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American Educational Research Association

Designing Educative Curriculum Materials to Promote Teacher Learning Author(s): Elizabeth A. Davis and Joseph S. Krajcik Source: Educational Researcher, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Apr., 2005), pp. 3-14 Published by: American Educational Research Association Stable URL: Accessed: 12/09/2009 13:09
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Designing Educative Curriculum Materials to Promote Teacher Learning

A. by Elizabeth Davis andJoseph S. Krajcik
for Curriculum materials Grades K- 12that are intendedto promote teacher learningin addition to student learninghave come to be curriculum How can K- 12 curriculum matecallededucative materials. rials be designed to best promote teacher learning?What might teacher learningwith educative curriculummaterialslook like?The authors present a set of design heuristicsfor educative curriculum materialsto further the principleddesign of these materials.They buildfrom ideas about teacher learningand organizethe heuristics around importantparts of a teacher's knowledge base:subject matter knowledge,pedagogical content knowledgefor topics, and pedapractices.These heuristics gogicalcontent knowledgefor disciplinary provide a context for a theoreticallyoriented discussionof how features of educativecurriculum materialsmay promote teacher learning,by servingas cognitivetools that are situatedinteachers'practice. The authorsexplore challengesin the designof educativecurriculum such as the tension between providing materials, guidanceandchoice. lesson modification, assessment, collaboration with colleagues, and communication with parents. K-12 curriculum materials that are intended to promote teacher learning have come to be called educative curriculummaterials. The word educative refers to teachers as learners (K-12 curriculum materials are assumed to be educative for students) and does not imply a theoretical stance toward the nature of education as a whole. Educative curriculum materials should help to increase teachers' knowledge in specific instances of instructional decision making but also help them develop more general knowledge that they can apply flexibly in new situations. Such a focus distinguishes educative curriculum materials from typical teachers' guides, which include supports for teaching strategies but not for teacher learning, and from typical K-12 curriculum materials more generally, which aim mainly at promoting student learning. For example, an elementary science curriculum might recommend having each group of students run an experiment severaltimes, without explaining why doing so is important (i.e., to produce better, more reliable results). Testing the theoretical claim that educative curriculum materials can promote changes in teachers' knowledge and practice requires the principled development of such materials. Beforeworrying about adding educativeelements to curriculum materials,designers must ensure that the "base"curriculum materials are accurate, complete, and coherent in terms of content and effective in terms of pedagogy-with good representationsof the content, a clearpurpose for learning it, and multiple opportunities for students to explain their ideas. Reviews of typical textbooks, however, have identified serious problems along both of these dimensions (e.g., Hubisz, 2003; Kesidou & Roseman, 2002). Engaging in serious formative evaluation can help to redress this problem. Once this baseline condition is met, then it makes sense to attend to issues of teacher learning through the curriculum. How teachers use and learn from K-12 curriculum materials depends, at a fundamental level, on interactions among the three components involved in any learner's interaction with text: the reader,the text, and the context (Rumelhart, 1994). Characteristics of the text that matter include how the text is structured (e.g., whether the first sentence of a paragraphis the most important) and how considerate it is (e.g., whether it builds on a reader'sprior knowledge and experience) (Armbruster & Anderson, 1985). A reader'smotivation, interest, prior knowledge, and ability to be strategic in her reading all influence how she interacts with a text, as do contextual factors such as how much time she has available for the reading task.
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eachers are expected to teach meaningful content that helps students to meet learning goals in the context of authentic activities, while addressing the needs of diverse learners and ensuring that all students are successful. To help teachers meet these high expectations and thus promote educational reform, K-12 curriculum materials might be designed to promote teacher learning as well as student learning-a notion suggested by Ball and Cohen (1996) in Educational Researcheralmost a decade ago and by Bruner (1960) even earlier. We present design heuristics for such curriculum materials to guide designers and to provide a context for discussing how curriculum materials might support teacher learning. The heuristics are grounded in science teaching but are useful in considering the design of curriculum materials across fields. As we elaborate below, teacher learning involves developing and integrating one's knowledge base about content, teaching, and learning; becoming able to apply that knowledge in real time to make instructional decisions; participating in the discourse of teaching; and becoming enculturated into (and engaging in) a range of teacher practices. Teacher learning is situated in teachers' practice-including classroom instruction but also planning, Educational Vol. Researcher, 34, No. 3, pp.3-14

teachers' of and learning use fromtext-based curSpecifically, of riculummaterials dependnot only on the characteristics the curriculum materials also on the type of teachingactivityin but which the teacheris engaged,the teacher's or persistence lackof in over time, what the teacher persistence readingthe materials choosesto reador ignore,the teacher's knowledge beliefs own and (e.g., aboutcontent,learners, teaching,and curriculum learning, how with the goalsof the curmaterials), thosebeliefsarealigned riculum,and the teacher's practice dispositiontowardreflective 2002). (Collopy,2003; Remillard,1999; Schneider& Krajcik, These factorsinteractin a complex and dynamicrelationship materials the and (Lloyd,1999) as teachers interpret curriculum & (Clandinin Connelly,1991). shapethe enactedcurriculum teacher will Furthermore, by learning bestbe promoted a set of not complementary approaches, by a singleone. Forexample,a face-to-face summer and wouldcomworkshop onlinediscussion the learning materieducative curriculum plement promotedby als by providingthe social supportscrucialto teacherlearning teachers' of use however, (Putnam& Borko,2000). Realistically, in curriculum materials the neartermprobably occurwithwill out such important how to makethe cursupport.Considering riculummaterials educative,then, is an importantstep toward teacher of promoting learning giventhe realities schools(Collopy, will 2003). At least,suchmaterials promotelearning amongsome teachers may promotethe development a dispositiontoand of wardreflection scenario-with curamongothers.In a best-case riculummaterials othercontinuingprofessional by accompanied educativeelementsinto the matedevelopment-incorporating rialsshould increasethe learningoutcomesover and aboveimalone. provements development resultingfrom the professional that We emphasize educative like curriculum materials, anyeducationalinnovation, cannotserveasa panacea. these Nonetheless, materials one formof intervention to support some provide likely in teachers veryimportant ways. Goals and Structure of the Article Giventhiscomplexconstellation factors, well as the relative of as of of macurriculum recency the resurgence interestin educative that the researchers not yet know do terials,it is not surprising much about how best to designthese materials. address To the be materials designed problem,we ask,How canK-12 curriculum to support teacher and with learning learning, whatmightteacher educative curriculum look a materials like? present set of design We heuristics educative for serve curriculum materials. heuristics Our two purposes,which align with our dual goals for this article. can of materials. First,the heuristics guide designers curriculum moreimportant, Second,and perhaps theyprovidea contextfor a more theoretically orienteddiscussionof how particular kinds of educative features mightpromoteteacher learning. Design of any educationalinnovationinvolvesiterationsof developing,implementing, testing,andrefiningideas.Initialdeof signs should be based on theoreticalunderstandings goals combinedwith informedintuitionsabout best practices.Once the initialdesignapproaches implemented,they are refined are on the basisof empirical Research Collecstudy (Design-Based move designers closerand closerto a tive, 2003). The iterations principleddesign.To guide the designof educativecurriculum in materials, then, we need to grounddesignheuristics the spe]|

cific challenges that teachersface, to help ensurethe usefulness of features intendedto be educative.Note that we use the term ratherthan the more common "design prin"designheuristics" are ciples."Our recommendations intendedto be usefulrulesof whichwould implya levelof empirithumband not principles, have cal testingthat researchers not yet undertaken. similar For reasons,we avoid the term "standards." Nonetheless,these detakeus one step closerto the principled sign heuristics designof educativecurriculum for materials, necessary this earlystageof the research. we To groundourdiscussion, discussteacher and learning describethe knowledgebase that teachers need. Next, we present thathavebeenset forthin discussions somehigh-level guidelines of educativecurriculum materials. then presentour design We how educative heuristics discuss and features basedon themcould teacher To close,we discussfactorsthatlimit promote learning. the effectiveness educativecurriculum of materials tensions and in theirdesign,andwe outline the next stepsthatwe see as critical for researchers interestedin these materialsand how they teacher promote learning. Teacher Learning and Teacher Knowledge teacher with studentlearningcanhighlight Comparing learning someof the complexities associated with promotingthe former.1 is that the effectiveness any eduOne fundamental of similarity on how the opportunity usedby cationalintervention is depends the individual. teachers quitedifferent are But, developmentally, from K-12 students;they also have much greateragencyover are theirlearning. Students expected attendschool,wherethey to in should benefit from a coherentset of learningexperiences; are aftertheir contrast,teachers' learningexperiences haphazard initialpreparation maingoal (Wilson& Berne,1999). Educators' is of forstudent matter learning development subject knowledgean understanding the facts, concepts, theories,structures, of and need practices, beliefsof the field (Schwab,1964). Teachers but strongsubjectmatterknowledge mustalsodeveloppedagogicalknowledge pedagogical and contentknowledge (PCK)-that is, knowledgeof how to teach the content (Shulman, 1986). Teachers(likeanylearners) must also integratetheirknowledge & Davis,2004). They needto make (Davis,2004; Linn,Eylon, connections betweenideas,in additionto addingnewideasabout students'likely subject-area concepts,instructional approaches, And teachers or teaching needto applytheirinideas, principles. flexiblyto makedecisionsin realtimeandin tegrated knowledge contexts-for example, whattheyknow widelyvarying applying to aboutfractions respondto ideasthat come up in studentdiscussion(Ball& Bass,2000). Theirreal-timedecisionsaffect20 or morestudentsat a time. Teachers' learningis situatedin their and distributed as acrossindividuals well as across dailypractice artifacts such as curriculum materials (Putnam& Borko,2000). As a result,it can be difficultfor teachers connecttheorywith to or practice to extract generalrulesthatcan applyacross multiple contexts(see Fenstermacher, must par1994). Finally,teachers of become ticipatein the discourse teachingand,moregenerally, into enculturated a rangeof teachingpractices (Borko,2004). In like has and sum, teacher learning, anylearning, both individual socialaspects(Borko,2004; Cobb, 1994), and both arecrucial in developing In learnexpertise. manyways,promotingteacher ing is even morecomplexthan promotingstudentlearning.

We focushereon teachers' subjectmatterknowledgeand esfor peciallyPCK, becausethesepresentchallenges teachersand representareaswhere curriculummaterialsmight achieve the most successin promotingteacher learningand changesin practice (Collopy,2003; Schneider Krajcik, & 2002). Manyscholars have elaborated and extendedShulman's(1986) notion of on PCK (e.g., Ball & Bass, 2000; Wilson, Shulman, & Richert, 1987). Magnussonand colleagues(1999) build on Grossman's teachers' to (1990) framework describePCK as incorporating knowledgeaboutstudents'ideasand instructional topic-specific For a strategies, amongothercomponents. example, middleschool physicalscienceteacherwould know that studentsconfuseheat and temperature would know of and be ableto enactstrateand betweenthe two. gies for helpingthem distinguish Teachers needwhatwe callPCKfordisciplinarypractices. also Teachersmust know how to help studentsunderstand authe the is thenticactivities a discipline, waysknowledge developed of in a particular a field,and the beliefsthatrepresent sophisticated of how the field works. The physical science understanding teachermentionedabovewouldhold PCKfor disciplinary practicesthatwouldhelp him to engagestudentsin the essential fea& turesof scientificinquiry(Petish,2004; Zembal-Saul Dana, scientificquestions,experi2000), suchas askingand answering scientificphenomena,developingexplanations basedon encing and evidence,and communicating justifyingfindings(National Research Council, 2000). The teacher's knowledgealso would allowhim to help studentsunderstand practices themselves. the in mathematics PCK for disciplinary would be framed practices of such as aroundthe essentialfeatures inquiryin mathematics, and evaluatingmathematical and comdeveloping arguments thinkingcoherently(NationalCounmunicatingmathematical cil of Teachers Mathematics, of a 1991). Likewise, historyteacher stratewould needto know of and be ableto enactinstructional to help students,for example,identifyimportanthistorical gies betweenfactsand interpretations, comquestions,differentiate and constructsound historical parecompetinginterpretations, basedon historicaldata and contextualknowlinterpretations edge (NationalCenterfor History in the Schools, 1996). Elementaryteacherstypicallyteach all of these subjectsand more in and need PCKfor disciplinary practices manydisciplines. Acrossfields,the specificfacetsof teachers' PCK for disciplidemonstrate similarities well as differences. as Our narypractices is not to arguethatthereis structural acrossall point congruence to across but subsubjectareas rather suggestthatexpertteachers areas gradelevelshavea similar of knowledge and beyond ject type those typically identifiedexplicitly.Promotingthe development of teachers' PCK for disciplinary practicesis crucialin light of currentreforms. The Design of Educative Curriculum Materials: Some High-Level Guidelines WhatmightK-12 curriculum materials likeif theyweredelook Ball signed with the intention of promotingteacherlearning? and Cohen (1996) describesome of the roles that curriculum materials could play in promotingteacherlearningtowardthe end of supporting educational reform.Their recommendations are high-levelguidelinesthat are consistentwith or, in some for that cases,providea framework the designand research have

on sinceelaborated theirsuggestions illustrated theyplay how and In workthathasbeen out empirically. turn,the limitedempirical some specificareas which educative in done suggests curriculum materials promoteteacher can acts and, moregenerally, learning as a proof of conceptwith regard the possiblepositiveeffects to of thesematerials. curriculum materials couldhelp teachers learn First,educative how to anticipate interpret and whatlearners thinkaboutor may to activities do in response instructional (Ball& Cohen,1996;see alsoCollopy,2003; Heaton,2000; Remillard, 2000). Describing ideas(Heaton,2000) andgivwhystudents mighthold particular for ing suggestions how to dealwith thoseideas(Collopy,2003) for Additional maybe especially important. support PCKis likely to be of help, as well, includingsupportfor knowledge aboutinsuch structional models,or diagrams representations asanalogies, & 2002; Wang & Paine,2003). (Schneider Krajcik, materials couldsupportteachers' Second,curriculum learning of subjectmatter(Ball& Cohen, 1996; see also Heaton, 2000; Schneider& Krajcik, 2002; Wang & Paine, 2003). Schneider and Krajcik found that teachers read,understood,and adopted mateideasfrom the subjectmattersupportsin the curriculum rialsthat theywereusing,in additionto learningsubjectmatter ideas.Usually,supfromthe descriptions students' of alternative to the portfor subjectmatterknowledgerefers learning factsand conceptswithin a subject;but it could and should also include the disciplinary within the subjectarea. practices materials couldhelpteachers consider Third,curriculum ways to relateunits duringthe year(Ball& Cohen, 1996). Wang and Paine(2003) found that a teacherbenefitedfrom the objectives the providedin the text of a mandatedcurriculum; objectives fosteredreflectionfor the teacherin consideringhow she presentedthe lessonin the contextof the largercurricular picture. In looking at these firstthreerolesfor educativecurriculum we materials, see that educativeelementscan help teachersadd new ideasto theirrepertoires important (e.g., aboutsubjectmatteror students'likelyideas).The educative elementshelp teachersdeveloptheirknowledgebase. A fourthrole that educativecurriculum materials could play is to makevisiblethe developers' pedagogical judgments(Ball& Cohen, 1996; seealsoHeaton,2000; Petish,2004). Curriculum to" materials should "speak teachers aboutthe ideasunderlying the tasksratherthan merelyguiding their actions (Remillard, should educateteach2000, p. 347); in doing so, the materials ers while promotingtheir autonomy (Shkedi, 1998) and help mateachers makedecisionsabouthow to adaptcurriculum to for terials. visibleis one waythatcurMakingrationales decisions riculummaterials could move beyondsimplyaddingnew ideas their to teachers' and, repertoires instead,help them to integrate knowledge base and make connections between theory and practice-taking advantageof how curriculummaterialsare work. Doing so would help teachersapply situatedin teachers' theirknowledgemore flexibly. A fifthrolethatwe recommend educativecurriculum for maor terialsis to promote a teacher's designcapacity, pedagogical his abilityto use personalresources the supportsembedded and
in curriculum materials (i.e., the curricular resources) to adapt

ends (Brown& curriculum achieveproductiveinstructional to writersdevelopa text that teachers Edelson,2003). Curriculum
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decidehow to enactlessonsin reality(Ben-Peretz, use;teachers 1990; Clandinin & Connelly, 1991). Ideally, teacherseither makechangesthatremaintrueto the essenceof the originalcuror riculummaterials decidedeliberately move awayfromthat to essence (Bridgham,1971), ratherthan inadvertently making changesthat act as a "lethalmutation"(Brown & Campione, 1996, p. 291). Beingableto makegood decisionsaboutchanges maybe especially qualityof typimportant giventhe pooroverall ical curriculum resources (Hubisz,2003; Kesidou& Roseman, to needforteachers adaptcurriculum 2002) andthe concomitant for & materials localconditions(Barab Luehmann, 2003). Each of the firstfour suggestionsfor educativecurriculum materials to the and outlinedabovecould contribute increasing curricular available teachersand thus helping them to personalresources materials. Promotcurriculum find productive waysof adapting can ing a teacher's pedagogical designcapacity help him particirather thanmerely and of patein the discourse practice teaching; a the bematerials, teacher implementing givenset of curriculum comesan agentin its designand enactment. Design Heuristics for Educative Curriculum Materials We built on thesehigh-levelguidelinesto developan initialset of nine designheuristicsintendedto informspecificdesigndecisionsfor educative curriculum materials Appendixfor the (see heuristicsand examplesof their application).These heuristics focus on curriculum materials science.A designframework for such as this one needs to be groundedin real challengesthat learnersface, and many of the challengesthat teachersface as learners differaccording subject to area. organized heurisWe our tics aroundimportantpartsof a teacher's knowledgebase:submatterknowledge, PCKfortopics,and PCKfordisciplinary ject havePCKfor disciplinary practices. practices Althoughteachers across of PCK(assessment, students' ideas, multiplecomponents Thus this set of etc.), we focus here on instructional strategies. is in nine heuristics not exhaustive coverage domain.We have or to the limitedour analysis restrict scopeof the work,andwe encourageothersto expandon our effort. Developing the Design Heuristics and the Issueof Generality In determining designheuristics, builton the approach of our we Quintanaand colleagues(2004), who combinedtheory-driven with inductiveones to developa designframework for analyses the designof waysto scaffoldstudents'inquiryin learningtechthe nologies. For our theory-drivenanalysis,we characterize teachersface;for our inductiveanalysis,we identify challenges ways that those challengescan be addressed througheducative materials. elaborate, started considering To curriculum we the by in described the literature, our analysisto challenges restricting science teaching,and then grouped them. In identifyingand we groupingchallenges, noted thatparticular groupsof teachers teachers teachers, elementary (e.g., beginningteachers, teaching out of theircontentarea)facespecificchallenges arelessimthat we portantfor othergroups.But for this analysis combinedsimilarchallenges those differences, becausea generalset of despite is designheuristics usefulaswe thinkaboutthe rangeof features thateducative curriculum materials later mightneed. (Wereturn

to the issue of providingguidancetailoredfor specifictypes of we on teachers. elaborated the deFurthermore, haveelsewhere asand signheuristics, discussing challenges, strategies, examples sociatedwith each;see Davis & Krajcik, 2004.) We then developeda designheuristicfor each groupof chalfrom the literature lengesand noted existingrecommendations that could informthe ones we weredeveloping,includingideas from the high-levelguidelinesreviewedabove.For each design in we that heuristic, identifiedstrategies couldbeapplied the dematerials. of Finally,we identifiedexamples sign of curriculum how the strategies havebeenincorporated our own groups' into and elementary middleschool curriculum development(in the AccessSystemfor Elementary Curriculum Science,or CASES project[seeDavis,Smithey,& Petish,2004]; and the Centerfor Highly InteractiveClassrooms,Curricula,and Computingin Education,or hi-c3egroup [see Krajcik, Blumenfeld,Marx,& et Soloway, 1994; Krajcik al., 1998]).2 Some of our materials from the have been developedin partnership with evaluators AmericanAssociationfor the Advancement ScienceProject of 2061. This helps to ensurethe materials' baselinescientificand quality. pedagogical are Our designheuristics groundedin the subjectareaof science becausethat is the areaof our own expertise. speculate We thatourframework-includingsubjectmatterknowledge,PCK across for topics,and PCKfor disciplinary practices-is general mostsubjectareas thatthosewith expertise otherdomains and in in that canuse the framework developing designheuristics apply to their domains.The designheuristics themselves applyas may templatesacross disciplinesto varyingdegrees. For example, teachers any subjectareaneed subjectmatterknowledge of and of students'likelyintuitiveand non-normative ideas. knowledge Becauseinquiryis a prevalentidea in science education,we in referto PCK for disciplinary practices scienceas PCKforsciThe designheuristics that focus on PCK for scientificinquiry. entific inquirywould requirethe most substantialchangesto thoseheuristics around applyin anotherdomain.We organized of difessential features scientificinquiry.Disciplinary practices For feracrossdomains,but therearesome clearparallels. examarts for materials ple, in Englishlanguage education,curriculum school studentsin writingresearch papers might engaginghigh have educativeelementsthat would help teachersengagestudentsin askingimportant researchable and questions,collecting and analyzingsources,developingtheses,buildingarguments, and communicating ideas. Recallthat in contrastto the guidelinesreviewedabove,our are designheuristics intendedto help informspecificcurriculum useful decisions.The currentlist will clearlybe especially design fordesigners sciencematerials. we alsoofferit asa context of But withinwhichwe candiscusslarger issuesof teacher learning promoted by educativecurriculum materials-a discussionthat is lessdependenton the particular domainunderdiscussion. The Substanceof a Design Heuristic fromthe high-level Whatmakesthesedesignheuristics different earlier? Each design heuristicinguidelinesthat we presented It indicateswhat the curriculum macludesthreecomponents: for teachers,how curriculummaterials terialsshould provide the could help teachers understand rationale behindthe recom-

and could usetheseideasin theirown mendations, how teachers teaching.In otherwords,eachheuristicis designedto help curriculumdeveloperssee how to help teachersadd new ideas to theirrepertoires ideas(i.e., developtheirknowledge of base)and connecttheoryto theirownpractice(i.e., integrate theirknowledge baseand begin to use it flexiblyin theirteaching). focuseson engaging students DesignHeuristic5, for example, with data.What challenges that could curriculum materials emto Evenexpertscience ploythatheuristic helpteachers overcome? teachers to disobservations, struggle help studentsmakecareful collectandcompile and tinguishbetweenobservations inferences, 2000; Lehrer& Schauble, data,and see trends(e.g., Crawford, 2002). To addressthese challenges, Design Heuristic5 recommendsthat materials should to Curriculum teachers approaches with provide students andunderstand andobservadata collect, compile, help understand theuseof evidence so imis tions; helpteachers why in and and portant scientific inquiry; helpthemadapt usethese across even approaches multiple topicareas whenthedatabeing seemfairly collected different versus weather (e.g.,plantgrowth conditions). mateDesign Heuristic5 suggeststhat educativecurriculum rialsshould provide teacherswith approaches helping stufor dents collect and use data. One strategymight be to provide with data tablesto give to their studentsto help them teachers trackof their data, as well as guidancefor how teachers keep could use them; such data tablesmight be providedin typical curriculum too. then statesthatcurricumaterials, The heuristic lum materials should help teachersunderstand why the recomare The mendedapproaches appropriate. materials mightexplain thatstudentsoften havetroubleorganizing theirdatasystematically;suchan observation mayseemtrivial,but helpingteachers makethe connectionbackto a pieceof commonknowledgeis a criticalfunctionof curriculum if materials they areto be generfor ativeandthuseducative teachers. Finally,DesignHeuristic5 that curriculummaterialsshould help teachersadapt suggests and use theseapproaches acrossmultipletopic areas-for examthat be ple, by recommending a similardatatablestructure used acrossunitsuntil studentsarereadyto takeoverthe consistently themselves. processof designingdata-recording strategies Curriculum materials that incorporate threecomponents all rationales usingthe approaches, for (i.e.,instructional approaches, for andrecommendations theireffective maypromoteteacher use) and overcomechallenges theyface,as that learning help teachers we describe next. How Educative Curriculum Materials Promote Teacher Learning: An Example add When learners new ideasto theirrepertoires makeconand nectionsbetweenthem (Linnet al., 2004), theydevelopmoreinand and to tegrated robustknowledge can applythatknowledge & Coulson,1991). Ednewsituations Jackson, (Spiro,Feltovich, ucative curriculum materials promotetheselearning can processes forteachers. in teacher is Furthermore, learning situated teachers' practiceand distributedacrossindividualsand cognitive tools
(Putnam & Borko, 2000). Educative curriculum materialsare inherently situated in practice and can serve as important cognitive

tools for teachers. Finally,teacherlearningshouldhelp teachers the appropriate social norms of teaching (Putnam & Borko, curriculum materials promotethis enculcan 2000). Educative turationinto teacherdiscourseand practice,as well. We use an educative curriculum role materials' in proexampleto illustrate and moting all of theseprocesses practices. First, considerhow educativecurriculummaterialsserveas add cognitivetoolsto helpteachers new ideasto theirrepertoires. The new ideas can be both specificand general.Specificideas to approaches use)canbe situatedin teachers' (e.g.,instructional More generalideas(e.g., rationales using for own dailypractice. a particular instructional to shouldallowteachers abapproach) stractfroma particular situationto a moregeneralrule. Consideran examplegroundedin Design Heuristic4, about studentsin engagingin scientificquestions.CASES, supporting an online learningenvironment curriculum providingeducative materialsfor preservice and beginningelementary and middle schoolteachers who teachscience,incorporates narrative "images of inquiry," stories describe or that how fictional teachbeginning ersteachparticular CASES lessons(Daviset al.,2004). Thesenarrativesare associatedwith specific lessons in the unit and are In includedin the lessonplansthemselves. the CASESastronomy unit for middleschool,one lessonfocuseson generating student aboutastronomy, the narrative and asquestions imageof inquiry sociated with the lessondescribes a beginning how teacher named students'questionsinto her unit while Jennytriesto incorporate still meetingher district's (see objectives Figure1). This exampleshowshow the narrative to mighthelp a teacher to The add a specificinstructional approach her repertoire: narrativedescribes what a teachercan do with the many questions that students generatethat are not necessarily relevantto the standards teacheris attemptingto cover.It might also help the for the teacher understand rationale engaging the studentsin askscientificquestions(one essentialfeatureof ing and answering scientific NationalResearch Council,2000). Jennywants inquiry; to to use questions help the studentssee astronomy's to relevance theirlives and thus appreciate importance the topic. The the of teacherwho readsthis story may add at least two ideas to her for and repertoire-an instructional approach a rationale an instructional Thusshehasimproved knowledge her base. approach. To some extent,she can alsobecomemoreenculturated asinto and pectsof the discourse normsof scienceinquiryand inquiryorientedscienceteachingthroughexposureto and interaction with the expertise anotherteacher.Forexample,she can gain of an appreciation the role of questioningin scientificinquiry for and the waysthatinquiry-oriented scienceteachers incorpocan in rate questioninginto their science teaching. (Participating face-to-face onlinediscussions or with otherteachers who areenscienceteachingwould more directly gagedin inquiry-oriented contribute the teacher's to enculturation. Suchdiscussions could build on ideasfromthe narrative.) In addition helpingteachers newideasto theirrepertoires to add into andbecomeenculturated salientpractices, educative curriculum materials also serveas cognitivetools to help teachers can makeconnections betweengeneral and instrucprinciples specific tionalmoves-to integrate theirknowledge baseandbeginto use in theirknowledge The described flexibly the classroom. example the situatednatureof curriculum aboveillustrates how materials
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C ~~~~~~~~~~~~~giu:j~~
(a 6-8 AstronomV unit)

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What would happen if the sun stopped shining?

unit lessons
11. After the whole group d ir Lssion, close the eesson by introdr-icir the next lessor-i

lesson is tied to the next lesson of cloassifyng stars. Ther efore, after the d'secssorn of the differences in b- othtness ar d s,ze, the teacher can errd today s Iesson by lalkir abLoLt how stuiderts think staro .DaLkto thu pictu'res wvill should be classiftrcd The koy is to look at tho d ?fCrCr LcU tvvc c star-s. Rcrr'ini icip too.



of Inquiry

Thzs I cson f ocuses or Questioning

& Predicting.

i n le I 5I v now';7,r th tnhe the r hnre or tr- "roe tfh' t h rneS-t tv wh vv y shc? Up rhe i_init 'i tht' beginning a I h' or so, She- re'al y van tssi .rder rar to freel like tr 0 pic Is' 'rnortart 'arid sI e's %vorried tR,at nar , of tUrer otiti aaets thecnr:doj~vivcts, wv, be very intere sted t coate t7he t' w o n't ee Ik4o ostt oneTrnyir0" on't unlike t"'err recent water unirt:1. She deeidjoet to stenoi ar ent he day "laving studdents ask questio"s about the un verse 'i'ttead of it iity qu rori e ii wihth a t nw q i Hse;ons m rsti' deerts r-one orn'inrt them aonon i-v rk aaor'rmeit up writh' ea ll excit,x c ' c o v Iiuwv do woe kr now black robes oextri t,iwoe cur at scC c eoL ru1t 1ro' eni CLi.oiV quctstiors i ko `ViVnrc d U thU- iFT r so l owvvmany othert sto or sy and '!Do alicns ;xist?' Ste knno%tv tessm fo e the o7'' i trat "n of these topics vvon: oe any' coered i- -Ier 'in so she r-esea'ches, to fir-d sevefral websltes wiere student's car- ask questions of an ist0tr oir enr or rrccur eo c ul alloS tICm c or cii this uinc 'Ar or s:Wde:irls 'av rsce Oro rdoas rnid rosolurccs scct:on

How Jenny taught this lesson

the s ce'"it tts or research those quet't os o'r-their ow; Arfte:r, doy Of cLest onine. Jerry selects al the quest ons to the Life Cycle ft Stars lesson1 Sheri ti'' cdt ct or havn no no do vw',h ti& sun ard strs; ard rises them as ar inrtr 'rossible througn-iout tIe unit. u-c student questor ns w4itrieve' L

FIGURE 1. At the bottom ofa CASES lessonplan thatfocuses on the generation ofstudent questions,a narrative image of instudentquestionsinto her lesson.Reprintedwithpermission ofthe CASES quiry illustrateshowfictional teacherfennyincorporates ResearchGroupat the UniversityofMichigan (copyright 2002).

may promote the development of these connections; the principle (here, a rationale) is contextualized in both the lesson itself and a description of a teacher teaching the lesson. By experiencing many of these situated educative elements acrossmultiple contexts, a teachergenerateslinks between the specific situations and a general principle. Why are these connections important?Teachers need to be able to apply their ideas to novel situations. A teacher might face a novel situation when she moves to a new school, where familiar lessons would need to be adapted to work in the new context. With sufficient robust connections between specific, situated instances and more general principles, the connections should allow the teacher to identify new situations as occasions where the general principle might apply and to recognize ways of applying it as she adapts novel curriculum materials. When this happens, the educative elements are generative for the teacher, in that they have prepared her for future learning (Bransford& Schwartz, 1999). They have also increasedher pedagogical design capacity (Brown & Edelson, 2003), improving her ability to engage in a crucial teaching practice: adapting curriculum materialsto increase fit with her own teaching context while not changing the materialsin unproductive ways.

Limitations of Educative Curriculum Materials

Carefully designed educative curriculum materials have clear advantages. It is relatively straightforward to design materials that help teachers add new ideas to their repertoires. More challenging is to help them connect those ideas to other ideas. And harder still is helping them use their knowledge and engage in the discourse and practice of actual teaching. We reiteratethat the effectiveness of educative curriculum materials at promoting teacher learning will be limited by at least three factors in addition to those related to the design of the educative elements themselves. First, the "base"curriculum materials must be of high quality in terms of content and pedagogy. Second, their effectiveness is limited (or enhanced) by characteristics of the teachers themselves, such as their knowledge, beliefs, and dispositions toward reflection and improving their own practice (Collopy, 2003; Remillard, 1999; Schneider & Krajcik, 2002). Educative curriculum materials are not likely to support learning for every teacher. Third, used alone, educative curriculum materials serve as only one perturbation to the status quo. Data suggest that the presence of multiple sources for professional development is more effective than any one source (e.g.,

see Smith & Ingersoll,2004); thus educativecurriculum materialswill almostcertainly moreeffective usedin conjunction be if with otherformsof support. Tensions in Designing Educative Curriculum Materials Two other majorand interrelated tensionsarisein considering the designof educative The curriculum materials. firstcenters on an appropriate amount of guidance.The second determining for centerson the designof materials appropriate differentsorts of teachers. Tensionsin Determining an Appropriate Amount of Guidanceand Prescription It Teachershavemanyresponsibilities. is understandable, then, that thereis a substantial practical problemin designingeducativecurriculum materials: Most teachers not havetimeto read do materials-no matterhow usefulthe maextensivecurriculum terialsmight be. be How explicitshouldeducative curriculum materials in prosome Being consistently explicitwill frustrate viding rationales? teacherswho want only the instructions,especiallygiven that some rationales will become redundantwhen included across thriveon knowingthe reamultiplelessons.Yet other teachers that critsoningbehindsuggestions arebeingmade.Identifying ical areasof understanding may help designersdecidewhereto focus educative elements. should the materialsbe?Teachingcan be How prescriptive likened to performing surgery(Ball,personalcommunication, in June 18, 2003; see alsoa quotefromAlbertShanker Stigler& Hiebert,1999, p. 176). Justaswe do not expecta surgeonto invent a new procedure eachtime she seesa patient,we shouldnot for a teacher inventa new strategy everynew topic. For to expect scienceeducators widely recognizethe importantrole example, that an approachcalled bridging can analogies play in helping forces (Clement, 1993). Curricustudentsunderstand physics for lum materials high school physicsclasseswould be remissif did not suggesthow teachers could use bridginganalogies. they But just as a surgeonneedsto applya standard in procedure a humanbodyis difdifferent with eachpatientbecause way every ferent,so too does an expertteacherapplya standard approach differentlyin different situations. Part of being an expert is A knowinghow and when to makesuch adjustments. teacher's describes teacher's the abilityto draw pedagogical designcapacity on the resources handto makeproductive at changesto curriculum materials(Brown& Edelson,2003). Applyingthe design heuristicsprovidedhere should promotethis capacity.For exincludedthe rationale behindbridgample,if physicscurricula be more likelyto be ableto apply teachers would ing analogies, the idea in additional contexts. When curriculum materials providetoo manychoices,the selectionsthat teachers makemay not alwayspromotethe reform intendedby the writersof the materials (Remillard, 1999). Yet and teachers' autonbeingtooprescriptive ignoringor dismissing less materials effective.The omy may alsomakethe curriculum of werenot sciencecurriculum materials the 1960s, for example, in successful, partbecausethey sometimesfailedto consistently takeinto accountthe teacher's in makingdecisions(Welch, role

the did 1979). Likewise, associated development not professional in ratherthan dispensers supportteachers becomingfacilitators of information(Krajcik, Mamlok,& Hug, 2000). Recognizing thesefailings led to greater of has consideration the rolesof teachersin interpreting curriculum materials (Clandinin& Connelly, a 1991) and, moregenerally, callfor treatingteachingas a learn& ing profession (Darling-Hammond Sykes,1999). How might the effortto balanceprescription autonomyplayout in edand ucativecurriculum materials? CASES,as an example,teachIn ers can view guidancedesignedto help them adaptlessonplans of (Daviset al., 2004). The effectiveness such a featuredepends on how a teacher viewshis rolevis-a-vis materials and curriculum as a lifelonglearner moregenerally. Tensionsin Designingfor Different Teachers also a Designingfor differenttypesof teachers presents tension. in teachers Individual use, and learnfrom curriculum interpret, differentways (Collopy, 2003; Lloyd, 1999; Remillard, very that & 2000; Schneider Krajcik, 2002). It standsto reason groups of teachers, will varyin theiruse of curriculum materials. too, materials for For example,how should educativecurriculum teachers differfromthosefor moreexperienced teachbeginning ers? virtueof beingnovices,beginning lack teachers the frameBy worksthat more experienced teachershave for organizingnew ideasabout teaching.They also lack the knowledgethat allows moreexperienced teachers imaginehow a lessonwill playout to in a classroom. materials teachintendedforbeginning Therefore, erswould likelyhavea greater on helpingteachers add emphasis new ideasto theirrepertoires; instance,such materials for might as PCKis often described being includemorerationales. Because et on heavily experience dependent teachers' (e.g.,Magnusson al., materials that are aimedat begin1999), educativecurriculum supportfor developning teachers mightincludemoreextensive ing the many componentsof PCK. Becauseeven experienced and teachers maylackintegrated subjectmatterknowledge PCK to helpthemin teaching contentto students,they,too, maybenefitfromguidance focusedhere.Theymayalsobenefitfromsupthat in portin engaging morechallenging teaching practices move beyondones they havemastered. Alternative Structures for Delivering Curriculum Materials we of Clearly, need to thinkaboutthe importance formand forbematerials, mat, as well as content, in educativecurriculum causeallthreedimensions rolesin addressing two tensions the play described above.We mayalsoneedto thinkaboutalternative apto curriculum. delivering educative curproaches presenting By more materials riculum to online,we havetheopportunity provide information thelinesof the designheuristics here, presented along media(Daviset al., 2004; Fishman, 2003). usingmanydifferent For example,becausecomplementing with othermediacan text moreeffective teach2001) andbecause (Mayer, promote learning erslearnfromrealistic of practice 1993), on(Carter, descriptions audioand line educative curriculum materials could incorporate of enactment lessons. of visualrecords teachers' couldselectthe guidancethattheythinkwill Online, teachers help them. Beginningteachers mightselectguidancethatwould be ignoredby more experienced teachers. Teachersmight even
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be ableto request different versionsof lessonplansthat incorporatemoreor lessprescription, guidance,or choice. But online solutionsmay not yet solvethe problemsthat can arisein trying to promote teacherlearningthrougheducative materials. example,some teachers For curriculum printout lesson plansfrom the Web ratherthan readingthem online, missaspectsaccessible links (Petish,2004). Of by ing some educative course,all of the guidancecould be embeddedin the text of the lesson plans, but then the length of the curriculummaterials would becomean even greater problem.The issuesareso interrelatedthat a straightforward solutionsometimesseemsdistant. What Next? How do we knowwhethereducative materials curriculum really do promoteteachers' The designheuristics presented learning? here can help curriculumdeveloperscreatethe educativecurthat are necessary test the theorythat edriculummaterials to materials promotethe teacherlearning can ucativecurriculum for reform.But testingthe theoryalso renecessary educational quiressolvingongoingproblemsin teacherlearningresearch. Answeringthe centralquestion involves measuringteacher teacher practice, as well as conlearning and characterizing teacher teacherpractice,and studentlearning. learning, necting Teacherlearningresearch lacksgood waysof makingthese connections(Wilson& Berne,1999),although is progress beingmade Marx,Best, & Tal, 2003; Garet,Porter,Desimone, (Fishman, Birman,& Yoon, 2001; Rowan,Correnti,& Miller,2002). Anus sweringthe questionalso requires to be ableto mapeffectsof features the curriculum of materials specificaspectsof to specific the teachers' how the curriculum materilearning.Considering als serveas cognitivetools that help teachers new ideasand add makeconnectionsbetweenideasprovides frameforsuchanalya ses.We couldexaminemyriaddatasources-lesson plans,classroom observations, interviews with teachers,studentwork-to look forevidencethatparticular ideasfromeducative curriculum havebeentakenup andenactedby teachers materials (Schneider & Krajcik, 2002). in our Because list of designheuristics grounded scienceand is is non-exhaustive withinthatsubject even is area,research needed to testthe applicability the heuristics othersubjectareas of in and expandon this list. The designheuristics providedheremust be testedempirically. studiescould test differQuasi-experimental ent approaches, narrative opposed to expository as comparing formsof supportor print as opposedto online deliverymechanisms. After testing and refinementof the heuristics,it might makesenseto developstandards the development educafor of tive curriculum materials nuancedcriteria evaluating and for excurriculum materials fromthe standpoint how educative of isting to they arefor teachers. Finally,returning the tensionsdescribed must determine which kindsof supports above,futureresearch teachers want, need, and arewilling to use. Rich casestudiesof how teachers educative use curriculum materials could proveeffectivehere, especially coupledwith larger-scale if research surabouttheircurriculum and preferences. use veyingteachers In her presidential address the 2004 annualmeetingof the at AmericanEducational Research Association,Borko (2004) describedthree phasesof research professionaldevelopment. on Research educativecurriculum on materials-a form of professional development,and one that we expect will become inI|

creasingly important in the coming decade-remains squarelyin what Borko calls Phase 1, investigating a single intervention with a single group of teachers or in a single context. The goal of Phase 1 researchis essentially to produce an existence proof that a professional development program (or, here, a set of educative curriculum materials) can positively affect teacher learning. Thanks to this type of foundational research, we in the field of educational researchknow a bit about how a few teachers use and learn from a few sets of educative curriculum materials. Yet we still know very little about how those materials are used by larger numbers of different types of teachers or how different educative curriculum materials, informed by different design rationales or complemented by different opportunities for additional professional development, compare to one another. We urge researchers to continue to explore the ways that educative curriculum materials can promote teacher learning and how their effects can be measured,on small and largescales. Doing so will help furtherour understanding of a form of professional development that holds promise for being both effective and efficient-if thoughtfully and carefully designed.

APPENDIX Design Heuristics for Educative Science Curriculum Materials, with Examples and Elaborations Selected to Illustrate a Range of Supports 1. Design Heuristics for PCK for Science Topics in Design Heuristic 1-Supporting Teachers Engaging Studentswith Topic-Specific Phenomena Scientific
Curriculum materialsshould provide teacherswith productive physical experiencesthat make phenomena accessibleto students as well as rationalesfor why these experiencesarescientifically and pedagogicallyappropriate.Curriculum materialsshould help teachersadapt and use these experienceswith their students, for example by making recommendations about which experiments are important and feasiblefor students to conduct themselves and which might be more successful as demonstrations.Curriculummaterialsshould warn of potential pitfalls with specific physical experiences. Curriculum materials should suggest and help teachers think about productive sequences for experiences.

The "What is the quality of our air?"unit developed by hi-c3e suggests using a partially deflated and then fully inflated volleyball to demonstrate that air has mass and takes up space, and thus is matter. The curriculum materials explain why this demonstration works and is better, from a scientific standpoint, than a more typical demonstration using a balloon.

in Design Heuristic2-Supporting Teachers Using InstructionalRepresentations Scientific

Curriculum materials should provide appropriate instructional representations of scientific phenomena (e.g., analogies, models, diagrams)and support teachersin adaptingand using those representations,for example by noting changes

that would lead to inaccuracies with regardto the science materials content.Curriculum shouldbe explicitaboutwhy

a particular instructional is and representation scientifically and ideasit appropriate what non-scientific pedagogically materiThe mightpromoteif usedimproperly. curriculum als shouldhelp teachers determine most salientfeatures the of an instructional representation. Example: The hi-c3eunit "Howcan I makenew stufffromold stuff?" suggests that studentsbuild gumdropmodelsof reactingmaterials take andthenphysically themapart formthe products are to that formed.The materials of explainthe importance usingthis representation linkingit to the macroscopic and phenomena. Design Heuristic3-Supporting Teachersin Anticipating, Understanding,and Dealing with Students'IdeasAbout Science Curriculummaterialsshould help teachersrecognizethe importanceof students'ideas and help teachersidentify likely student ideaswithin a topic. Curriculummaterials should help teachersgain insight into how they might be ableto dealwith the ideasin theirteaching,for exampleby giving suggestionsof thought experimentslikely to promote the development morescientificideas. of Example: Each CASESunit providesteachers with a set of ideasthat the research indicatesstudentsat that age might hold (e.g., that air and wind are interchangeable concepts).Associatedwith each ideais a briefdiscussion the normative of scientificideaand suggestions for dealingwith the idea in the classroom,such as a pointer to a lesson plan, suggestionsabout languageto use or that avoid,or thoughtexperiments studentsmight perform. II. Design Heuristics for PCK for Scientific Inquiry Design Heuristic 4-Supporting Teachersin Engaging Studentsin Questions materials shouldprovidedrivingquestionsfor Curriculum teachersto use to framea unit and should help teachers identifyquestionsthatthey can usewith theirstudents,inCurcludingfocusquestionsfor guidinga classdiscussion. riculum materialsshould help teachersunderstandwhy these arescientifically pedagogically and productivequestions. Curriculummaterialsshould help teachersengage theirstudentsin askingand answering theirown scientific of questions, providing by questions suggestions productive and ideas about how to guide students toward those or otherproductive questions. Example: Some CASESlessonsincludenarrative of con"images inquiry" nectedto the lessonand describing how a fictionalteacherdealt with questioning.(An exampleis elaborated the text.) in in Design Heuristic5-Supporting Teachers Engaging Students With CollectingandAnalyzing Data Curriculummaterialsshould provide teacherswith apto proaches help studentscollect,compile,and understand dataandobservations; teachers understand the use why help of evidenceis so importantin scientificinquiry;and help

them adaptand use theseapproaches acrossmultipletopic areasevenwhen the databeingcollectedseem fairlydifferent (e.g., plantgrowthas opposedto weatherconditions). Example: A lowerelementary imCASESunit on plantsincludesnarrative how a fictionalfirst-grade agesof inquiry,suchas one describing in teacherhelped her studentsovercomechallenges makingdeof tailed observations a seed (e.g., by encouragingthem to use multiple sensesand directingtheir attentionto a poster of the five senses).The imageof inquiryprovidestechniquesthat elecan mentaryteachers applyin othertopic areasfor which physiis cal observation important. in Design Heuristic 6-Supporting Teachers Engaging Studentsin Designing Investigations Curriculummaterialsshould help teachersrecognizethe of importance sometimeshavingstudentsdesigntheirown Curriculum materials shouldprovideguidinvestigations. ancefor how teachers supportstudentsin doing so, by can for providingideasfor appropriate designsand suggestions designs. improvingstudents'inappropriate Example: In the hi-c3eunit "Cangood friendsmakeme sick?" studentsex2002). First,the plore the growthof bacteria(Hug & Krajcik, and teachermodels the processof conductingan investigation, the students draw conclusions.Next, students ask their own questionsand design their own experiment,using techniques The curriculum masimilarto those the teacherdemonstrated. terialsstresshow importantit is for the teacherto model these variouscomponentsof inquirybecausemiddle school students The materials have difficultiesin doing inquiryinvestigations. are complementedby online video materialson the KNOW websitefeaturingteachers talkingabout theirclassroomexperienceswith this set of lessons. Design Heuristic 7-Supporting Teachersin Engaging Studentsin Making ExplanationsBased on Evidence should provideclearrecommendaCurriculummaterials can tionsforhow teachers support studentsin makingsense of dataand generating basedon evidencethat explanations the studentshavecollectedand justifiedby scientificprinciplesthat they havelearned.The supportsshouldinclude is rationales why engagingstudentsin explanation imfor in scientificinquiryand why these particular apportant and pedagogically proachesfor doing so are scientifically

Example: emThe hi-c3eunit "HowI canI makenewstufffromold stuff?" The unit definesa scientificexscientificexplanations. phasizes planationand walksthroughthe claim,evidence,and reasoning in an exampleof a student-generated explanation. in Design Heuristic 8-Supporting Teachers Promoting Communication Scientific
Curriculum materials should provide suggestions for how

teacherscan promote productivecommunicationamong studentsand teachersin conversationsand student arti2005 APRIL


facts. The curriculum materials should provide rationales for why particularapproachesfor promoting communication (e.g., class discussions, student presentations, lab reports)are scientifically and pedagogically appropriate.

CASES, which provides educative curriculum materials online, incorporates guidance-on-demand (Bell & Davis, 2000) to provide support for engaging in inquiry practices. Clicking on a tip link takes the teacher to a small pop-up window providing an answer to a question about why one would want to use a practice like communicating and justifying ideas (to provide a rationale for the practice) and how one could accomplish the practiceguidance that beginning teachers, in particular,are likely to need.

inquiry-oriented science more effectively. CASES incorporates inquiryoriented unit plans that are educative for teachers,as well as a personal online journal, an online teacher community discussion space, and other resources for science teaching. Researchers from hi-c3e (http://www. use the principles of project-basedscience as a design framework for the curriculum materialsthat they develop. The curriculum materials developed by hi-c3e and widely used in schools are made educative for teachersthrough the inclusion of science background knowledge and suggestions for successful enactment. The printed curriculum materials are supplemented by extensive professional development, including regular workshops and an online resource called Knowledge Networks on the Web (KNOW; see

Armbruster, B. B., & Anderson, T. H. (1985). Producing "considerate" expository text: Or easy reading is damned hard writing. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 17(3), 247-263. Ball, D. L., & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J. Boaler (Ed.), Multiple perspectiveson the teaching and learning of mathematics (pp. 83-104). Westport, CT: Ablex. Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1996). Reform by the book: What is-or might be-the role of curriculum materials in teacher learning and instructional reform?Educational Researcher, 25(9), 6-8, 14. Barab, S., & Luehmann, A. (2003). Building sustainable science curriculum: Acknowledging and accommodating local adaptation. Science Education, 87(4), 454-467. Bell, P., & Davis, E. A. (2000). Designing Mildred: Scaffolding students' reflection and argumentation using a cognitive software guide. In B. Fishman & S. O'Connor-Divelbiss (Eds.), Proceedings ofthe International Conferenceforthe Learning Sciences2000 (pp. 142-149). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. encounter: Ben-Peretz, M. (1990). The teacher-curriculum Freeingteachers from the tyrannyof texts.Albany: State University of New York Press. Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning:Map33(8), 3-15. ping the terrain. Educational Researcher, Bransford, J. D., & Schwartz, D. (1999). Rethinking transfer:A simple proposal with multiple implications. Review ofResearchin Education, 24, 61-100. Bridgham, K. (1971). Comments on some thoughts on science curriculum development. In E. Eisner (Ed.), Confrontingcurriculumreform (pp. 61-67). Boston: Little Brown. Brown, A., & Campione, J. (1996). Psychological theory and the design of innovative learning environments: On procedures, principles, and systems. In L. Schauble & R. Glaser (Eds.), Innovations in learning: New environmentsfor education (pp. 289-325). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Brown, M., & Edelson, D. (2003). Teachingas design: Can we betterunderstandthe ways in which teachersuse materialsso we can betterdesign materialsto supporttheir changesin practice?(Design Brief). Evanston, IL: Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools. Bruner, J. (1960). Theprocess of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Carter, K. (1993). The place of story in the study of teaching and teacher education. Educational Researcher, 22(1), 5-12, 18. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (1991). Teacher as curriculum maker. In P. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of researchon curriculum(pp. 363-401). New York: Macmillan. Clement, J. (1993). Using bridging analogies and anchoring intuitions to deal with students' preconceptions in physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,30(10), 1241-1257. Cobb, P. (1994). Where is the mind? Constructivist and sociocultural

III. Design Heuristic for Subject Matter Knowledge Design Heuristic9-Supporting Teachersin the Developmentof SubjectMatter Knowledge
Curriculum materials should support teachers in developing factual and conceptual knowledge of science content, including concepts likely to be misunderstood by students. Support should be presented at a level beyond the level of understanding required by the students, to better prepare teachers to explain science concepts and understand their students' ways of understanding the material. Curriculum materials should help teachers see how the scientific ideas relate to real-world phenomena and to the activities in the unit and why strong subject matter knowledge is important for teaching.

The science background sections of CASES units use lay terminology and real-world examples as much as possible, with scientific terminology carefully defined. The CASES weather unit answers questions such as "How do our observations help us predict tomorrow's weather?"and makes connections to puddles on the street in the discussion of the water cycle. NOTES
This research was funded by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers REC-0092610 (a Presidential Early Career Award to Scientists and Engineers) and 0227557 (a Center for Learning and

Teaching award).However, any opinions, findings, conclusions or

recommendations expressed in this article are those of the authors. A version of this article was presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. We thank Hanna Arzi, Hilda Borko, Iris Tabak, Richard White, three anonymous reviewers, and our colleagues in CASES (Curriculum Access System for Elementary Science,, hi-c3e (Center for Highly Interactive Classrooms, Curricula, and Computing in Education, http://, the Center for Curriculum Materials in Science (http://, and the University of Michigan for their help in thinking about these ideas. 1 We use studentsto refer to K-12 pupils. We distinguish amongpreservice teachersin schools of education, beginning teachersin their early years of teaching, and experiencedteacherswho have taught for several years. We use teachers to refer to preservice teachers and practicing teachers with any level of experience. 2 CASES is a technology-mediated learning environment provided on the Web (, aimed at supporting preserviceand beginning elementary and middle school teachers as they learn to teach

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ELIZABETHA. DAVIS is an Assistant Professor in science education at the University of Michigan, 610 E. University Ave., 1323 School of Education Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1259; Her research interests focus on supporting teachers and students in inquiryoriented science teaching and learning through the use of curriculum materials and learning technologies. JOSEPH S. KRAJCIKis a Professorin science education at the University of Michigan, 610 E. University Ave., 4109 School of Education Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1259; researchfocuses on designing curriculum materials and more generally on learning environments that help students to develop understanding of important learning goals by finding solutions to intellectual questions through engagement in scientific practices and the use of new learning technologies.

and Teacher Education, 19(1), 75-94.

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content and sources, development knowledgefor ofpedagogical supporting children's scientific inquiry(PCK-SI).Paperpresentedat the annual conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans.

received October 18, 2004 Manuscript Revisionreceived February 2005 2, 4, 2005 Accepted February