other PLCs across a network. I/O (Input/Output) A number of input/output terminals must be provided so that the PLC can monitor the process and initiate actions. Both inputs and outputs can be categorized into two basic types: logical or continuous. The I/O system consists of two main parts: The rack I/O modules

Rack - A rack is often large (up to 18" by 30" by 10") and can hold multiple cards. When necessary, multiple racks can be connected together. These tend to be the highest cost, but also the most flexible and easy to maintain. I/O modules are devices with connection terminals to which the field devices are wired. Together, the rack and the I/O modules form the interface between the field devices and the PLC.

Note: PLCs used in Mathura Refinery has TMR (Triple Module redundancy) i.e., 2 processors work at a time & 1 is for backup. These processors have interlock logics & each input card has 32 channels. Ladder Logic Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLCs. As mentioned before, ladder logic has been developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was a strategic one. By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of retraining needed for engineers and tradespeople was greatly reduced.



DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) The DCS is a control system which collects the data from the field and decides what to do with them. Data from the field can either be stored for future reference, used for simple process control, use in conjunction with data from another part of the plant for advanced control strategies. What must be in the DCS for it to be able to do so much? Operator Console These are like the monitors of our computers. They provide us with the feedback of what they are doing in the plant as well as the command we issue to the control system. These are also the places where operators issue commands to the field instruments. Engineering Station These are stations for engineers to configure the system and also to implement control algorithms. History Module This is like the hard disk of our PCs. They store the configurations of the DCS as well as the configurations of all the points in the plant. They also store the graphic files that are shown in the console and in most systems these days they are able to store some plant operating data. Data Historian These are usually extra pieces of software that are dedicated to store process variables, set points and output values. They are usually of higher scanning rates than that available in the history module. Control Modules These are like the brains of the DCS. Specially customized blocks are found here. These are customized to do control functions like PID control, ratio control, simple arithmetic and dynamic compensation. These days, advanced control features can also be found in them. I/O These manage the input and output of the DCS. Input and output can be digital or analogues. Digital I/Os are those like on/off, start/stop signals. Most of the process measurements and controller outputs are considered


analogue. These are the points where the field instruments are hardwired to. All above mentioned elements are connected by using a network, nowadays very often used is Ethernet.

The practical and technological boundaries between a Distributed Control System DCS, Programmable Logic Controller PLC and Personal Computer PC control are blurring. Systems traditionally associated with process control are being used in discrete applications. Likewise, traditionally discrete solutions are used increasingly in both batch and continuous process control. Today's control hardware is constructed from many of the same standard industry components such as Intel processors. Therefore the only real difference between control systems is at the software level. OPERATION OF DCS Basically DCS works in two loops namely closed loops & open loops which work on four parameters-Flow, Temp., level, & Pressure. The structure of DCS is shown below:-


The figure below shows the internal architecture of DCS of ABB make:-

Parameters related with DCS:(1)AIN-Converts the count coming from analog input to % value (8004000) (2)AOT-Analog Output (3)PID Controller-It executes an algorithm so that process value is close to the set value. (4)Barrier-Informs about the fault in the field to the control room. (5)Processor-There are basically 2 processors of which one is working & Other is for backup. This is known as redundancy system. (6)Comm. Card-This transfers the data between the processor & the analog/ digital card.

Closed Loop (1)Flow Loop


(2)Level Loop Level Troll:-



(3)Temperature Loop



(4)Pressure Loop


Open Loop Controller:-


Compare PLC and DCS: What is the difference? The programmable logic controller (PLC) is king of machine control while the distributed control system (DCS) dominates process control. If you manufacture plastic widgets, you speak PLC. If you produce chemicals, you speak DCS. Today, the two technologies share kingdoms as the functional lines between them continue to blur. We now use each where the other used to rule. However, PLCs still dominate high-speed machine control, and DCSs prevail in complex continuous processes. The early DCS looked dramatically different from the early PLC. Initially, the DCS performed the control functions of the analog panel instruments it replaced, and its interface mimicked their panel displays. DCSs then gained sequence logic capabilities to control batch processes as well as continuous ones. DCSs performed hundreds of analog measurements and controlled dozens of analog outputs, using multivariable Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control. With the same 8-bit microprocessor technology that gave rise to the DCS, PLCs began replacing conventional relay/solid-state logic in machine control. PLCs dealt with contact input/output (I/O) and started/stopped motors by performing Boolean logic calculations. The big change in DCS over the past 20 years is its move from proprietary hardware to the personal computer (PC) and standard LAN technologies. With each advance in PC power, DCSs have moved up in power. PCs gave us speedy, responsive, multi-media, windowed, operator-process interfaces (OPI). Relational databases and spreadsheet software enhance the ability of DCSs to store and manipulate data. Artificial intelligence (AI) technology gives us "smart" alarming. Today's DCS architecturally looks much like the DCS of 20 years ago, but tomorrow's DCS may control through networked "smart" deviceswith no I/O hardware of its own.

Most DCSs offer redundant controllers, networks, and I/Os. Most give you "built-in" redundancy and diagnostic features, with no need for userwritten logic. DCSs allow centralized configuration from the operator or engineering console in the control room. They allow inter-controller communications & use multi-tasking operating systems. The typical DCS has integrated diagnostics and standard display templates that automatically extend/update when your database changes. This database is central to the system-you don't have different databases sitting in the controllers. Most DCSs allow graphical configuration, provide online diagnostics, and are self-documenting. Most provide for user-defined control blocks or customized strategies. The controllers execute control strategies as independent tasks; thus, making changes to part of the control logic has no impact on the rest. An important difference between DCSs and PLCs is how vendors market them. DCS vendors typically sell a complete, working, integrated, and tested system; offering full application implementation. They offer many services: training, installation, field service, and integration with your Information Technology (IT) systems. A DCS vendor provides a server with a relational database, a LAN with PCs for office automation, networking support and integration of third-party applications and systems. The DCS vendor tries to be your "one-stop shop." The PLC is more of a "do-it-yourself" device, which is sometimes simpler to execute. Programmable Logic Controllers. When PLCs were solely replacements for hard-wired relays, they had only digital I/O, with no operator interface or communications. Simple operator interfaces appeared, then evolved into increasingly complex interfaces as PLCs worked with

increasingly complex automation problems. We went from a panel of buttons and I/O-driven lamps to PLC full-color customized graphic displays that run on SCADA software over a network. PLCs now have many DCS-like control functions (e.g., PID algorithms) and analog I/O. They've moved past their birthplace: the digital world (switch and binary sensor inputs and output contacts to run motors and trigger solenoids). PLCs are fast: They run an input-compute-output cycle in milliseconds. On the other hand, DCSs offer fractional second (1/2 to 1/10) control cycles. However, some DCSs provide interrupt/event-triggered logic for high-speed applications. PLCs are simple, rugged computers with minimal peripherals and simple OSs. While increasing reliability, PLC simplicity is not conducive to redundancy. Thus, fully redundant ("hot," automatic, bumpless) variations of PLCs, with their added hardware and software, sometimes suffer from a reduction in their reliability-a characteristic PLCs are famous for. Data exchange typically requires you to preassign data registers and hard code their addresses into the logic. If you add registers or need to reassign data, you typically have to deal manually with the Domino Effect. Typical PLC Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) languages include function blocks that can perform complex control and math functions (e.g., PID algorithms). Complex multi-loop control functions (e.g., cascade management and loop initialization) are not typical. For functions too messy to implement in RLL, most PLCs provide a function block that calls a user-written program (usually in BASIC or C). PLCs typically operate as "state" machines: They read all inputs, execute through the logic, and then drive the outputs. The user-written logic is

typically one big RLL program, which means you may have to take the whole PLC off-line to make a change of any size. You also run into database synchronization problems because of the separation of PLCs and the Man Machine Interface (MMI) software packages, as opposed to the central databases of DCSs. A PLC will run in a stand-alone configuration. A DCS controller normally expects an operator interface and communications, so it can send alarms, messages, trend updates, and display updates. Many PLC installations use interface software from third-party vendors for improved graphics and various levels of alarming, trending, and reporting. The PLC and MMI software normally interact by sitting on the network and using the register exchange mechanism to get data from and to the various PLCs. This type of communication presumes you have preassigned data registers and can fetch data on an absolute address basis. This can lead to data processing errors (e.g., from the wrong input) you won't encounter with the central database of a DCS. Some PLCs use proprietary networks, and others can use LANs. Either way, the communication functions are the same-fetch and put registers. This can result in bottlenecking and timing problems if too many PCs try communicating with too many PLCs over a network. A PLC may have a third-party package for operator interfaces, LAN interface to PCs and peripherals, PLC data highway or bus, redundant controllers with local and distributed I/O, local MMI and local programming capability. The PLC would have redundant media support, but not the redundant communication hardware or I/O bus hardware you'd find in a DCS. A PLC would have preprogrammed I/O cards for specific signal types and ranges.


COMMUNICATION B/W PIPELINES IOCL operates the largest network of crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in India. Started with the construction of the 435 Km. long guwahati siliguri pipeline in early sixties, the pipeline of IOCL today transport petroleum products to the various major demand centres of this geographically vast country and feed crude oil to four major inland refineries. Indian oil is one of the leaders in providing engineering, construction and consultancy services to the pipeline industry. TYPES OF PIPELINES IN MATHURA REFINERY Crude pipeline(SMPL) Products pipeline(MJPL)

PURPOSE OF THESE PIPELINES These pipelines used for direct supply of crude oil from port to mathura refinery and to send refined petroleum products to other terminals for marketing, this decrease the transportation cost of oil. SMPL used to used to take crude oil from Salaya to Mathura to Jalandhar and MJPL is used to transfer refined oil to Tundla terminal.


MJPL PIPELINE SYSTEM The pipeline starts at Mathura Refinery & follows an upward gradient up to Delhi installation (i.e. 174.889 meters level at Mathura to 229.105 meters level at Delhi). Further follows upward gradient up to Ambala (i.e. 274.4 meters level at Ambala)& follows downward gradient to Jalandhar (i.e. 236.74 meters levels at Jalandher). This pipeline covers a distance of 526. I Km from Mathura to jalandher, 69.940 km Sonepat Tpoint meerut Terminal & 57.435 km from Mathura to Tundla. The following is the length of the pipeline in section. S.No. 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. Section Mathura Delhi Delhi Panipat-Ambala Ambala- Jalandhar Sonepat-Meerut Mathura Tundla PPL Length in km 146.600 214.5 km 165.000 km 69.940 km 57.435 km

RADIO COMMUNICATION IN MJPL In IOCL there are basically types communication system used. Analog UHF system, Digital UHF system, Optical fibre UHF system. The UHF bands have the frequency range from MHz to GHz. This frequency band is used for the communication in IOCL. The communication system is used for controlling & monitoring the pipeline operation. The analog UHF system is used earlier, but presently the digital UHF & optical fibre UHF communication system are used.

In the MJPL, digital communication is used having the frequency range of MHz. In SMPL digital communication is used in freq range of approx 2CHz. While in the new, MTPL, optical fibre UHF communication is used. Any of the above communication system can be divided into three parts:1. Radio Unit, 2. MUX/DEMUX, 3. Exchange. ANALOG AND DIGITAL U.H.F. SYSTEM In this system a single antenna is used both for transmission and receive. In I.O.C.L. Grill antenna is used. The line of sight is used for transmission and receives. Due to limited range of line of sight communication repeaters are used at a distance of 40 to 50 km. for the transmission of single from antenna to radio room, high requency coaxial cable is used for M.J.P.L. and circular wave guide is used for S.M.P.L.

ANALOG U.H.F. SYSTEM RADIO UNIT In this system the antenna is connected to the duplexer, through the communication lines. The duplexer is used because it can transmit as well as receive the signals. It is also known as change over unit. It works on R.F level of the signal. The receive signal from the receive end of the change over unit is then applied to the down counter. The down converter basically a mixer which converts the R.F signal to I.F signal. The I.F signal is measured in the dbm level. This I.F signal is then applied to the I.F

amplifier, which amplifies the signal. The amplified signal is then applied to the detector. The detector is just like the demodulator, which separates the base signal and supervisory signal. The detector has two outputs: Base band signal Sub base band signal



The base band signal is then applied to the base band amplifier, which amplifies the base band signle. The base band signal consists of the many different channels each of different frequency range. Sub base band signal is also amplified using the base band amplifier. The base band is then applied to the Mux/Demux unit. For the transmission of the signal the base band received from the MUX/DEMUX unit and sub base band signal is given to the modulator, which modulates the base band signal. This modulated signal is then radiated in the space through the transmitter, change over unit, which get changed to the transmission mode, and antenna.

MUX UNIT Analog MUX is used for receiving of the base band signal. The MUX unit consists of the modem cards. The modem cards are used to select the data of the desired of the frequency range. The modem cards are set at the intermediate frequency of the frequency range. The output of the MUX is then applied to the exchange. It uses 6 wire communication system for this purpose. The output of the MUX has three types of communication output terminal: 1. Receiving 2. Transmission 3. Ear and Mouth These three terminals are then applied to the inputs of the exchange. Receive terminal of the MUX system is used for receiving the signal from the antenna and applied to the exchange. The transitions terminal is used for the transmission of the signal, while the ear and mouth terminal is used for the signaling.

Basically there are three types of communication used: 2 WIRE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM in two wire communication normal communication takes place and each of the receive, transmission and signaling held on the same 2 wire transmission line. The 2 wire communication has complex circuitry hardware implementation. 4 WIRE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 4 wire communication uses separate line for communication. It uses single 2 wire communication line for both receive and transmit, and 2 wire communication line for signaling. 4 wire communication is rarely uses. 6 WIRE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM It uses separate wires for the receive, transmit and signaling. The circuitry used for hardware implementation is used. Because of separate lines used for communication these are largely used. MUX cards are programmed for the 6 wire communication. EXCHANGE Exchange facilitates the subscriber to communicate with the other exchanges of different cities. Between the exchange and subscriber two wire communication is used. The two wire communication is used here because the subscribers are situated at different place distant from the exchange and it is easy to take two wire communication line to these places. WORKING OF THE EXCHANGE

The exchange is directly connected to the MUX at respective terminals through the 6 wire communication line. Suppose that the subscriber desired to communicate to AMBALA. Let the code of the AMBALA is 722. The subscriber dials the no. 722. The exchange then sends-48 volts for the dial tone through the mouth. If the dial tone is accepted by the AMBALA exchange then they returns the dial tone through the ear and signals to dial the next number. The same process as discussed above is repeated and after getting the acknowledgement through the ear, the communication starts through the receive and transmit terminals. This communication continues until the loop through ear and mouth is mouth. The exchange works at dc level of -48v in normal operation, but at the time of the ring a.c voltage of the range 50 to 110 V. DIGITAL U.H.F. SYSTEM The digital U.H.F. communication system has basically similar working to that of the analog U.H.F. system, but all the quantities are in the digital form. Similar to the analog U.H.F. system the signal from the antenna is applied to the radio system. Here the output of the radio system is in time slots instead of the intermediate frequency.


A set of 32 channels is called the tributary. Each channel has the capacity of 64kbps. Hence each tributary covers the band of 2 mb data. In M.J.P.L. unit, for communication, two such tributaries are taken from the radio system. The signal is modulated on TDM. In the tributary the channel no. 0 and 16 are reserved for the signaling, which contain the information about the signal. These tributary are then applied to the MUX unit. The MUX unit consists of different types of the output cards. This MUX unit can be

programmed to used to separate the time slots from tributaries and link them to the output cards. The user can program it. The output of the MUX unit is then applied to the exchange. Different types of protocols are used for communication. 1. V35:-- It is software handshaking transfer protocol. It uses the TCP/IP software. 1. V24/X24:-It is hardware controlled handshaking transfer protocol. 2. X11:--This protocol uses the simple receive and transfer of data. No handshaking takes place in this.

OPTICAL FIBRE U.H.F. SYSTEM The optical fibre U.H.F. system used in the M.T.P.L. it uses the optical for the communication channel. In the M.T.P.L. 6 core, 12 fibre optical cable has been used. One core contains two fibres. The OFC from the field is connected to the optical fibre termination box. It provides the general facility of termination of OFC from line. The fibre termination also provides the facility of starting the extra length of fibre cables. FROM FIELD Fibre distribution frame provides the interface between OLTE and FTB. A single wire provides the receiving and transmission. In I.O.C.L. 4 wires have been used in which 2 wires have been used for standby. The OLTE provides the 16 tributaries of each single OFC cable input to it. Each tributary has the capacity of 2 mb. Hence the total capacity of the single optical fibre is 32 mb. These tributaries are then connected the MUX. The OLTE also works as transducer, since it converts the light energy to the electrical signal in digital form.


NEED OF REPEATERS Although there is not any line of sight communication yet it requires the repeaters. Repeaters are required because there are various losses in the fibre due to its structure, material and the cuts during its installation.


Also the OLTE requires a minimum level below, which it does not work. So for the proper working of the system the repeaters are used.

CONTROL Basic Control is provided through PLC. PLC Programmable logic controller is a controller, which can be programmed to control the various components such as analog output, digital output etc. Plant SCADA software of TATA Honeywell is used for the programming of PLC. The SCADA softare provides the visual display of the working of the plant. The block diagram of PLC is shown in figure. The various components of PLC are as follows: POWER SUPPLY CPU GBC PCM ETERNET INTERFACE BIU PC QUICK PANNEL

POWER SUPPLY Power supply converts the 230V ACinput to 24V output. Thus DC output is then supply to various parts of the PLC. Power supply has provided the port for interfacing with PC through the RS 232/485 parallel port interface. Through the PC we can program the PLC for the desired operation.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT(CPU) CPU is the heart of the PLC system. All the basic operations of controlling according to the programming are done through the CPU. The CPU gives the instruction to other parts and controls their operation. GENIUS BUS CONTROLLER GBC is a bus controller, which controls the operation of the buses. The GBC uses the 2W comm.. line for controlling. The GBC is connected to the Bus Interface Units(BIU), and control their operation according to the instructions.

PROGRAMMABLE COPROCESSOR MODULE Programmable coprocessor module provides the interfacing between the PLC and the other equipment, which is not connected to BIU. It uses the RS 232/485 parallel port interface. Through the PCM, the PLC can control on the other equipment and can communicate with it. ETERNET INTERFACE It provides the interfacing between the PLC and the Local Area Network(LAN). For the future safety, generally two Ethernet interfaces used. The second interface keeps watching the first one, and start working when fails. This method is called Duplication Safety. BUS INTERFACE UNIT BIU controls the operation of the various ports, such as analog input port, analog output port, digital input port, digital output port etc. The BIU is controlled by the GBC. More than one BIU are used according to

the requirement of the plant. These ports are connected through the relays to operate the switches. PERSONNEL COMPUTER Through the PC, programming of the PLC is done. CPU does not provided any port for interfacing with PC hence it is connected to the power supply through RS 232/485 interface. The ladder logic is used for programming. QUICK PANEL In place of PC we can use the quick panel to manually control the ports. It is connected through the main line bus. It provides touch screen for the controlling of the various ports.



SMPL SMPL is used to transfer crude oil from Salaya to Mathura. It is the most important part of Mathura refinery and it cannot be operate without this unit. Due to this route it is known as SALAYA_MATHURA PIPELINE. This crude oil fulfills the requirement of three refineries: Panipat Refinery Mathura Refinery Gujrat Refinery


Different sections of SMPL are: Section SalayaViramgam ViramgamKoyali ViramgamCaksu Chaksu-Mathura Chaksu-Panipat Length(Km.) 274.40 141.80 605.80 197.20 649.10 Line Size(Dia.) 28 18 24 24 24 Repeater Station 2 3 13 4 6

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IN SMPL For any process world wide instrumentation and control system play a key role by sensing, monitoring, controlling & recording complex processes that combines together, provides the desired o/p on which an organization survives and grows likewise in pipeline to sophisticated instrumentation and control systems along high tech ups system are installed for monitoring, controlling and safety of pipeline operations and for achieving throughout goals in most economical manner. All station equipments MOVs and piping are provided with pneumatic/electronic instruments of analog/digital type with associated controls for fail-safe operation of equipments and pipeline as a whole. The instrumentation is broadly classified as under: 1. Main line pumping unit/monitoring control instrumentation 2. Station monitoring & control instrumentation 3. Station auto control instrumentation 4. Instrumentation for auxiliary system


MAIN LINE PUMPING UNIT/MONITORING & CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION Since the area of operation is hazardous, the instrumentation system comprising engine, gear-box pump mounted sensor and logic elements used and control and mostly of pneumatic type, the operation of engine is controlled locally from unit control panel/interface panel & remotely from the station control panel. UNIT CONTROL PANEL The unit control panel consists of diff. pneumatic elements like multi port valves, indicating relays, pilot relays, pneumatic timers, logic gates etc. To achieve the operation in a given sequence as per requirements various monitoring instrumentation such as pressure gauges, temp. Gauges, pyrometer, speed indication are mounted on the UCP. The sensors are mounted on the engine vents the air supply when the sensed parameters falls below or exceed the set pt. as the case may be and actuates the pneumatic indicating relay in the healthy conditions when the sensed parameters meets the operational requirements air venting will not occur. The pneumatic indicating relays has two positions corresponding to healthy/alarm conditions for the display of alarm status(red for alarm & green for healthy). It also provides pneumatic o/p corresponding to actuate other logic elements in order to perform the desired logic function i.e. given alarm, tripping the engine etc. as per the logic design. Apart from this OIL MIST DETECTOR system is also incorporated to OIL MIST exceed a present value. For monitoring engine speed magnetic pick-up is used as a sensor and no. of pulses induced in the pick-up due to cutting of magnetic field by a gear connected to the engine crank shaft is proceed in interface panel & signal is obtained for speed indication on UCP as well as SCP. STATION OPERATION FROM CONTROL PANEL MAIN LINE PUMPING UNIT

Control and sequence are incorporated in station control panel(SCP) through electronic h/w and in PLC system through ladder logic software for starting/stopping of the main line pumping units and opening/closing of suction/discharge MOVs. The interface panel b/w SCP and UCP converts the electrical to pneumatic signals and vice versa. When engine is given starting command, the logic is arranged in such a way that first opening of pump suction valves takes place after the valves opened fully, engine start and after engine pick-up certain speed, the discharge valves open.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS IN SMPL General communication systems play a vital role at different stages for information exchange & coordination in successful operation of a cross country pipeline. These stages include: Start up and shut down of pumps stations. Periodic monitoring of station operational parameters and adjusting the same to achieve the designed optimum throughputs. Under idle as well as running conditions. The different telecommunication System available in SMPL and their applications are briefly described below. VHF walkie talkie sets(130-170MHz) for tanks/tank form operation, ETP operation, fire & safety coordination, Comm. During antenna alignment etc. VHF(900Mhz) digital communication system in salayaviramagam-koyali section.


Digital microwave communication system b/w Viramgam & Sidhpur and OFC based digital comm. System using KBPL OFC b/w Sidhpur & Chaksu in Viramgam & Sidhpur in ViramgamChaksu section. Microwave(2.2 GHz) Digital communication System in Chaksu Mathura section. SUPERVISING CONTROL AND SET POINT FUNCTIONS The operator can initiate control actions either by giving control commands(using keyboard & mouse) or by triggering action areas in a graphic. The SCADA software provides facilities to operator to control the plant through select-check backs-execute cycle. The full control procedure is adopted. The operator selects the relevant picture containing the action area of the control procedure. The operator points and clicks the mouse at the corresponding action area. The operator gives a drive command using keyboard and mouse. The system their displays the current state/value of the point & ask for the next state/value. Where the operator gives the new state/value, the system attempts the two stage state control select and executes procedure. If either the select select or execute operation fails a control failed message in generated. Where the control command has been executed, an event message describing the control is recorded. The operator can about the command sequence at any stage before giving OK by pressing CANCEL. Suitable timers are provided for the various stages of control action to be completed at any time.


SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM(SCADA) The System helps monitoring & control of pipeline operations from master control station. The monitoring function covers: Pipeline pressure at all manned station & block valve locations. Pipeline temperature. Flow measurements at various originating, intermediate & terminal station & computation of flow rates. Status monitoring of various pumps i.e. Run/stop etc. different location across the pipeline. Monitoring of individual stations through individual station P&I diagram represented on the MIMIC.

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF TELESUPVISORY CONTROL SYSTEM Data Acquisition MMI Event & alarm notification Normal operating function like alarm acknowledgement display of pictures, display of alarms & alarms summaries. On demand & period lagging of picture mimics, report etc. Current trend and historic trend. Supervisory control & set pt. function. Support of hot stand by system. Support of wall mimic. Support of Management Information System(MIS). Privileged operate functions such as reconfiguration of variables & graphics. Creation of database & graphics support for connectivity to other SCADA system.

SYSTEM OPERATION Remote telemeters units inter-connected to the field instruments collect the sub process information & transmit the same to the master computer. These can issue controls to the process under command from master computer. The master station scans RTUs in predetermined sequence & collects up to date status of various parameter of measured units into engineering units. Detecting high-low limit violation, alarm & event processing data logging & file creation. The software allows the operation intersection. MONITORING FUNCTION Status information regarding open & close status of MOVs RUNs stop status of pumps on line/By rose of flow makes & stations Tank level Normal/high Centrifuge/Compressor Run/Stop. Engine running on crude/diesel etc. Sump tank level Normal/High Analog Information Station suction/discharge pressure station temperature flow rates etc. Flow meter information. Non reset counter reading, final-take off count. CONTROL FUNCTIONS On/off control of MOVs, mainline pumps. Set point control of section/discharge pressure. Back pressure/flow of delivery station emergency shutdown of a station.


TECHNICAL SERVICES ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL (APC) INTRODUCTION The traditional conditional philosophy, what is called instrumentation in chemical industries, is based on single loop control (sometimes called SISO-Single Input Single Output). Each process has no. of independent or single loops for feedback control of temp., pressures, flows, liquid levels, and sometimes compositions. The term Single Loop means there is one measurement, one controller and one final control element, usually a valve. A process plant has thousands of such control loops. The controllers usually have little or no logic circuitry to tie the many loops together. As a consequence the operators must perform some of the operations with control valves switched to manual, and has to implement process logic by switching in and out of automatic mode. A multivariable control or APC, is one that has the built in intelligence to look simultaneously at two or more process variables to choose, in a given situation, the best of several programmed strategies (algorithms) for manipulating one or more control valves (or other final control condition). APC can be defined as Use of logic, predictive algorithms, thermodynamics, calculations, real-time control models and other control techniques to achieve economically related plant operating targets. APC technology is based on bottom up control approach, which means even if the top layer fails, the next lower level control continues to operate.


ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL A multivariable control of APC, is one that has the built in intelligence to look simultaneously at two or more process variables and to choose, in a given situation, the best of several program strategies for manipulating one or more control valves(or other final control elements). APC can be defined as Use of logic, predictive algorithms, thermodynamics, calculations, real-time control models and other control techniques to achieve economically related plant operating targets. APC is based on bottom up control approach which means even if the top layer fails, next lower control continues to operate. LEVEL 0: Control of basic parameters viz. pressure, temperature, level & flow using PID regulatory control. LEVEL 1: Dynamic control such as feed forward, Adaptive & calculated Control. LEVEL 2: Optimization of set pts.-constraint control, multivariable controls (APC). LEVEL 3: Planning and scheduling model-using techniques of OR & RTO.

FUNCTIONS OF MULTI-VARIABLE PREDICTIVE CONTROLLERS (MVPC) Multiple MVs are manipulated to keep multiple PVs at their set point. Uses linear dynamic process models and past input data to predict future behavior of both controlled variables and process constraints. The dynamic models may be expressed as parametric (transfer functions) models or step response (Time domain) models.


The predictions of these process values are updated from actual measurements at each control execution to account for unmeasured disturbances and modeling error. The controller calculates an optimum set of future control moves to minimize errors between errors between predicted and desired process behavior using least squares optimization solution. The controller solution protects both present and future constraints for both controlled variables and manipulated variables. It takes care of dynamic interactions, long dead times. Inverse response and disturbance variables feedback control. ADVANTAGES OF APC The advanced control techniques can better coordinate the interactions that frequently occur between material and energy flows in single-loop control systems, where changing one variable requires adjusting others, to compensate for side effects. By reducing process variability, advanced control allows plants to run closer to their constraints. This, in turn, cut energy use, as well as raw material and processing costs. It also improves product yield and quality, safety and productivity while lowering pollution. The product quality is the feedback which the process operators use to correct the operating conditions. Looking at the product quality, the relevant process parameters can be manipulated so as to control the product quality in question. Advanced control implementation reduces stabilization time during feed change, which in turn results in minimum product quality give away. The feed forward action of the advanced control algorithms helps to operate the plant steadily by adjusting the operating parameters before the disturbance actually reaches downstream. Advanced control algorithms allow applying dead time compensation techniques to


compensate for long delays in process response, permitting tighter control. ADVANCED CONTROLS IN PRACTICE APC is a powerful tool with a short pay back period in optimizing plant operations resulting in improved margins. Refineries world wide have implemented APC in almost all the major units viz Crude distillation Unit, Hydro cracker Unit, FCCU, CRU, VBU, etc. Normally APC is implemented in step by step approach, first in the primary distillation unit and then in the secondary units. APC in the crude distillation unit ensures a consistent feed quality to the secondary units WRT the cut pts. For E.g., Hydrogen unit feed FBP, CRU feed IBP, and Hydro cracker feed FBP etc. In refineries where allied infrastructure is adequate, APC can be simultaneously implemented in primary and secondary units. The benefits of APC ensure that the challenges of plant refining processes are efficiently addressed. The future of process control technology can only argue for the implementation of APC as the control industry can only argue for the implementation of APC as the control industry forges ahead with dominant software and hardware for reliability and cost savings. This leverages plants to operate within safe limits to maintain intermediate or final product quality. Additionally, yields can be maximized and achieving highest possible throughput can become more realistic. This necessarily translates to a much more stabilized operation with minimized energy consumption and a monitor of both historic and real time performance. It is advisable to implement best proven control technology for specific process and hardware/software platform. Because plants have to adapt to changing needs and scalability of operations. APC solutions should be capable of addressing them. Systems that are built for flexibility returns in investment in their automation investments.


PREREQUISITIES FOR APC IMPLEMENTATION INTRODUCTION For advanced controls to be fully successful requires number of different groups working toward a common goal. This includes planning engineers, operation engineers, instrument maintenance, technical services and the project team. Any one of these groups can undermine the benefits achieved if management support is not forthcoming. Generally, advanced control succeeds best in plants where companies are committed to the technology & believes that it works. This commitment should start with top management, who should be proactive in ensuring that the technology is fully exploited and hold their subordinates accountable for its success. On sites without these support, control engineers spend most of their time convincing others to use the technology and tracking down cases where applications were disabled by operators for no apparent reason. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM APC implementation depends significantly on the existing control system platforms (DCS), Information Management systems(Historians, Databases), Network infrastructure at site and the plant instrumentation available at site. EFFECTIVE BASIC CONTROL APC has to sit on the basic regulatory controls. If the basic controls dont work properly. How can one even think that APC sitting on the top of it and relying on them will work effectively? It will not. The min. requirement of APC is that the basic controls should not only be working properly but should also be reliable. The basic regulatory controls & field instrumentation has to be fully functional. Without them service factors will suffer badly. Advanced controls cannot compensate for the limitations of the basic controls, making them more costly to

engineer and support. Examples can be as trivial as properly tuning a level controller on a feed surge drum to minimize flow disturbances rather than to keep the level close to set point. DCS/GATEWAYS COMPATIBILITY The control systems being proprietary in nature, limit the scope of optimization possible on the process. The standard architecture of the leading APC technology vendors is that the APC runs on a database system that actually communicates with the base level DCS. Gateways are required for communication between APC systems and DCS with open technology such as TCP/IP protocol. Ethernet connectivity by OPC compliance, ODBC compliance etc. which are standard in information technology. APC will increase will increase the loading on DCS and gateways and the existing system has to be augmented, if required before implementing APC. Proper literature should be available of the DCS and the gateways. A little knowledge regarding the DCS gateways cant help the APC engineers in successfully utilizing the capabilities of the DCS as well as Gateways. MULTI_VARIABLE PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER (MVPC) Multi-Variable Predictive Controller is a state of the art control method that deals rigorously with interacting systems subject to time varying constraints. The controller is designed to provide both control and optimization in a robust fashion. Plant History Database(PHD) PHD collects, integrates and maintains the history of real-time continuous and discrete production; process performance and process relate data. The role of PHD is to: 1) Integrate all real-time process and process related data. 2) Provide a consistent and common base of process and process related information to applications. 3) Manage the historization and archiving of process data. 4) Provide a single controlled interface to DCS and SCADA systems.

5) Provide process calculation and trending capabilities. Control and Optimization The MVPC controller controls and optimizes processes that have significant interaction between variables. It incorporates a model of the process dynamics. From this model, the controller predicts future behavior of the process and determines how to adjust the controllers outputs to bring all process variables to set point or within constraints. Then if there are any degrees of freedom remaining, the controller adjusts the process to optimize operations. For e.g. by maximizing total product value. MVPC Controller vs. Single-Loop Controllers The MVPC controller can be viewed as a tool to keep process variables at specified set pts., just as a collection of single loop controllers would do. The MVPC controller does a good job with interacting variables where the collection of single loop controller would perform poorly. Often the real value of the MVPC controller lays in that it considers an entire process as a single entity rather than as a collection of isolated control loops. It than becomes a tool to keep the process within operational constraints while optimally optimizing some performance measure. Variables There are 3 types of process variables that the MVPC controller uses as control inputs and outputs: Controlled Variables (CVs) These are the variables that the controller attempts to keep at the set point or within a range that the operator specifies. The first priority of the controller is to keep the CVs within their constraints. Manipulated Variables (MVs):


These are the controller adjusts in order to keep the CVs within constraints and to optimize the process. The controller will not move any of the MVs outside their constraints. Disturbance Variables (DVs) These are the variables not under control of controller which affects the value of the CVs. They may come from an upstream process. For e.g. by predicting the future effects of the DVs on the CVs the controller can take action to prevent CV excursions outside constraints before they develop. DVs provide feed forward information to the controller. Sub-Process Models The MVPC controller uses a model to predict process behavior. The overall process model is composed of a matrix of dynamic sub-process models, each of which describes the effect of one of the independent variable on a CV evolves over time. Sub-process model are null when a particular independent variable has no effect on a particular CV. Dynamic Response of Sub-Processes The MVPC controller uses a generic form of Sub-process model that provide a reasonably good description of the dynamic behavior of the vast majority of the processes that are encountered in the processing industries. This generic model contains a no. of coefficients whose values determine the dynamic response of sub-process.

In Instrumentation & APC we have come across a term PID Controller, we will now discuss about it in detail.









Continuous process control Analog input (also known as "measurement" or "Process Variable" or "PV") Analog output (referred to simply as "output") Setpoint (SP) Proportional (P), Integral (I), and / or Derivative (D) constants

Examples of "continuous process control" are temperature, pressure, flow, and level control. For example, controlling the heating of a tank. For simple control, you have two temperature limit sensors (one low and one high) and then switch the heater on when the low temperature limit sensor turns on and then turn the heater off when the temperature rises to the high temperature limit sensor. This is similar to most home air conditioning & heating thermostats. In contrast, the PID controller would receive as input the actual temperature and control a valve that regulates the flow of gas to the heater. The PID controller automatically finds the correct (constant) flow of gas to the heater that keeps the temperature steady at the setpoint. Instead of the temperature bouncing back and forth between two points, the temperature is held steady. If the setpoint is lowered, then the PID controller automatically reduces the amount of gas flowing to the heater. If the setpoint is raised, then the PID controller automatically increases the amount of gas flowing to the heater. Likewise the PID controller would automatically compensate for hot,


sunny days (when it is hotter outside the heater) and for cold, cloudy days. The analog input (measurement) is called the "process variable" or "PV". You want the PV to be a highly accurate indication of the process parameter you are trying to control. For example, if you want to maintain a temperature of + or - one degree then we typically strive for at least ten times that or one-tenth of a degree. If the analog input is a 12 bit analog input and the temperature range for the sensor is 0 to 400 degrees then our "theoretical" accuracy is calculated to be 400 degrees divided by 4,096 (12 bits) = 0.09765625 degrees. We say "theoretical" because it would assume there was no noise and error in our temperature sensor, wiring, and analog converter. There are other assumptions such as linearity, etc.. The point being -- with 1/10 of a degree "theoretical" accuracy -- even with the usual amount of noise and other problems -one degree of accuracy should easily be attainable. The analog output is often simply referred to as "output". Often this is given as 0 to 100 percent. In this heating example, it would mean is the valve totally closed (0 %) or totally open (100 %). HOW A PID CONTROLLER WORKS The PID controllers job is to maintain the output at a level so that there is no difference (error) between the process variable (PV) and the setpoint (SP).


In this diagram the valve could be controlling the gas going to a heater, the chilling of a cooler, the pressure in a pipe, the flow through a pipe, the level in a tank, or any other process control system. What the PID controller is looking at is the difference (or "error") between the PV and the SP. It looks at the absolute error and the rate of change of error. Absolute error means -- is there a big difference in the PV and SP or a little difference? Rate of change of error means -- is the difference between the PV or SP getting smaller or larger as time goes on. When there is a "process upset", meaning, when the process variable OR the setpoint quickly changes -- the PID controller has to quickly change the output to get the process variable back equal to the setpoint. If you have a walk-in cooler with a PID controller and someone opens the door and walks in, the temperature (process variable) could rise very quickly. Therefore the PID controller has to increase the cooling (output) to compensate for this rise in temperature.


Once the PID controller has the process variable equal to the setpoint, a good PID controller will not vary the output. You want the output to be very steady (not changing). If the valve (motor, or other control element) are constantly changing, instead of maintaining a constant value, this could case more wear on the control element. So there are these two contradictory goals. Fast response (fast change in output) when there is a "process upset", but slow response (steady output) when the PV is close to the setpoint. Note that the output often goes past (over shoots) the steady-state output to get the process back to the setpoint. For example, a cooler may normally have it's cooling valve open 34% to maintain zero degrees (after the cooler has been closed up and the temperature settled down). If someone opens the cooler, walks in, walks around to find something, then walks back out, and then closes the cooler door -- the PID controller is freaking out because the temperature may have raised 20 degrees! So it may crank the cooling valve open to 50, 75, or even 100 percent -- to hurry up and cool the cooler back down -- before slowly closing the cooling valve back down to 34 percent. CONTROL LOOP BASICS The PID loop tries to automate what an intelligent operator with a gauge and a control knob would do. The operator would read a gauge showing the input measurement of a process, and use the knob to adjust the output of the process (the "action") until the process's input measurement stabilizes at the desired value on the gauge. In older control literature this adjustment process is called a "reset" action. The position of the needle on the gauge is a "measurement", "process value" or "process variable". The desired value on the gauge is called a "setpoint." The difference between the gauge's needle and the setpoint is the "error". A control loop consists of three parts:


1. Measurement by a sensor connected to the process, 2. Decision in a controller element, 3. Action through an output device ("actuator") such as a control valve. As the controller reads a sensor, it subtracts this measurement from the "setpoint" to determine the "error". It then uses the error to calculate a correction to the process's output variable (the "action") so that this correction will remove the error from the process's input measurement. In a PID loop, correction is calculated from the error in three ways: cancel out the current error directly (Proportional), the amount of time the error has continued uncorrected (Integral), and anticipate the future error from the rate of change of the error over time (Derivative). For example: suppose a water tank is used to supply water for use in several parts of a plant, and it is necessary to control the water level at a constant. A sensor would measure the height of water in the tank, producing the "measurement", and continuously feed this data to the controller. The controller would have a "setpoint" of (for example) 75% full. The controller would have its output (the "action") connected to a proportionally-controlled characterized control valve controlling the make-up water feed. Opening the valve would increase the rate of water entering the tank, closing the valve would decrease it. The controller would use the measurement of how the level is changing over time to calculate how to manipulate the control valve to maintain a constant level at the "setpoint". A PID controller can be used to control any measurable variable which can be affected by manipulating some other process variable. For example, it can be used to control temperature, pressure, flow rate, chemical composition, speed, or other variables. Automobile cruise control is an example of an application area outside of the process industries which utilizes crude PID control.


Some control systems arrange PID controllers in cascades or networks. That is, a "master" control produces signals used by "slave" controllers. One common situation is motor controls: one often wants the motor to have a controlled speed, with the "slave" controller (often built into a variable frequency drive) directly managing the speed based on a proportional input. This "slave" input is fed by the "master" controllers' output, which is controlling based upon a related variable. Coupled and cascaded controls are common in chemical process control, HVAC and other systems where many parts cooperate. THEORY The PID loop adds positive corrections, removing error from the process's controllable variable (its input). Differing terms are used in the process control industry: The "process variable" is also called the "process's input" or "controller's output." The process's output is also called the "measurement" or "controller's input." This up a bit, down a bit movement of the process's input variable is how the PID loop automatically finds the correct level of input for the process. Removing the error "turns the control knob," adjusting the process's input to keep the process's measured output at the setpoint. The error is found by subtracting the measured quantity from the setpoint. "PID" is named after its three correcting calculations, which all add to and adjust the controlled quantity. These additions are actually "subtractions" of error, because the proportions are usually negative: 1. Proportional - To handle the present, the error is multiplied by a (negative) constant P (for "proportional"), and added to (subtracting error from) the controlled quantity. P is only valid in the band over which a controller's output is proportional to the error of the system. For example, for a heater, a controller with a

proportional band of 10 C and a setpoint of 20 C would have an output of 100% at 10 C, 50% at 15 C and 10% at 19 C. Note that when the error is zero, a proportional controller's output is zero. 2. Integral - To handle the past, the error is integrated (added up) over a period of time, and then multiplied by a (negative) constant I (making an average), and added to (subtracting error from) the controlled quantity. I averages the measured error to find the process output's average error from the setpoint. A simple proportional system oscillates, moving back and forth around the setpoint, because there's nothing to remove the error when it overshoots. By adding a negative proportion of (i.e. subtracting part of) the average error from the process input, the average difference between the process output and the setpoint is always being reduced. Therefore, eventually, a well-tuned PID loop's process output will settle down at the setpoint. 3. Derivative - To handle the future, the first derivative (the slope of the error) over time is calculated, and multiplied by another (negative) constant D, and also added to (subtracting error from) the controlled quantity. The derivative term controls the response to a change in the system. The larger the derivative term, the more rapidly the controller responds to changes in the process's output. Its D term is the reason a PID loop is also called a "Predictive Controller." The D term is a good thing to reduce when trying to dampen a controller's response to short term changes. Practical controllers for slow processes can even do without D. More technically, a PID loop can be characterized as a filter applied to a complex frequency-domain system. This is useful in order to calculate whether it will actually reach a stable value. If the values are chosen incorrectly, the controlled process input can oscillate, and the process output may never stay at the setpoint.


PID controller is called PI, PD, or P controller in absence of respective control actions. It may be noted that EWMA (Exponential Weighted Moving Average) controller is equivalent to PI controller. The generic transfer function for a PID controller of the interacting form is , with C being a constant which depends on the bandwidth of the controlled system. Loop Tuning "Tuning" a control loop is the adjustment of its control parameters (gain/proportional band, integral/reset, derivative/rate) to the optimum values for the desired control response. The optimum behavior on a process change or setpoint change varies depending on the application. Some processes must not allow an overshoot of the process variable from the setpoint. Other processes must minimize the energy expended in reaching a new setpoint. Generally stability of response is required and the process must not oscillate for any combination of process conditions and setpoints. Tuning of loops is made more complicated by the response time of the process; it may take minutes or hours for a setpoint change to produce a stable effect. Some processes have a degree of non-linearity and so parameters that work well at full-load conditions don't work when the process is starting up from no-load. This section describes some traditional manual methods for loop tuning. There are several methods for tuning a PID loop. The choice of method will depend largely on whether or not the loop can be taken "offline" for tuning, and the response speed of the system. If the system can be taken offline, the best tuning method often involves subjecting the system to a step change in input, measuring the output as a function of time, and using this response to determine the control parameters.

If the system must remain online, one tuning method is to first set the I and D values to zero. Increase the P until the output of the loop oscillates. Then increase I until oscillation stops. Finally, increase D until the loop is acceptably quick to reach its reference. A fast PID loop tuning usually overshoots slightly to reach the setpoint more quickly; however, some systems cannot accept overshoot.

Effects of increasing parameters Parameter Rise Time Overshoot Settling Time S.S. Error P Decrease Increase Small Change Decrease I Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate D Small Change Decrease Decrease Small Change Limitations The PID controller algorithm itself has some limitations. In practice most problems arise from instrumentation connected to the controller. One common problem is "integral windup". It might take too long for the output value to ramp up to the necessary value when the loop first starts up. Sometimes this can be fixed with a more aggressive differential term. Sometimes the loop has to be "preloaded" with a starting output. Another option is to disable the integral function until the measured variable has entered the proportional band. Some PID loops control a valve or similar mechanical device. Wear of the valve or device can be a major maintenance cost. In these cases, the PID loop may have a "deadband." The calculated output must leave the deadband before the actual output will change. Then, a new deadband will be established around the new output value.


Another problem with the differential term is that small amounts of noise can cause large amounts of change in the output. Sometimes it's helpful to filter the measurements, with a running average, or a low-pass filter. However, low-pass filtering and derivative control cancel each other out, so reducing noise by instrumentation means is a much better choice. Alternatively, the differential band can be turned off in most systems with little loss of control. This is equivalent to using the PID controller as a PI controller. The proportional and differential terms can also produce undesirable results in systems subjected to instantaneous "step" inputs (such as when a computer changes the setpoint). To avoid this, some PID algorithms incorporate various schemes: 1. derivative of output Many industrial PID systems actually measure the differential of the output quantity, which is always continuous (i.e., never has a step function), and usually moves in the same direction as the error. 2. setpoint weighting Setpoint weighting uses several setpoints. The errors from the two setpoints are combined to reduce upsets. Some schemes slowly reduce the proportion of error from an "old" setpoint, and increase the proportion of error from a "new" setpoint. Other schemes have multiple setpoints controlled by different outside controllers. The error in the integral term must be the true control error to avoid steady-state control errors. These parameters do not affect the response to load disturbances and measurement noise. Digital implementations of a PID algorithm may have limitations owing to the sampling rate of the data, and the limits of internal calculation and precision. For example, very old PLC systems may have used only 12 or 16 bits for internal variables, with limited precision. Some software implementations do not correctly handle internal overflow or extreme values, or may arbitrarily limit the values for the adjustable gain parameters.


Another problem faced with PID controllers is that they are linear. Thus performance of PID controllers in non-linear systems (such as HVAC systems) is variable.


CONCLUSION INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED is the first Indian company which comes under FORTUNE 500 companies. At present there are 4 Indian companies-IOCL, BP, HP and Reliance. It also finds a place of pride among the world biggest enterprises in Forbes 2000 list. The IOCL unit of Mathura is one of the largest petroleum units in Asia. It refined crude oil coming from Salaya offshore in Gujarat (where crude oil comes from Bombay high and Gulf countries by ships and pipelines) by pipeline. It produces almost all petroleum products like petrol, diesel, high speed diesel, naphtha, kerosene, ATF (Aviation Turbine Fuel), different gases(LPG etc.), glycerin, bitumen, propylene, sulphur etc. Mathura refinery has maximum no. of plants(Crude Distillation Unit, Vis-Breaking Unit, Bitumen Blowing Unit, Diesel Hydro Desulphurization Unit, Once Through Hydro cracking Unit, Vacuum Distillation Unit, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit, Continuous Catalytic Reforming Unit, Hydrogen Generation Unit, Sulphur Recovery Unit) as compare to other Indian Refineries. I have done Vocational Training in IOCL Mathura mainly in three sections: 1) Instrumentation 2) Pipeline section based on communication 3) Advanced Process Control