The Arab Spring (Arabic: ‫ الربيع العربي‬ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabiyy), otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave

of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010. To date, there have been revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt; a civil war in Libya resulting in the fall of its government; civil uprisings in Bahrain, Syria, and Yemen, the latter resulting in the resignation of the Yemeni prime minister; major protests in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Oman; and minor protests in Lebanon, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Western Sahara. Clashes at the borders of Israel in May 2011 and the Palestine 194 movement are also inspired by the regional Arab Spring. the protests have shared techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches and rallies, as well as the use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship. Many demonstrations have met violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam ("the people want to bring down the regime"). The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa has become known as the "Arab Spring", and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter", "Arab Awakening" or "Arab Uprisings" even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 following Mohamed Bouazizi's selfimmolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday after noon prayers. The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region. As of January 2012, governments have been overthrown in three countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen, signed the GCC deal in Riyadh on 23 November 2011 which called for him to transfer power within 30 days and formally step down by February 2012. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek reelection in 2015, as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014, although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation. Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of two successive governments by King Abdullah. The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention, including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year". Country Tunisia Date Status of started protests 02010-12- • Government 18 18 overthrow on 14 December January 2011 2010 • Protests ended March 2011 • Pressure on Outcome Death toll Situation Government overthrown

Overthrow of Zine 223[55] El Abidine Ben Ali; [56] Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

Country

Date started

Status of protests

Outcome • Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi • Dissolution of the political police[52] • Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia and liquidation of its assets[53] • Release of political prisoners • Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[54] • Lifting of the 19year-old state of emergency[57][58] • A 40% increase in wages[60] • King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[63]

Death toll

Situation

elected government continues

Algeria

Lebanon

02010-1228 28 Subdued since December April 2011 2010 02011-0112 12 Limited January 2011

8[59]

Major protests

Protests and 17[61][62] governmental changes

Jordan

02011-0114 14 Ongoing January 2011

• Months later, Abdullah dismisses 1[65][66] Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[64]

Protests and governmental changes

02011-0117 17 Mauritania January 2011 02011-0117 17 Sudan January 2011 Oman 02011-0117 17 January

Subdued since May 2011

1[67]

Minor protests

• President Bashir Subdued since announces he will not 1[69] April 2011 seek another term in 2015[68] Ended May 2011 • Economic 2–6[77] concessions by Sultan [78][79] Qaboos[70][71][72]

Minor protests Protests and governmental changes

dissolution of the Parliament[89] • Disbanding of State Security Investigations Service[90] • Dissolution of the NDP.• Government 25 25 overthrown on 11 January February 2011 2011 • Protests ongoing Overthrow of Hosni 846[95] Mubarak. the former ruling party of Egypt and transfer of its Government overthrown . Mubarak [96] charged for killing protesters • Resignation of Prime Minister(s) Nazif and Shafik[87] • Assumption of power by the Armed Forces[88] • Suspension of the Constitution.Country Date started Status of protests [73] Outcome Death toll Situation 2011 • Dismissal of ministers[74][75] • Granting of lawmaking powers to Oman's elected legislature[76] • Economic concessions by King Abdullah[80][81] • Male-only municipal elections held 29 September 2011[82][83] • King Abdullah announces women's approval to vote and be elected in 2015 municipal elections and to be nominated to the Shura Council[84] Saudi Arabia 02011-0121 21 January 2011 Sustained small protests in Eastern Saudi Arabia 2[85][86] Minor protests Egypt 02011-01.

Saleh signed a powertransfer agreement brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council in Riyadh.[106] • Negotiations with Shia representatives.Ongoing 14 14 February 2011 • Economic 51[108] concessions by King Hamad. his family and his former ministers[92][93][94] • Resignation of MPs from the ruling party[97] Death toll Situation Yemen • On 4 June.[105] • Release of political prisoners.transition deal on Yemeni capital Sustained civil 03 3 23 November Sana'a. Saleh returned 1. President Ali Abdullah Saleh is injured in an attack on • President signs his compound in the 02011-02.784disorder and February 2011 to Yemen on 23 1. ending his 33-year reign[99] [100] • Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term.Country Date started Status of protests Outcome assets to the state[91] • Prosecution of Mubarak.870[101] governmental 2011 • Protests September 2011[98] changes ongoing • On 23 November. [107] • GCC intervention at the request of the Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes .[102] • Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[103] 35[104] Major protests Iraq 02011-0210 10 Subdued since February August 2011 2011 Bahrain 02011-02.

[109][110] Death toll Situation Libya • UN-mandated NATO. resumed in September and ended in November. Qatari. [112][113][114] • Military intervention ended with NATO withdrawal • National Transitional Council assumes interim control of Libya Subdued since 31 March 2011.Subdued since 20 20 July 2011 February 2011 02011-0218 18 February 2011 • Resignation of Cabinet[118] • Resignation of the Government[119] 0[120] Government overthrown Kuwait Protests and governmental changes Protests and governmental changes Morocco • Political 1[123] concessions by King Mohammed VI.[121] • Referendum on constitutional reforms. Jordanian. Gaddafi killed by the NTC forces • Opposition forces seize control of all major Libyan cities. and Emirati military • Government 02011-0225.Country Date started Status of protests Outcome Government of Bahrain Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi.[117] 02011-02. • Respect to civil rights and an end to .000[11 • War ended 23 • Civil war ended 2011 6] October 2011 with an NTC victory on 23 October 2011.000[11 overthrown on 23 intervention[111] 15 15 5]– August 2011 February 30. Swedish.

[124][125] • End of Emergency Law. 0 Minor protests Syria 02011-0315 15 Ongoing March 2011 • Dismissal of Provincial Governors. ongoing) Israeli border areas 02011-05Ended 5 June 15 15 May 2011 2011 .000[133] disorder and • Large defections – government from the Syrian army 5.[130] 4. Homs and other areas. [131] • Formation of the Free Syrian Army • Formation of the Syrian National Council[132] • Syria suspended from the Arab League • International support for a new Syrian government in exile 30– 40[135] Major protests [136] 32.000– 37.[129] • Resignation of the Sustained civil Government.Country Date started Status of protests Outcome corruption[122] Death toll Situation Western Sahara 02011-0226 26 Subdued since February May 2011 2011 • Release of some political prisoners. Daraa. [126][127] • Military action in Hama.[128] • Resignations from Parliament.000[134] changes and clashes between soldiers and defectors.800+ (Internatio Total death toll: nal estimate.

corruption. The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years. and a number of demographic structural factors. during which there were two fatalities. promoted by computerliterate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students. Also. One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra.Background Motivations Numerous factors have led to the protests. resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police. The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests. set up to promote the strike. insufficient transparency of its redistribution. have resulted in an improved human development index in the affected countries. Recent history The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon. been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. as well as the increased availability of higher education. with more than 3. the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008. human rights violations. Egypt. just outside Cairo. Tunisia and Egypt. A Facebook page. including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy. as well as in the territory of Western Sahara. and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses. and other countries in the area. government corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables). differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue. an unspecified number of wounded. These protests included rallies. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country. the first to witness major uprisings. Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years. and dozens of arrests. A university professor of Oman. as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis. attracted tens of thousands of followers. which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square. Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have. Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor. and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike.000 labor actions since 2004. and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo. Al-Najma Zidjaly referred to this upheaval as youthquake. sit-ins. In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates. Algeria. such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population. some attribute the 2009 Iranian protests as one of the reasons behind the Arab Spring. unemployment. where protests continued for many months. and strikes. economic decline. dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists. Amnesty International singled out Wikileaks' release of US diplomatic cables as a catalyst for the revolts. extreme poverty. increasingly over the years. The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades. .

trade unionists. and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution. the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 km south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. His death on January 4 brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system.[157][158] and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries. that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country. Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9. labor. a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ouster of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. ending his 23 years in power. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades. he was unable to find work and was selling fruit at a roadside stand until the police confiscated his wares and added a slap on the face. unemployment. and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile. most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi.In Algeria. and human rights abuses. after the start of the Arab Spring. resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths.[155] lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom. looting of resources.000 and 20. including many unemployed. professors. while others cited rampant corruption. but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. students. United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation. In Western Sahara. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia.[156] and poor living conditions. that social discontent persisted throughout the country. food inflation. with food strikes occurring almost every week. political and human rights activists. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians. In February 2008.000 inhabitants. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination. Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care.[citation needed] Tunisian revolution Protesters in downtown Tunis on 14 January 2011 Main article: Tunisian revolution Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid. As the movement spread to other nations. corruption. discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment.[159][160] .700 riots and unrests' throughout the country. A college graduate. lawyers. The camp contained between 12. and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory. these groups have become an unprecedented movement that has built sufficient momentum to engender the current scope of events. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later. The next day (December 17) he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire.

in response to Sharaf and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms. However. . and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister. as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities. later appointing a new cabinet. On 10 February. The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament. As a result of continued daily protests. removing all former RCD members other than himself. the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD). It further promised to hold free. President Mubarak dismissed his government. open elections within the next six months. Protests have continued through the end of 2011. on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government. to eliminate the nation's Internet access.[165] Egyptian revolution Main article: 2011 Egyptian revolution Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman's statement concerning Hosni Mubarak's resignation Following the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics. Later that day.[citation needed] A civilian. was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square. on 9 March. suspended the Constitution of Egypt. in order to inhibit the protesters' ability to organize through social media. the Egyptian government attempted. as well as opposition figures from other ministries. it was dissolved. and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt. citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution. a state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created. but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term. Beginning around midnight on 28 January. somewhat successfully. Following further public protests. On 23 October 2011.Following Ben Ali's departure. however. However. later. the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately. potential presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei warned of a 'Tunisia-style explosion' in Egypt. Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman. Essam Sharaf. Protests in Egypt began on 25 January and ran for 18 days. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years. which included members of Ben Ali's party. Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February. and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended. protests continued the next day. or by the end of the year at the latest. and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws".

was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule. which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital. anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli. until a stalemate was formed between Brega and Ajdabiya. a protest on living conditions began on 14 January in Bayda. or to surrounding countries. regrouped in Sirte. After a three-month-long battle. authorising a no-fly zone over Libya. killing Gaddafi in the process. but they were repelled. the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against proGaddafi forces. leading to a television address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi. and remote reaches of the Libyan Desert. and on 20 October. The offensive stalled however. Yemeni uprising .ever. Sabha fell in late September. scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42 years of autocracy. where protesters clashed with police and attacked government offices. the Gulf of Sidra. and the southern Libyan Desert. Two days later. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. Many institutions of the government. However. and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast. the opposition controlled most of Benghazi. the country's second-largest city. and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns. protests had spread to the capital Tripoli. the Tripolitanian coast. including Gaddafi and several top regime officials. The government dispatched elite troops and mercenaries in an attempt to recapture it. By 20 February. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted. and the rebels mounted an offensive.[citation needed] On 26 February 2011. the third largest city in Libya. amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the Jamahiriya. Focus then shifted to the west of the country. capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. Others fled to Sabha. along with calls for the regime's dismantlement. fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional Council seized Sirte. drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats. Bani Walid was captured after a grueling siege weeks later. where bitter fighting continued. By 18 February. The rising death toll. Libya. On 17 March. who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. Antigovernment protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. In late August. a loyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi.[edit] Libyan civil war Thousands of demonstrators gather in Bayda Main article: 2011 Libyan civil war After the success of the revolution in Tunisia. numbering in the thousands. Bani Walid. despite initial opposition success. France. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains.

and corruption. Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment.Protests in Sana‘a Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January. Sana'a.According to Xinhua News. The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates. armed members of the General People's Congress. while soldiers. and killed another demonstrator during protests the following day. tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a. in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage". the crowd marched towards the Presidential Palace. Taiz. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen. unemployment and economic conditions. Protests continued over the following months. organizers were calling for a million protesters. Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak. There were also reports of gunfire in Aden during a rally. Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February. effectively ending his 33-year-old rule of Yemen and setting the stage for the transfer of power. Tawakul Karman got 2011 Nobel Peace Prize for her role in supporting . In the capital.000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a. Security forces killed one demonstrator. and briefly intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other. and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a.others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden that was called for by Tawakel Karman. but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi.but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh.While in Saudi Arabia.In response to the planned protest. 20. Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly. and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February. and as the riots continued overnight protesters set fire to a local government building. chanting anti-government slogans. one of whom was killed by a hand grenade in Taiz. especially in the three major cities. On 12 September. and Aden. an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque. Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July. After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times. defying all earlier expectations. In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18 February. who has largely continued his policies and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the presidential compound. Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013On 3 February. Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23 November. despite the attempts of riot police to stop them.000 protesters took place in Sana'a on 27 January. A major demonstration of over 16. On 23 September. who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009. three months since the assassination attempt. Three people were killed in the demonstrations. Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur alHadi to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.

Aleppo. Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus. al-Hasakah. At least 136 people were killed in the most violent and bloody day since the uprising started.A "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February. Protesters have been calling for political reforms and the reinstatement of civil rights. especially in the north.women rights and involvement in the Arab Spring. including Hama. but is surrounded after a big military operation by the Syrian army. Daraa. the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa in Southern Syria for writing slogans against the regime. By late November . Al-Bukamal. Deir ez-Zor. Syrian army tanks stormed several cities. Children were tortured brutally. Protests continued through July 2011. but there are no official figures on the number of deaths. which has been in place since 1963. Syrian uprising A demonstration in the city of Baniyas Protests in Syria started on 26 January. Daraa is the first city to protest against the Baathist regime. which has been ruling Syria since 1963. and Hama on 15 March. Bahraini uprising Main article: 2011–2012 Bahraini uprising . On 31 July. with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution". Deir Ez-Zour. On 6 March. as well as an end to the state of emergency.000 protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. when one case of self-immolation was reported. the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts.early December Baba Amr district of Homs falls under the armed Syrian opposition control.On 18 April 2011. but it was uneventful. approximately 100. and Herak in Daraa. The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few martyrs.

at the request of the Crown Prince. Egypt. On 18 February. and an end to sectarian discrimination. Yemen. several of whom were killed. but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations. Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause.Hundreds of thousands of Bahrainis taking part in the "March of Loyalty to Martyrs". As of July 2011. and were not intended to threaten the monarchy. and news journalists. Syria and Bahrain. mourners. medical personnel are being prosecuted for treating injured protesters. Later thousands of Shia protesters arose in Iraq and Qatif in opposition to the Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain. until a raid by police on the night of 17 February against protestors sleeping at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama. bulldozed. marched. and several human rights groups and news organizations have alleged they have been deliberately targeted by the Bahraini government. Following the deadly raid. protesters occupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw. On 22 February. the military arm of the Gulf Cooperation Council. one fifth of the nation's population. honoring political dissidents killed by security forces. an estimated one hundred thousand people. and the Peninsula Shield Force. several large rallies have been staged by the Shi'ite community demanding the release of detained protesters. On 14 March. GCC Saudi Arabian troops entered the country. on 22 February. and set on fire by the Bahraini Defense Force. in which police killed three protestors. protests flared up . the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout was evacuated. Since the lifting of emergency law on 1 June. Later on 18 March. The 2011 protests in Bahrain were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights. King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country. It was later lifted on 1 June 2011.On 19 February. greater political representation. prompting protesters to begin calling for the overthrow of the Bahraini monarchy and government. which intervened reportedly at King Hamad's behest.On 16 March 2011. Concurrent incidents Concurrent with the events in Tunisia. and opened fire on the protesters. the Pearl Roundabout monument was torn down as part of the crackdown on protesters. government forces opened fire on protesters. riot police. the protestors' aims expanded to a call for the end of the monarchy.The protests began in Bahrain on 14 Februaryand were largely peaceful. Libya.

The demonstration was suppressed by police. [ Over the course of the Algerian protests. Haaretz also reported a planned 'Revolution of Iraqi Rage' to be held on 25 February near the Green Zone. As many as three people were killed and 30 injured.Nevertheless. resulting in the mayor's dismissal by the provincial governor. and at least 1. and Baghdad featured violent protests. beginning with Mohamed Aouichia. demanding a more effective approach to national security. three demonstrators were killed.[citation needed] On 24 February.[citation needed] On 22 January. some becoming violent. Mosul. it was attended by about 300 people. The protesters demanded that the provincial governor resign because of the lack of basic services such as electricity and water. hundreds of protesters gathered in several major urban areas (notably Baghdad and Karbala) on 12 February. who had been unable to offer Bouterfif a job and a house. At least ten other self-immolation attempts were reported that week. Israel's Haaretz reported that a 31-year-old man in Mosul died from self-immolation. On 16 February. some facing strong suppression efforts.in other parts of the region. quickly escalating to violent confrontations with the police. Algeria 8 January protests in Algeria. to the investigation of federal corruption cases. On 13 January. In an apparent bid to stave off unrest. and about 100 youths protested his death. a wave of self-immolation attempts swept the country. while protesting high unemployment. In response. President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced on 3 February that the 19-year state of emergency would be lifted. and though illegal under the State of Emergency enacted in 1992. Mohsen Bouterfif set himself on fire after a meeting with the mayor of Boukhadra in Tebessa.[citation needed] From 12–19 January. Bouteflika said on 15 April that he would seek revisions to the country's constitution as part of a broad push for democratic reforms. and some resulting in political changes. as well as increased government involvement in making public services fair and accessible.100 were arrested. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not run for a third term in 2014. with 42 reported injuries. protests began in Algiers over the lack of housing. at least ten thousand people marched in the northeastern city of Béjaïa. the RCD party organised a demonstration for democracy in Algiers. when Algeria's cabinet adopted an order to lift the state of emergency. At least 53 people were reported injured and another 29 arrested. up to 2. On 29 January. Hawijah.000 protesters took over a provincial council building in the city of Kut. Iraq Main article: 2011 Iraqi protests In an effort to prevent unrest. Bouterfif reportedly died a few days later. who set himself on fire in Bordj Menaiel in protest at his family's housing. . over 800 were injured. a promise fulfilled on 22 February. On 29 December. the government promised to subsidize electricity costs.

S. Jordan On 14 January. including 13 Israeli soldiers.Lebanese President Michel Sleiman accused Israel of genocide over the incident. civilian protesters. When protesters tried to cut the razor wire several meters short of the frontier fence. and others. On 5 June.Israeli border areas Free Palestine rally in Cairo Palestinians used Facebook to call for mass protests throughout the region on 15 May 2011. Israeli troops opened fire. locally known as Nakba Day. but 5. Lebanon. Lebanon."Michael Weiss. The protests. and called for the government of Prime Minister Samir Rifai to step down. believes President Bashar Assad's government was actively supporting the Palestinian protests near the Israeli border. protests commenced in the capital Amman. 23 Syrian demonstrators were killed and over a hundred injured by Israeli troops after attempting to enter the Israeli-held part of the Golan Heights. Salt and Irbid. Several people were seen being carried away on stretchers. Lebanese security forces also made efforts. Following the protest. Syria and Jordan to commemorate the Nakba and demand the right of return for all Palestinian refugees.000 protested on 21 January in Amman despite this effort to . the Gaza Strip and the West Bank attempted to reach and cross the Israeli border. thousands began a sit-in near the frontier." Israeli soldiers warned through megaphones as people waving Palestinian flags streamed towards the frontier. led by trade unionists and leftist parties. as well as at Ma'an. the government reversed a rise in fuel prices.An Israeli military spokeswoman called the violence "an attempt to divert international attention from the bloodbath going on in Syria. Almost 300 people were injured.[unreliable source?] resulting in Syrian security forces creating a security buffer zone to prevent more demonstrators from approaching the border. to stop protesters from approaching the Israeli border.[unreliable source?] The page called for mass marches to Palestine from Egypt. Syria.000 "likes" before being taken down by Facebook managers at the end of March after complaints from the Israeli government that the page encouraged violence. calling it a "massacre". A page calling for a "Third Palestinian Intifada" to begin on 15 May garnered more than 350. However.Palestinians from Egypt.[citation needed] US State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the U."Anyone who tries to cross the border will be killed. occurred after Friday prayers. a spokesperson for Just Journalism. claimed that he had received leaked Syrian state documents showing that the Syrian government organized the Nakba Day protests to draw attention away from the uprising in Syria proper. Jordan. the 63rd annual commemoration of the Palestinian exodus. UN High Commissioner on Human Rights Navanethem Pillay condemned the Israel Defense Forces' use of force against unarmed. In the aftermath. they were all stopped and 12 were killed in clashes with Israeli security forces. and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party called for an international response to the incident. Al Karak. There were also clashes across east Jerusalem. The Muslim Brotherhood and 14 trade unions said that they would hold a sit-down protest outside parliament the next day to "denounce government economic policies". including the use of live fire according to some reports.

replacing the long-serving Sheik Nasser Al Mohammad Al Sabah. The largest political protest in Kuwaiti history was scheduled for 28 November to pressure the prime minister to resign.alleviate Jordan's economic misery. however.000 and 10. The monarch added that the reforms should put Jordan on the path "to strengthen democracy". a former army general. concurrent with many protests in the region. which peaked with a rally of between 6. King Abdullah duly sacked Bakhit and his cabinet and named Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh to head the new government on 17 October.Protests continued into October. forcing police to intervene. which would make proposals to him by June. protesters occupied the National Assembly of Kuwait for several minutes and rallied in nearby Al-Erada Square. and had asked Marouf al-Bakhit. after which a referendum would be held on the draft constitution. Kuwait Protests by stateless Bedouins began in January and February.The interior minister Taib Cherkaoui affirmed the right of the protests to take place. to form a new Cabinet. but at least one person was killed and over 100 injured the next day after pro-government vigilantes clashed with the protesters in the camp. with the largest demonstrations since the start of the unrest early in the year. Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah called the brief occupation "an unprecedented step on the path to anarchy and lawlessness".King Abdullah charged Bakhit to "take quick. Some protests were marred by violence and damage to property. the Royal Palace announced that King Abdullah had dismissed the government on account of the street protests. Subsequently. concrete and practical steps to launch a genuine political reform process". On 9 March. Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah said the protests were "going too far" and threatened a security crackdown. King Mohammed announced that he would begin a comprehensive constitutional reform aimed at improving democracy and the rule of law. but he and his cabinet submitted their resignation to the emir hours ahead of it. Fez and Tangier in solidarity with the Egyptian revolution.and in October. On 20 February. By June. in a live televised address. Late on 16 November.On 26 February. Under pressure from street demonstrations. In Al Hoceima. around 37. . As of November 2011. the emir selected Defense Minister Sheik Jaber Al Hamad Al Sabah as the new prime minister. Among the demands of the organisers was that the constitutional role of the king should be "reduced to its natural size". A protest camp led by students calling for democratic reforms was established on 24 March in Gamal Abdel Nasser Circle in downtown Amman. Late November. who had survived several no-confidence votes in parliament and was the target of opposition groups calling for his dismissal. Morocco In early February 2011. oil workers went on strike. and provide Jordanians with the "dignified life they deserve".000 Jordanians on 25 February. a day of protest in favour of Moroccan constitutional reform and social justice was planned for 20 February and advertised on social networking sites. a further protest was held in Casablanca. according to government sources.This move did not end protests. protests are ongoing.These clashes and belated police interventions have become a hallmark of the Jordanian protests.000 people participated in demonstrations across Morocco. protests grew in size from dozens to hundreds. with a major rally in central Amman planned for 15 July being derailed by belligerent regime supporters. protests were held in Rabat. In response. Thousands protested in September. Parliament called for the ouster of the Bakhit government. On 1 February. He promised to form a commission to work on constitutional revisions. five people died after protesters set fire to a bank.

protesters in Sohar called for more jobs. In Sohar. but were merely calling for jobs and reform. with electoral lists reserved for young and female candidates and with the post of prime minister. including the prime minister. 3. Oman Protesters set ablaze Lulu Hypermarket in Sohar. around 6. dismissing scores of ministers. granting student and unemployment benefits. which became law on 13 September.In addition. The Royal Army of Oman has also initiated employment drives by publishing recruitment advertisements in newspapers. The Sultan continued with his reform campaign by dissolving the Ministry of National Economy. demanding an end to the king's roles as head of the army and of religious affairs.000 people demonstrated in Casablanca and 2. setting up a state audit committee.The government's efforts largely placated .On 20 March. Some protesters also carried signs with slogans of support for the Sultan. and reshuffling his cabinet three times. being decided by the outcome of the vote.000 in Tangier.The Omani protesters insisted that they were not challenging the rule of Sultan Qaboos. Witnesses further reported that protesters burnt a police station as well as the Wali's house (where the representative of the Sultan to Sohar stays). The protest shocked some journalists. On the same day.000 new jobs in the Royal Oman Police. previously an appointment of the king. around 50 imams protested in Rabat against state control of their activities. Elections were held on the basis of the new constitution in November 2011.000 people demonstrated in Rabat. On 18 September.Demonstrations also spread to the region of Salalah.The protesters even apologized to the Sultan for allowing violence rattle the city of Sohar on 28 February 2011.000.) The Omani Ministry of Manpower has furthermore directed various companies (both private and public) to formulate their own employment plans.000 jobs are being created in the public sector. with 350 protesters demanding an end to corruption and better distribution of oil revenue. In June.On the following day. who generally view Oman as a 'politically stable and sleepy country'. where protesters had reportedly been camping outside the provincial governor's house since 25 February. who they regarded as corrupt. nearly 50. a further protest was held in Casablanca to mark the end of the first month since the original 20 February demonstrations and to maintain pressure for reform. 200 protesters marched on 17 January 2011. The police responded using tear gas to contain and disperse the crowds of protesters. witnesses claimed that two protesters were killed when police fired rubber bullets to disperse the crowds. Protesters. demanding salary increases and a lower cost of living. Abbas El Fassi.In October. numbering 20. who has been in power since 1970. Oman on 28 February 2011 In the Gulf country of Oman. On 26 February. etc. Some protesters felt that the reforms did not go far enough. a referendum was held on changes to the constitution. demanded the resignation of a number of senior politicians. tensions escalated with protesters burning shops and cars.Renewed protests occurred on 18 February. including 10.

On 17 June. frequent demonstrations of a few hundred to a few thousand people occurred in and around Qatif from 15 to 25 March. the anti-government movement "Women2Drive" has organized a drive-in to demand fairer treatment of women in the country. On 22–23 March. At the same time. Reports of desperation within the government surfaced as the rally is expected to highlight one of the worst gender rights' regimes in the world. and also in early March in the north-east. several women were arrested north of Riyadh for practicing in a parking lot. On 5 February. which demanded the release of prisoners and the withdrawal of the Peninsula Shield Force from Bahrain. and Oman has not seen significant demonstrations since May 2011. On 15 June. supported by an advocacy group. al-Sharif has been called a modern Rosa Parks. Nonetheless. in al-Awamiyah. planning to encircle the Saudi embassy in Foggy Bottom. three protesters were injured by police gunfire in Qatif. female drivers in the United States have organized a protest in solidarity with Saudi women. During the month three females from Minnesota. artwork by Carlos Latuff In Saudi Arabia hundreds of people protested against the poor infrastructure in Jeddah following flooding. forty women demonstrated for the release of prisoners held without trial. an online campaign began calling for major political and economic changes. Saudi Arabia Poster for the Saudi Arabia's #women2drive Movement. when increasingly violent protests in Salalah were subdued. announced a gender discrimination complaint against the kingdom's livery services in Rochester to coincide with the "Women2Drive" campaign. A day earlier. Several protests of a few hundred demonstrators each took place in late February. men-only municipal elections to elect half the members of local councils were announced for 22 September 2011. Following the crackdown during the 2011 Bahraini uprising. It was sparked by the arrest and imprisonment of Manal al-Sharif for driving a vehicle with another woman.and a 'significant' police presence in Riyadh and Jeddah prevented protests from occurring on 11 March. mostly in Qatif but also in Hofuf. .protesters. as well as in Riyadh. On 9 June. Security in the north-east was tightened on 5 March. protests calling for the release of prisoners took place outside the Ministry of the Interior in Riyadh on 12 March.

At the same time.On 13 March. Nasser bin Gaith.Others "The Laique pride" rally in Beirut Central District. while on 27 November they were sentenced. cities such as Atar. burned himself near the Presidential Palace on 17 January. On 12 April. Yacoub Ould Dahoud. • In the Palestinian Territories. rejecting the supremacy of Hezbollah's weapons over political life. Mohamed El Moctar Ould Ehmeyen Amar. detaining four people. The mayor of the city of Aoujeft. the government started expanding its network of surveillance cameras. On 13 November they began a hunger strike. President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek to run in the next presidential election (in 2015). only to be pardoned the following day. and reportedly beating protesters. as a preventive measure against revolts. On 3 February. when hundreds called for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to step down. Hamas police forces dispersed the demonstration. was charged with possession of alcohol. a protester. According to his lawyer. Ahmed Mansoor receiving three years in prison. Despite minor economic concessions by the authorities. and was attended by 150 people. Lebanon • In Lebanon. pleaded not guilty to insulting the ruling family. About 160 people signed the petition. a peaceful sit-in took place in Saida. the Palestinian Authority prevented demonstrations in support of protesters in Tunisia and Egypt. Ahmed Mansoor. a charge denied by the police. in opposition to the policies of Mauritanian president Mohamed Ould Abdel AzizThe following week. • In the United Arab Emirates. including demands for universal suffrage. two other men. a group of intellectuals petitioned their ruler for comprehensive reform of the Federal National Council. a prominent blogger and pro-democracy activist. tens of thousands of supporters of the March 14 Alliance called for the disarmament of Hezbollah in Beirut.in addition to the capital Noukchott. Palestinian police dispersed an anti-Mubarak demonstration in downtown Ramallah. hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital Nouakchott.-backed Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) after the fall of the Hariri government and the creation of the Mikati government. including an economics professor. claiming .In May. On 21 February.N. were detained a few days earlier. Mansoor and four other reform activists. on 25 April protesters again took to the streets to call for the resignation of the prime-minister. calling for reform of the country's confessional political system.On 15 October. many of whom were academics and former members of the FNC. protests took place on 30 January and 1 February. while the others being sentenced to two-year jail terms. and Aleg also organised sporadic protests. a blogger and a political commentator. The Syrian Uprising also has leaked over the border • In Mauritania. an anti-Assad protest expressing solidarity with Palestinian refugees in Syria affected by the unrest there took place in the Gaza Strip. after being charged. confiscating a cameraman's footage. endangering national security and inciting people to protest. resigned from the ruling party to politically support what he called "the just cause of youngsters". Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf. hundreds or protesters rallied in Beirut on 27 February in a march referred to as "The Laique pride". They also showed support for the U. Zouerate. • In Sudan.In June. A smaller pro-Mubarak demonstration was permitted to take place in the same area and was guarded by police.

uprisings. The reshuffle had long been demanded by Fayyad as well as members of Abbas's Fatah faction. Noam Chomsky. looting of resources. and that the Berbers of Libya participated massively in the protests and fightings under Berber identity banners. even in absolute majority-Arab countries. amid pan-Arab calls for reform. who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the revolution". and civil society groups. freedom. giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Spring—a play on the so-called 1968 Prague Spring. the country's small Jewish minority was initially divided by protests against Ben Ali and the government. through a constitutional reform. While many in the Coptic minority in Egypt had criticized the Mubarak government for its failure to suppress Islamic extremists who attack the Coptic community. where the indigenous Berbers have taken up arms against the regime while supporting an interim government based in the majority-Arab eastern half of the country. • In Western Sahara. the prospect of these extremist groups taking over after its fall caused most Copts to avoid the protests. passed in a national referendum on 1 July. Analysis Ethnic scope Many analysts. one major theater of combat has been the western Nafusa Mountains. In Tunisia. Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad submitted his resignation along with that of his cabinet to President Mahmoud Abbas. On 14 February. west of Egypt. and fears that Hamas supporters would back Palestinian Authority opponents. the Palestinian Authority announced that it would hold municipal elections in July. Owing to the fact that the uprisings and revolutions erupted first in North Africa before spreading to Asian Arab countries. democracy and cultural diversity. The Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported that this announcement was a reaction to the antigovernment protests in Egypt. according to the group's president. some Berbers in Libya often see the revolutions of North Africa. protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arabic-speaking countries. However. institutions. as a reincarnated Berber Spring and some call it the "Berber-Arab Spring"[citation needed]. In addition. viewed the October protests as the starting point from which 'the current wave of protests actually began'. During the civil war in Libya. the international media has also noted the role of minority groups in many of these majority-Arab countries in the revolts. lack of jobs. and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arab phenomenon.that it was held without a permit On 1 February.After consultations with other factions. and indeed. In Morocco. The international media pointed to a few Copts who joined the protests. Amazigh—a standardized version of the 3 Berber languages of Morocco was made official alongside Arabic. The elections were postponed to 22 October. then suspended indefinitely due to an internal division within the Palestinian Authority over candidates for many of the municipalities and councils. protesters cited inspiration from the events in other parts of the region. with Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria calling for them to end. . young Sahrawis held a series of minor demonstrations to protest labour discrimination. but eventually came to identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime. journalists. and human rights abuses. Abbas asked him to form a new government. and revolutions in those states. a democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakia—to refer to protests. Although protests from February 2011 onward were related to a series of Sahrawi demonstrations outside El Aaiun that originated in October 2010 and died down the following month. this series of revolutions has been marked by the absence of Arab Nationalist banners and rhetoric among the masses in favor of principles of human rights. among other things.

schools and government offices were shut to allow demonstrations backing the UN membership bid in Ramallah. especially those in Iran. a German-Turkish political scientist. Kenan Engin. the international response has been considerably more nuanced. while harsh government responses have generally met condemnation. the ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government. The International Monetary Fund said oil prices were likely to be higher than originally forecast due to unrest in the Middle East and North Africa. identified the new uprising in Arab and Islamic countries as the "fifth wave of democracy" because of evident features qualitatively similar to the "third wave of democracy" in Latin America that took place in the '70s and '80s. Nablus and Hebron.and Uganda. . Moroccan. major regions of oil production.In the case of the Bahraini. Some critics have accused Western governments. Djibouti. countries in sub-Saharan Africa. including Burkina Faso. of hypocrisy in the way they have reacted to the Arab Spring. Impact of the Arab Spring The regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. including the Maldives and the People's Republic of China. Croatia. demonstrators and opposition figures claiming inspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their own popular protests. International reactions Protests in many countries affected by the Arab Spring have attracted widespread support from the international community. Noam Chomsky accused the Obama administration of endeavoring to muffle the revolutionary wave and stifle popular democratization efforts in the Middle East. These protests. and Spain.while in Iraq and Syria. Azerbaijan. The early success of uprisings in North Africa was inspired by the uprisings of disenchanted people in the Middle Eastern states of Iran and Turkeyto take to the streets and agitate for reforms. In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasus—namely Armenia.and Georgia—as well as some countries in Europe. and Syrian protests.In northern Sudan hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris have joined anti-government protests. contributing to the 2011 energy crisis. Bethlehem. In the West Bank. including those of France. echoing similar peaceful protests from other Arab countries. [ including the Kurdistan Regional Government in the former's Kurdish-majority north. are considered by many commentators to be part of the same wave that began in Iran and later Tunisia and has gripped the broader Middle Eastern and North African regions. including Albania. and the United States. Protests have also affected oil prices. where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.and countries in other parts of Asia. The bid for statehood by Palestine at the UN on 23 September 2011 is also regarded as drawing inspiration from the Arab Spring after years of failed peace negotiations with Israel. the United Kingdom.

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