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Physical growth occurs rapidly during the first 2 years of life. The transition from infancy to toddlerhood-the period that spans the second year of life-is marked by the infant's switch from crawling to walking. B. Changes in Body Size 1. During the first 2 years, the body grows more rapidly than at any time after birth. 2. By the end of the first year the infant's length is 50 percent greater than it was at birth, and by 2 years of age it is 75 percent greater. 3. Birth weight has doubled by 5 months of age, tripled by I year, and quadrupled at 2 years. 4. Research indicates that these height and weight gains occur in little growth spurts. 5. In infancy, girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys. C. Changes in Body Proportions 1. The cephalocaudal trend is an organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from head to tail; growth of the head and chest occurs before that of the trunk and legs. 2. The proximodistal trend is a pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward; growth of the arms and legs occurs before that of the hands and feet. D. Changes in Muscle-Fat Makeup 1. Body fat, which helps the infant maintain a constant body temperature, increases after birth and peaks around 9 months of age. 2. Toddlers become more slender, a trend that continues into middle childhood. 3. Muscle tissue increases very slowly and does not peak until adolescence. 4. Girls have a higher ratio of fat to muscle than boys. E. Early Skeletal Growth 1. Current body size is not an accurate indication of physical maturity. 2. General Skeletal Growth: a. The best way to estimate a child's physical maturity is to use skeletal age, a measure of the body's bone development. b. The epiphyses are the growth centers in the bones where new cartilage cells are produced and gradually harden. c. As growth continues, the epiphyses thin and disappear and no more growth of the bone is possible. d. Girls are considerably ahead of boys in skeletal age. 3. Growth of the Skull: a. Because of the large increases in brain size, skull growth during the first 2 years is very rapid. b. At birth, the bones of the skull are separated by six gaps called fontanels. F. Appearance of Teeth 1. An infant's first tooth usually appears between 4 to 6 months of age. By age 2, the child has 20 teeth. 2. A child who gets her teeth early is likely to be advanced in physical maturity. II. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT A. At birth, the brain is nearer to its adult size than any other physical structure. B. Development of Neurons
If a baby's diet is deficient in either quantity or quality of nutrients.It contains the greatest number of neurons and synapses. Nutrition 1.Regions of the Cortex: a. However. During the first few years. thereby sending messages to one another. nearly two-thirds of American mothers breastfeed their babies. . d. Some mothers cannot nurse because of physiological or medical reasons. the brain is more plastic than at any later time of life. 2. Neurons release chemicals that cross the synapse. and it is the last of the brain structures to stop growing. b. C. Heredity 1.especially nutrition.versus Bottle-Feeding: a.When environmental conditions are adequate. 3. of the cortex.Breast.Catch-up growth is physical growth that returns to its genetically determined path after being delayed by environmental factors.Neurons that are stimulated by input from the surrounding environment continue to establish new synapses. 3. Development of the Cerebral Cortex 1. Those that are seldom stimulated soon die off. Breast-fed babies in impoverished regions of the world are less likely to be malnourished and more likely to survive the first year of life. Synapses are tiny gaps between neurons where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch. 3. c. III. Today. Breast-feeding offers many nutritional and health advantages over bottlefeeding.Lateralization and Plasticity of the Cortex: a.A baby's energy needs are twice as great as those of an adult. e.The cerebral cortex is the largest structure of the human brain and accounts for 85 percent of its weight.Myelinization is a process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer. b.Twenty-five percent of an infant's caloric intake is devoted to growth.Weight is also affected by genetic make-up. 2. 4. 3. as a result. d. The order in which cortical regions develop corresponds to the order in which various capacities emerge in infancy and childhood. b. Lateralization begins early in life and is molded by early experience. Brain plasticity is the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of a damaged part. the environment. growth can be permanently stunted.does play an important role. 6. their most important function is myelinization. B. height and rate of physical growth are largely determined by heredity. which are responsible for thought and consciousness. Lateralization is the specialization of functions of the two hemispheres.Glial cells make up about half of the brain's volume and do not carry messages. 2. FACTORS AFFECTING EARLY PHYSICAL GROWTH A. One of the last regions of the cortex to develop and myelinate are the frontal lobes. Breast milk is easily digestible and. 4. or sides. The human brain has 100 to 200 billion neurons-nerve cells that store and transmit information.1. 2. 5. c.
without risk of becoming too fat. such as crawling. Emotional Well-Being 1. the social environment also contributes. hair loss. CHANGING STATES OF AROUSAL A. V. D. Even after infants sleep through the night. f. the organization of sleep and wakefulness changes and fussiness and crying also decline. movement possibilities of the body. Kwashiorkor is a disease usually appearing between I and 3 years of age that is caused by a diet low in protein. B. Symptoms include an enlarged belly. 2. trunk. 5. 3. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT A. B. 5. standing. Breast. swollen feet. Although brain maturation is largely responsible for changes in sleep and wakefulness. Head. 4. 4. and irritable. there are large individual differences in rate of motor progress. it is tentative and uncertain. b. B. Marasmus is a wasted condition of the body usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. and arm control appears before coordination of the hands and fingers . 3. According to dynamic systems theory of motor development. Although the sequence of motor development is fairly uniform across children.and bottle-fed youngsters do not differ in psychological adjustment. listless behavior. Motor control of the head precedes control of the arms and trunk which precedes control of the legs . During the first 2 years. If the disorder is not corrected in infancy. mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When a skill is initially acquired. Physical exercise also guards against excessive weight gain.breast-fed babies become hungry more often than bottle-fed infants. and environmental supports for the skill. . they continue to wake occasionally for the next few years. skin rash. C. Nonorganic failure to thrive is a growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of parental love. Infant and toddlers can eat nutritious foods freely. Fine motor development involves smaller movements such as reaching and grasping. Each new skill is a joint product of central nervous system development. the task the child has in mind. Gross motor development refers to control over actions that help an infant move around in the environment. infants remain awake for longer daytime periods and need fewer naps. Children who survive these forms of malnutrition grow to be smaller in all body dimensions and their brains can be seriously affected. some children remain small and have lasting cognitive and emotional problems.Malnutrition: a. c. 2. c. Over time. Only a slight correlation exists between fatness in infancy and obesity at older ages.Are Chubby Babies at Risk for Later Overweight and Obesity? a. Recent evidence indicates that 40 to 60 percent of the world's children do not get enough to eat. The Sequence of Motor Development 1. Melatonin secretion in the brain is greater at night by the middle of the first year. d. Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems 1. The infant must practice and refine it so that the skill becomes smooth and accurate. C. IV. and walking. 2.
LEARNING CAPACITIES A. b. D. Voluntary reaching plays a vital role in infant cognitive development. VI. respons. b. 3. Bowel and Bladder Control 1. Prehearing is the uncoordinated. 2. They experiment and revise motor actions to fit changing task conditions. Voluntary reaching appears at about 3 months and gradually improves in accuracy. now called a conditioned stimulus . 2. 2. c. Development of Voluntary Reaching and Grasping: a. produces the reflex. Each skill is acquired by revising and combining earlier accomplishments into a more complex system that allows the child to reach a desired goal. primitive reaching movements of newborns. 3. Fine Motor Development: Voluntary Reaching and Grasping 1.Early motor skills are due to complex transactions between nature and nurture. 4.Toilet training is best delayed until the end of the second or beginning of the third year. C. is presented at the same time as or just before the UCS. involving the oppositional use of the forefinger and thumb. 3. 2. Operant Conditioning . Extinction is a decline in the CR as a result of presenting the CS enough times without the UCS. To study infants' mastery of motor milestones. 5.Early Experience and Voluntary Reaching: a. c. Learning refers to changes in behavior as the result of experience. now called a conditioned response . The steps for learning by classical conditioning are as follows: a. Dynamic Motor Systems in Action 1. Trying to push infants beyond their current readiness to handle stimulation can undermine the development of important motor skills. A neutral stimulus. Esther Thelen's findings show that infants are active problem-solvers in acquiring motor skills. The neutral stimulus. b. 4. Cross-cultural research shows that early movement opportunities and a stimulating environment contribute to motor development. 2. The pincer grasp is a well-coordinated grasp that emerges at the end of the first year. For a baby to learn easily. Cultural Variations in Motor Development 1. researchers have conducted microgenetic studies.Cultural beliefs vary concerning the necessity and advisability of deliberately teaching motor skills to babies. toddlers can correctly identify and respond to signals from a full bladder or rectum. which does not lead to the reflexive response. F. Classical Conditioning 1.4. or reflexive. B. As infants' and toddlers' motor skills develop. The ulnar grasp is a clumsy grasp of young infants. our sense of movement and location in space that arises from stimuli within the body. E. An unconditioned stimulus produces an unconditioned. At this time. Reflexes allow classical conditioning in young infants. Early reaching is controlled by proprioception. in which the fingers close against the palm. d. Motor skills start out as gross activities and move toward mastery of fine movements. C. the association between a UCS and a CS must have survival value. caregivers must devote more energies to protecting them from harm. which follow babies from their initial attempts at a skill until it is smooth and automatic.
By 11 months. A reinforcer is a stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response. 4. involving such cues as changes in texture and overlapping objects. 2) The principle states that if babies can detect a difference in contrast between two patterns. During the first year. 5. Dishabituation is a recovery of responsiveness after a new stimulus appears. b. infants can perceive subjective boundaries that are not really present.1) The perception of faces is not an innate perceptual . 4. they combine pattern elements and integrate them into a unified whole. 3. Imitation 1. 2. d.1) Motion is the first type of depth cue to which infants are sensitive. 2. c. The removal of a desirable stimulus or the presenting of an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called punishment. develops around the middle of the first year. Research indicates that around the time that infants crawl. Habituation refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation. Contrast Sensitivity ." 2) Researchers believe that crawling may promote a new level of brain organization by strengthening certain synaptic connections in the cortex. The Emergence of Depth Perception . Sudden infant death syndrome . Vision 1. Binocular sensitivity emerges between 2 and 3 months. d.1) Investigators have concluded that avoidance of heights is "made possible by independent locomotion. Operant conditioning allows researchers to determine what stimuli babies perceive and which ones they prefer. Pattern Perception: a. c. 3) Pictorial depth perception. visual acuity reaches a near-adult level. E. D. Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior will occur again. By 3 months. Depth Perception: a. 2. infants can focus on objects and discriminate colors about as well as adults can. 3. VII. a major cause of infant mortality. 2. Depth perception is the ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves. babies start to organize sounds into complex patterns. 2. Perception of the Human Face . Combining Pattern Elements .1) Once babies can detect all aspects of a pattern. Independent Movement and Depth Perception . 2) By 4 months. B. Hearing 1. Even newborns prefer to look at patterned as opposed to plain stimuli. Older infants can also detect clauses and phrases in sentences. 3. Research indicates newborns can imitate adult facial expressions and get to know people by matching behavioral states with them.1) Contrast sensitivity accounts for infants' early pattern preferences. Habituation and Dishabituation 1. Imitation is learning by copying the behavior of another person. they will prefer the one with more contrast. 2) Binocular depth cues arise because our two eyes have slightly different views of the visual field. babies "screen out" sounds that are not useful in their language community. By 6 months of age. PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT A. may result when problems in brain function prevent babies from learning certain lifesaving responses. most distinguish deep and shallow surfaces and avoid dangerous-looking drop-offs. b.1 .
shape. VIII. . sound. To accurately perceive objects. and color. 2. Some researchers disagree.Perception of Objects as Distinct. despite changes in its retinal image size. Eleanor and James Gibson's differentiation theory states that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine-grained. infants can discriminate between the photos of two moderately similar strangers. Intermodal Perception 1. they pick up additional information about an object's boundaries. c. UNDERSTANDING PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT A. 3) By 3 months. Shape constancy is perception that an object's shape is stable. Bounded Wholes: a. and touch to go together. we must translate changing retinal images into a single representation. B. b. b. constructing categories of objects and events in the surrounding environment. They can also recognize their mother's face in a photo. 2) A baby's tendency to search for structure in a patterned stimulus is quickly applied to face perception. Both of these perceptual capacities appear to be innate and assist babies in detecting a coherent world of objects. D.capacity. At first. Size constancy is the perception that an object's size is the same. 2. Then. as babies visually track moving objects. motion and spatial arrangements help infants identify objects. Invariant features are features that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world.Size and Shape Constancy: a. or sensory system. newborn behaviors suggest that they expect sight.Intermodal perception combines information from more than one modality. D. Object Perception 1. such as its distance from their eye. despite changes in the shape projected on the retina.Recent evidence indicates that babies perceive the world in an intermodal method from the beginning. C. d. C. regarding infant development as proceeding from a perceptual to a cognitive emphasis over the first year of life. The movement of objects relative to one another and to their background enables infants to construct a visual world of separate objects. invariant features in the environment. 4) Perception of the human face supports infants' earliest social relationships. believing instead that babies impose meaning on what they perceive. For example. Many researchers combine viewpoints.
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