This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Submitted to: Mr. Oscar Submitted by: John Lloyd F. Morales
Problem of Urban Excess .
This paper contributes to the debate by focusing on the spatial issues inherent in excess commuting evaluation. there has been an on-going debate regarding how one should measure excess commuting in urban regions. both in theoretical and empirical terms. Definition: Urban excess commuting has emerged during the past two decades as an important construct for evaluating the spatial relationships between employment and residential locations. This work provides a formal resolution to much of the recent debate regarding estimates of excess commuting in urban regions. Our results show that aggregation and spatial unit definition may have profound impacts on the estimation of excess commuting. During this timeperiod. I chose this problem because I want to know what contributes to the debate on the spatial issues inherent in excess commuting evaluation. To this end. We demonstrate how scale and unit definition are manifested in the assessment of excess communating. a geographical information systems-based analysis is presented which explores spatial sensitivities in the excess commuting measure. .
Problem of Protectionism .
while import tariffs are perceived as ‘helping’ local industries. export tariffs are reldom implemented. and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow “Fair Competition” between imports and goods and services produced Domestically Tariffs: Typically. Import tariffs will increase the cost to importers. export tariffs have similar effects as import tariffs. Definition: Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods. and increase the price of imported goods in the local markets. Tariff rates usually vary according to the type of goods imported. to favour local producers. tariffs (or taxes) are imposed on imported goods. I chose this problem because I want to know what are implemented laws concerning protectionism. However. and in an economy with floating exchange rates. . restrictive guatas. thus lowering the quantity of goods imported. since export tariffs are often perceived as ‘hurting’ local industries. Tariffs may also be imposed on exports.
electrical safety. Economists often suggest that import licenses be auctioned to the highest bidder. However. Antidumping legislation supporters of anti-dumping laws argue that they prevent “dumping” of cheaper foreign goods that would cause local firms to close down. Administrative Barriers: Countries are sometimes accusedof using their various administrative rules regarding food safety. anti-dumping laws are usually used to impose trade tariffs on foreign exporters. The economics effects of an important quata is similar to that of a tariff.Import Quotas: To reduce the quantity and therefore increase the market price of imported goods. As a way to introduce barriers to imports. . except that the tax revenue gain form a tariff will instead be distributed to those who receive import licenses. Etc. in practice. environmental standards. or that import quotas be replaced by and equivalent tariff.
This leads to two major conclusions. An introduction into existing theory regarding geographic disparities is presented: geographical drift and breeder hypotheses are discussed. Large scale individual based longitudinal data should be studied in order to gain more insight into the relative importance of the geographical drift hypothesis.In order to gain insight into the relation between health and people's environment. The extent to which the environment exerts influence on a person's health is dependent on that person's individual characteristics. Second. literature published between 1985 and 1994 was gathered from several international databases. emphasis in past research has been primarily on urban constraints rather than opportunities. First. however. . urban living positive and are often negative environmental aspects have an effect on health that is often dependent on individual characteristics. Positive aspects of insufficiently appreciated. These conclusions are relevant only for further developing the breeder hypothesis. This is followed by a critical review focusing on interaction effects of urbanicity and individual characteristics on health.
Financial Crisis .