I am Frank ha ha ha in the accompanying video I thought it was me who would save the world Don’t cry for me Argentina

… Long live the Queen … I am Frank son of Francis Joseph Gallagher known as Frank Eccentric at odds with the PRICK I FIBIB Political Religious Intellectual Charlatan Kleptocracy inciting Fickle Inherent Ignorant Bliss http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LRDlmQer6Dw&feature=related At about 17:20 Ya all must hear reference to the true Frank Jesuit Black Pope alien God surfacing today 3/13/13 After perhaps 3 black smokes in a puff of white smoke wearing White Long live the Queen http://www.scribd.com/doc/113583404/BONZAI-British-Oriented-Nazi-Zionist-Anatomy-Incinerator Praise be to www.Mimes13.com White Pope puppet of Alien God Petrus Romanus underground Black Pope soon to surface on white smoke? Self fulfilled prophecy? Pope appoints 67 electorate of 115 new Pope needs 77 votes 2/3 vote fixed for Black Pope alien God? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ukSGV1MegQA Vatican plan for the arrival of Alien God Petrus Romanus – Peter the Roman Anti-Christ http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=QH4ZfSECJxg&feature=fvwp Black Pope’s Power Structure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DOwg1lFiLY Elizabeth Queen of Hebrews http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLW79ax7c3g Queen & Rothschild Imperialism
1. Belief in Empire Building The policy of extending the rule or influence of a country over other countries or colonies 2. Domination by Empire The political, military, or economic domination of one country over another

3. Takeover and DominationThe extension of power or authority over others in the interests of domination

1

Jesuit 1. Member of Roman Catholic religious order A member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order engaged in missionary and educational work worldwide. The order was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 with the objective of defending Catholicism against the Reformation. 2. Offensive Term An offensive term for somebody regarded as crafty or scheming, especially somebody who uses deliberately ambiguous or confusing words to deceive others Success dependent on owning the Media http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJgnJ_W_5zU CNN Shameful Media Mass Media Propaganda Brainwashing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUzsjgcdUhE How Zionist Control Us http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6C24GpgQTQ Obama and Rockefeller - Trilateral Commission thank media for discretion keeping secret for 40 years Apparently would have us believe against the USA being a good thing as well as a one world government with one Humongous Exception HE – Human Equality

www.MessiahKevin13.com
http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=X5L_x6RHE4s Empire of the City Vatican, London, DC AMEN Satanic God http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lc4FFlTvWEY Empire of the City www.MIMES13.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina Argentina i/ˌɑrdʒənˈtiːnə/, officially the Argentine Republic[8] (Spanish: República Argentina [reˈpuβlika aɾxenˈtina]), is one country of America, located in South America, bordered by Chile to the west and south, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The country is a federation of 23 provinces and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, its capital and largest city. It is the eighth-largest country in the world by land area and the largest among Spanishspeaking nations. Argentina is a founding member of the United Nations, Mercosur, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization, and is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. 2

A recognized Southern Cone power,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15] and middle power,[16] Argentina is Latin America's third-largest economy,[17] with a "very high" rating on the Human development index.[7] Within Latin America, Argentina has the fifth highest nominal GDP per capita and the highest in purchasing power terms.[18] The Legatum Institute have argued that the country has a "foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods", and it is classed by investors as middle emerging economy.[19] Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Pre-Columbian era 2.2 Spanish colonial era 2.3 Independence and civil wars 2.4 Rise of Peronism 2.5 The Dirty War 2.6 Contemporary era 3 Politics 3.1 Foreign relations 3.2 Military 4 Political divisions 5 Geography 5.1 Climate 5.2 Tourism 5.3 Biodiversity 6 Economy and infrastructure 6.1 Industry 6.2 Science and technology 6.3 Education 6.4 Transport 6.5 Health care 7 Demographics 7.1 Ethnography 7.2 Language 7.3 Religion 7.4 Urbanization 8 Culture 8.1 Literature 8.2 Visual arts 8.3 Architecture 8.4 Cinema and theatre 8.5 Music 8.6 Media 8.7 Sports 8.7.1 Basketball 8.7.2 Tennis 8.7.3 Field hockey 8.7.4 Polo 3

This name was used in the 1853 Constitution. 4 .8 Cuisine 8. the area was formally called Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. and the third one included the Charrúas andMinuane people and the Guaraníes.9 National symbols 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links Etymology Main article: Name of Argentina Argentina is derived from the Latin argentum ("silver"). and United Provinces of the Río de la Plata after independence.8. guaycurúes and wichis at Chaco. dating from circa 7350 BC. La Plata Basin does not have any sources of silver. large areas of the interior and piedmont were apparently depopulated during an extensive dry period between 4000 and 2000 B. Although this name for the La Plata Basin was already in common usage by the 18th century. the country was traditionally called "the Argentine". and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina". and farmers with pottery. History Pre-Columbian era Main article: History of Argentina The Cave of the Hands. advanced hunters and food gatherers. These cave paintings. The first use of the name Argentina can be traced to La Argentina. mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina. when the country achieved its current organization.[24] However. and there are further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. The area now known as Argentina was relatively sparsely populated until the period of European colonization.[25] The Uruguayan archaeologist Raúl Campá Soler divided the indigenous peoples in Argentinainto three main groups: basic hunters and food gatherers.[20] The first formal use of the name was in the 1826 constitution. and the territories were instead known as the "Argentine Confederation". which used both the terms "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Nation". but the first Spanish conquerors arrived to the area following rumors of the existence of silver mountains. The Guaraníes had expanded across large areas of South America.[20] In the English language.[22][23]This fell out of usage in English during the mid to late 20th century. hence the name. the Yámana at the archipelago between the Beagle Channel and Cape Horn. many peoples at the litoral.[21] The Constitution was repealed. Tehuelches in the Patagonia. Some of the different groups included the Onas at Tierra del Fuego. are among the oldest art forms of America. The earliest traces of human life are dated from the Paleolithicperiod. and to the "Argentine Republic" per an 1860 decree.[26] The second group could be found in the Pampa and south of Patagonia. being changed to that of the "Argentine Nation" in 1859. a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera. without development of pottery.C.

Buenos Aires. and Córdoba in 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. but were defeated both times bySantiago de Liniers. Uruguay. made it gradually become one of the most important commercial centers of the region. Bohanes and Chanás (and Chaná-Timbú) were located in the actual territory of Entre Ríos and the Querandí in Buenos Aires. yaros. This viceroyalty consisted of today's Argentina. TheCharrua (which included the Minuane people). the colonization of the Río de la Plata estuary was not influenced by any gold rush. This idea led to multiple attempts to remove the local authorities 5 . and Paraguay. encompassing all its holdings in South America. Ships from Spain became scarce again after the Spanish defeat at the battle of Trafalgar. a condition that led to contraband becoming the normal means of commerce in cities such as Asunción. that gave the British maritime supremacy.[28] The natural ports on the Río de la Plata estuary could not be used because all ships were meant to be made through the port of Callaonear Lima. and settlers arrived from that city. Those victories. as well as much of present-day Bolivia. Spain established the Viceroyalty of Peru. and other political reasons. Buenos Aires. however. whose capital was Lima.[30] The beginning of the Peninsular War in Spain and the capture of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII created great concern all around the viceroyalty. short-lived due to lack of internal cohesion among the many regions of which it was constituted and lack of Spanish support. from Peru and from Chile. The British tried to invade Buenos Aires and Montevideo in 1806 and 1807. The city was established again in 1580.but settled at the northeastern provinces of Argentina. The Toba (Komlek) nation and the Diaguita which included the Calchaqui and the Quilmes lived in the North and the Comechingones in what is today the province of Cordoba. the increasing maritime activity in terms of goods rather than precious metals. In 1536Pedro de Mendoza established a small settlement at the modern location of Buenos Aires. The Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís visited the territory which is now Argentina in 1516. now holding the customs of the new political subdivision. establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata. It was considered that. andMontevideo. The viceroyalty was. which was abandoned in 1541. Unlike the other regions of South America.[27] A second one was established 1580 by Juan de Garay. became a flourishing port. the production of cattle for the export of leather and other products.Buenos Aires was established in 1536 but was destroyed by natives. achieved without help from mainland Spain. Spanish colonial era See also: Colonial Argentina William Carr Beresford surrenders toSantiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata. people in America should rule themselves. Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. Juan Díaz de Solís.[27] The first European explorer.[29] The Spanish raised the status of this region by establishing the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776. without a King. The colonization of modern Argentina came from 3 different directions: from Paraguay. arrived to the Río de la Plata in 1516. Those regions were part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. as the revenues from the Potosí. boosted the confidence of the city. since it lacked any precious metals to mine.

working under the new political ideas. with territories from the Viceroyalty of Peru.[31] Independence and civil wars See also: Argentine War of Independence. with the only exception of Cádiz and León. so Buenos Aires signed an armistice with Montevideo. the new government in Buenos Aires. A new successful attempt. took place when it was reported that all of Spain had been conquered. Argentine Civil Wars. sent military campaigns to Córdoba. Montevideo and Buenos Aires. Upper Peru defeated further military campaigns. The Primera Junta. The military campaigns were defeated. the May Revolution. and the Banda Oriental would be captured by William Brown during renewed hostilities. during the May Revolution. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of theAtlantic Revolutions generated criticism to the Absolute monarchy. This started the Spanish American wars of independence across the continent. Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros in 1810. and supported the rebellions at theBanda Oriental. La Paz. The resistance was headed both times by the FrenchSantiago de Liniers. Buenos Aires became the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776.at Chuquisaca. all of which were short-lived. who would become viceroy through popular support. Upper Peru and Paraguay. so many cities deposed the monarchic authorities and appointed new ones. and Rise of the Argentine Republic Historical states in present-day Argentina [show] before 1500 [show] 1500-1600 [show] 1600-1700 [show] 1700-1800 [show] 1800-1830 [show] 1830-present more The May Revolution of 1810 began the Argentine War of Independence between patriotsand royalists. The overthrow of the Spanish King Ferdinand VII during thePeninsular War created great concern in the Americas. Buenos Aires and Montevideo resisted two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807.[32] Paraguay stayed Noninterventionist during the remainder of the conflict. The national 6 .

After 1835 he received the "Sum of public power". led to Entre Ríos governor Justo José de Urquiza to turn against Rosas and sanction the Constitution of Argentina of 1853. fought between the Centralists and the Federalists. He began military campaigns against both the remaining federals in Argentina. Unable to influence the election of later presidents.[35] The Libertador. during the War with Brazil. while José de San Martín made the Crossing of the Andes. pursuant to the Federal pact. José de San Martin. A new centralist constitution was enacted in 1826. and the Corrientes province revolt. the War of the Confederation in the north. which exacerbated the civil war. They would instead delegate some important powers to the governor of Buenos Aires Province. began the Argentine Civil Wars as well. and Bernardino Rivadavia was appointed the firstPresident of Argentina. With the Chilean navy at his disposal he then took the fight to the royalist stronghold of Lima. forcing Rivadavia to resign. The War of the Triple Alliance. and Paraguay. the whites from Uruguay. and ended with the victory of Buenos Aires at the battle of Pavón.[34] The 1820 Battle of Cepeda. The war between both lasted nearly a decade. in alliance with Uruguay and Brazil. left over 300. either under a centralized government located in Buenos Aires or as a federation. Martín Miguel de Güemes kept royalists at bay on the North. The new governor Manuel Dorrego was deposed and executed by Juan Lavalle. Albeit 7 . Buenos Aires seceded from the Confederation and became the State of Buenos Aires. Rosas remained undefeated during this series of conflicts and prevented further loss of national territory. and from 1835 to 1852. His refusal to enact a national constitution.000 dead and devastated Paraguay. Juan Manuel de Rosas ruled from 1829 to 1832. with the conflicts of Buenos Aires and José Gervasio Artigas.[36] Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. It was rejected by the provinces. During his first term he convened the Federal pact and defeated the Unitarian League. San Martín's military campaigns complemented those of Simón Bolívar in Gran Colombia and led to the independent's victory in the Spanish American wars of independence. securing the independence of Chile. an Anglo-French blockade from 1845 to 1850. resulted in the end of the centralized national authority. Domingo Faustino Sarmientoand Nicolás Avellaneda followed him. He faced several a French blockade from 1838 to 1840.organization.[33] The Argentine Declaration of Independence was issued by the Congress of Tucumán in 1816. The provinces then reorganized themselves as a loose confederation of provinces that lacked a common head of state. and Bartolomé Mitre was elected the first president of the unified country in 1862. Juan Manuel de Rosas organized the resistance against Lavalle and restored the deposed authorities. such as debt payment or the management of international relations. Rejecting it.

Celman resigned from the presidency. and the country stayed as a pre-industrial society. The economy. but failed. led by the Civic Union. PresidentHipólito Yrigoyen enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small businesses. Britain supported the Argentine neutrality. but a massive demonstration forced his liberation. Also provided assistance to countries of South America and she brought food and clothing to Europe. the development of modern agriculture and to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy. The Female Peronist Party. began to decline in 1950. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. and had conflicts with him. All governments since then attempted in some way to stay in good terms. but after the attack on Pearl Harbor the United States requested all of South America to join theAllied Nations.[41] The second administration of Yrigoyen faced a huge economic crisis. José Félix Uriburu led the military rule for two years. and signed the Roca-Runciman Treaty. he nationalized strategic industries and services. which began the Infamous Decade. With this military operation. Conservative élites dominated Argentine politics until 1912. Mitre attempted twice to secede Buenos Aires from the country once more. waged byJulio Argentino Roca in the 1870s. influenced by the international Great Depression. they were not from Buenos Aires.Agustín Pedro Justo was elected with electoral fraud. His wife Eva Perón was highly popular and played a central political role. benefiting from an agricultural export-led economy as well as British and French investment. when President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal male suffrage and thesecret ballot. paid the full external debt and achieved nearly full employment. however. Avellaneda federalized Buenos Aires. the National Autonomist Party (PAN) could not meet its original goals of industrialization. Driven by immigration and decreasing mortality the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15fold.[42] Juan Perón created a political movement known as Peronism. Juan Perón. Roberto María Ortiz and Ramón Castillo stayed neutral during World War II. after defeating a final failed attempt to secede it. The final conflict was the Conquest of the Desert.[37] Since the colonial times. kill them. Argentina declared war to the Axis Powers a month before the end of World War II in Europe. The bases of modern Argentina were established by the Generation of '80. and won by 53. her declining health did not 8 .1%. Perón ran for the presidency in 1946. during the European Tour of Eva in 1947. The military made a coup d'état and ousted him from power. a political movement that opposed Mitre and sought to industrialize the country. A wave of European immigration led to the strengthening of a cohesive state. He was fired and jailed. a new military coup that wanted to end the electoral fraud of the last decade.unitarians. improved wages and working conditions.[38] Rise of Peronism See also: Argentina in World War II and Peronism Juan Domingo Perón (left) and his wifeEva Perón (right).[39]However. Castillo was finally deposed by the Revolution of '43. The country emerged as one of the ten richest countries in the world. Although the Coup d'état failed. With the resignation of Mitre. huge territories were under the control of indigenous peoples.[40] President Juárez Celman faced an economic crisis that generated popular discontent and the Revolution of the Park in 1890. the Civic Union became the Radical Civic Union (UCR). Argentina seized the control of the Patagonia.[43] However. where she developed an unprecedented social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of society in Argentina. starting the decline of the PAN. The minister of welfare of the military. or push them to ever farther frontiers. This allowed the UCR to win the country's first free elections in 1916. became highly popular among workers. as women's suffrage was granted in 1947. still strong in the country. mostly through the Eva Perón Foundation. They founded a political movement known as Peronism. Taking advantage of the import substitution industrialization and the European devastation left by the immediate aftermath of World War II.

earned him the distrust and rejection of both. Popular discontent led to two massive protests. as Peronists kept being organized in informal associations. despite prosperity. however. The Argentine Revolution. and finally settled in Spain. the new military government. A few months later. President of Argentina from 1958 to 1962 for the UCRI. the Cordobazo in Córdoba and the Rosariazo in Rosario. A new coup ousted him from power. he sought to allow Peronism but not the return of Juan Perón himself (who was living in 9 . his attempts to include Peronists in the political process resulted in the armed forces retaking power in a coup in 1966. The crime was committed by the Montoneros. Perón resigned during a new military coup. and she died of cancer the following year. The military frequently interfered on behalf of conservative. agrarian interests however. The 1949 amendment of the Constitution was repealed. rejected by the military. who.[44] The Dirty War See also: Dirty War Arturo Frondizi. Initially. restoring the one of 1853. Perón left the country. The military began to plot against Perón in 1955. and allowed him to take power on condition he stayed aligned with them. The elections were repealed and Peronism proscribed again. helping reverse a chronic trade deficit for Argentina.[39] His policies encouraged investment to make the country self-sufficient in energy and industry. Peronism. but the elections for the Constituent Assembly obtained a majority of blank votesbecause of the Peronist proscription. sought to rule in Argentina indefinitely. and got elected in the following elections. Arturo Frondizi from the UCR became popular by opposing the military rule. Onganía was replaced by Roberto M. [45] The military. He closed the Congress. began Guerrilla warfare against the military. His efforts to stay on good terms with both Peronists and the military. but a swift reaction by José María Guido (president of the Senate) applied the laws related to power vacuums and became president instead of the military. Levingston was then replaced byAlejandro Agustín Lanusse. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 but. along with the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). and the results were mixed. and shortly after there was a huge political commotion with the kidnapping and execution of the former de facto president Aramburu. did not disappear. which established the Revolución Libertadora. and bombed the Plaza de Mayo in an ill-fated attempt to kill him. Pedro Eugenio Aramburu proscribed Peronism and banned all manifestations of it. who began negotiations to return to democracy and end the proscription of Peronism. was reluctant to allow Peronism to influence the new government. without fully supporting either one. however.[46] The new military Junta appointed Juan Carlos Onganía as president. banned all political parties and dismantled all student unions and many worker unions. Levingston. leading to a Peronist victory in several provinces. Frondizi lifted the Peronist proscription. the Dirty War.allow her to run for the vice-presidency in 1951.

TheOperativo Independencia stopped an attempt to capture and secede territories of Tucumán.[48] The National Reorganization Process closed the Congress. but before taking office the Montoneros murdered the union leader José Ignacio Rucci. Galtieri left the government because of the military defeat. and began to prevail in the war. The return of Peronism to power saw violent disputes between its internal factions: right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from montoneros. in March 1976. The military made another coup d'état. The return of Perón to the country generated an armed conflict. Perón was elected. Leopoldo Galtieri launched the Falklands War(Spanish: Guerra de Malvinas). who had kidnapped and murdered people almost weekly since 1970. Montoneros was severely weakened. [47] Jorge Rafael Videla outside Casa Rosada. but within two months Argentina was defeated by the United Kingdomwhich considered the islands to be part of its own overseas territory. It was defeated. with the free elections in 1983. who won the elections by the 49.[49] The military resorted to the forced disappearance of suspected members of the guerrillas. attempting to annex the islands. Perón died shortly after.[50] Contemporary era See also: Argentine economic crisis (1999-2002) and Kirchnerism 10 . It also intensified measures against ERP and Montoneros. Overwhelmed by political violence. but launched a massive counterattack in 1979. the Peronist candidate was not Perón but Héctor José Cámpora. etc. The losses of Montoneros by the end of 1976 were near 2000. José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance(AAA) to fight against them and the ERP. The AAA maintained operations against the guerrillas. the Ezeiza massacre.59%. andReynaldo Bignone began to organize the transition to democratic rule. A decree ordered the military to "annihilate the subversion". and they became once again a clandestine organization. which increased their power. and his wife took office. As of 1977. removed the members of the Supreme Court.Spain) with an agreement stipulating presidential candidates reside in Argentina as of 25 August. with close ties to Perón. Perón expelled them from Plaza de Mayo and from the party. with his wife Isabel as vice-president. unions. The Junta tried to increase its popularity with the Beagle conflict and the 1978 FIFA World Cup. promoting new elections so Perón could become president. the ERP was completely defeated. but the military Junta stayed in government. ending the guerrilla threat. student unions. and banned political parties. Cámpora and his vice-president resigned. Thus.

[51] Carlos Menem led a change in Peronism. with higher unemployment and recession. To please them. restoration of democratic rule and prosecution of the responsibles of the dirty war. In the 1983 electoral campaign Alfonsín called to national unity. but the discontent among the military and the risk of a new coup increased. and the UCR returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections. A fixed exchange rate established in 1991. but the economy began to decline in 1996. but huge riots caused by the economic crisis forced Alfonsín to resign. He established the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons (CONADEP) to investigate the forced disappearances. as well as an economic crisis that led to an hyperinflation.Raúl Alfonsín. business regulations and several privatizations normalized the economy for a time. he issued the full stop law. and the Carapintadas mutinied. He lost the 1997 elections. This did not work as intended. handing government to Menem. He was reelected. forcing the law of Due Obedience that exempted the military that followed orders from superior ranks. The 1985 Trial of the Juntas sentenced all the heads of government of those years. the dismantling ofprotectionist barriers. His victories at the 1991 and 1993 elections led to the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution. The CONADEP generated a report detailing 340 centers of illegal detentions and 8961 forced disappearances. which declined its usual politics and embracedneoliberalism instead. which established a deadline for new trials. This lowered the public support to the government. which allowed him to run for a second term. Alfonsín aimed then to the military of lower ranks. The Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 elections.[52] 11 . President of Argentina from 1983 to 1989.

under the management of the minister of Economy Roberto Lavagna. The social discontent led to the appearance of piqueteros and huge blank votes in the 2001 legislative elections. generating further discontent. and derogated the fixed exchange rate established by Menem. He appointed Domingo Cavallo. The huge riots in December finally forced De la Rúa to resign. The economic crisis began to end by the late 2002. but would maintain Lavagna as minister.[53] Eduardo Duhalde was appointed president by the Legislative Assembly. who had already been minister of economy during the presidency of Menem. However. Carlos Menem got the majority of the votes. but kept his economic plan regardless of the growing recession. which made Kirchner the new president. A huge capital flight was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts.President Carlos Menem ruled Argentina from 1989 to 1999 President Fernando de la Rúa sought to change the political style of Menem. followed by Néstor Kirchner. The death of twopiqueteros caused a political scandal that forced Duhalde to call to elections earlier. Menem declined to run for the required ballotage. Kirchner was largely unknown by the people. Several riots in the country led the president to establish a state of emergency. received with more popular protests.[54] 12 .

promoting instead the candidacy of his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. However.[62][63] Argentina became the first country in Latin America and the second in the Americas to allow same-sex marriage nationwide. he distanced from Duhalde once getting to power. and vicepresident Julio Cobos gave an unexpected tie-breaking vote against the bill. limiting the freedom of speech. Following the economic policies laid by Duhalde and Lavagna. Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with a steep discount (about 66%) on most bonds. paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises. the law was published in the Official Gazette. He did not run for a reelection. by the Senate. and Cristina Fernández was reelected in 2011. 2010.[66][67] On July 22. The conflict was taken to the Congress.[57][58][59] Néstor Kirchner died in 2010.[62][63] A bill for legalization was approved on May 5.[68] It was the tenth country to allow same-sex marriage. 13 .[60][61] Same-sex marriage in Argentina has been legal since July 22. He promoted as well the reopening of judicial actions against the crimes of the Dirty War. [65] President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner signed it on July 21.[69] Politics Main articles: Government of Argentina and Politics of Argentina The Argentine National Congresshouses the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. getting fiscal and trade surpluses. 2010. Kirchner ended the economic crisis. During his administration. 2010.[55][56] The presidency of Cristina Kirchner began with a conflict with the agricultural sector. by the Chamber of Deputies. The government waged several controversies with the press.Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (left) andNéstor Kirchner (right) during the Argentina Bicentennial.[64] and on July 15. caused by an attempt to increase the taxes over exports.

secret and mandatory.[78] For example. A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women. while others have unicameral ones. an elected mayor and representatives to the Senate and the Chamber of deputies. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate. the most populous province.[74] The Chamber of Deputies has 257 voting members. interpret laws and overturn those they findunconstitutional. but beyond that.[73] Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts. equal. who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. makes federal law. The national government 14 . a secretariat composed of representatives of judges. workplace of thePresident of Argentina. As of 2012. Pink House. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. approves treaties.[70]Suffrage is universal. [75] one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.[77] The provincial governments must be representative republics and may not contradict the national constitution and national laws. Buenos Aires is not a province but a federal district. some provinces have bicameral provincial legislatures. made up of theSenate and the Chamber of Deputies. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year. whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval. Argentina is a constitutional republic and representative democracy. lawyers. The Senate has 72 members with each province having three senators.[72] Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military. The government is regulated by a system ofchecks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina. while the Buenos Aires Province. and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers. which serves as the country's supreme legal document. declares war.[76]The president is elected by direct vote. each province is allowed to have its own constitution and organize their local government as desired. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice in a row. The judges of all the other courts are appointed by the Council of Magistrates of the Nation. ten provinces have just five deputies.[71] The national government is composed of three branches: Legislative: The bicameral Congress. the Congress and the executive. by which it can remove sitting members of the government. can veto legislative billsbefore they become law. has 70.The Palace of Justice of Argentina. elected at-large to six-year terms. such location is regulated by the Congress. has the power of the purse. but its local organization has similarities with the provinces: it has a local constitution. The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires. and has the power ofimpeachment. each representing a province for a four-year term.

The age for enlistment in the volunteer military is from 16 to 23 years old. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas).000 sq mi) in Antarctica. both arms are controlled by the Interior Ministry but maintain liaison with the Defense Ministry.[84] The President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. with the Defense Ministry exercising day-to-day control. Argentina's military has been one of the best equipped in the region (for example.[82]Argentina is also a full member of the Union of South American Nations.000. and number about 70. between 25°W and 74°W and south of 60°S. Paraguay and Uruguay.[79] On 1 November 2012. one third fewer than levels before the return to democracy in 1983. as well as almost 1. navy and air force. a scientific post has been maintained in Antarctica by mutual agreement. There are also two other forces. though all claims to Antarctica fall under the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty of 1961. Voting is compulsory for Argentineans between 18 and 70. developing its own jet fighters as early as the 1950s). the voting age was lowered from 18 to 16.[80] Foreign relations Main articles: Foreign relations of Argentina and Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies. but voluntary for 16 and 17-year-olds under the new law.[83] The armed forces of Argentina comprise an army. Historically. The former president of Argentina Néstor Kirchner was the first Secretary General of this organization.reserved control of the Argentine Federal Police (the federally administered city force). The Antarctic claim overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom. and other faculties.000 square kilometres (390. and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. In addition. these countries work together in making satellites orbiting over South America performing different jobs. Argentina is part of the G-20 as well. Since 1904. the Naval Prefecture (which patrols Argentine territorial waters) and the National Gendarmerie (which patrols the border regions). as its first international priority. Since 2002 Argentina has emphasized the role of Latin American integration and the bloc. which are administered by the United Kingdom asBritish Overseas Territories. however. Argentina is a full member of the Mercosur block together with Brazil. the Port of Buenos Aires.[85] President Cristina with Dilma Rousseff. which has some supranational legislative functions.000 active duty personnel.[86] but recently it has faced sharper expenditure cutbacks than most other Latin American armed forces.[81] Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member of theAntarctic Treaty System and the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is based in Buenos Aires. Real military expenditures declined steadily 15 . Argentina and Brazil remain major trading partners in the Southamerican region.

Cyprus. including 39 with Venezuela. Argentina suspended its policy of automatic alignment with the United States and moved closer to other Latin American countries. Buenos Aires. led by the United States. Mexico and Canada. Defense Ministry headquarters in Puerto Madero. Argentina no longer supports the UN Commission on Human Rights resolution criticizing the "human rights situation in Cuba" and calling upon the Government of Cuba to "adhere to international human rights norms". Argentina assumed again (see history here) the two-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council. In the 2006 United Nations Security Council election. The Mercosur has become a central part of the Argentine foreign policy. most of the discussion was focused on the FTAA. 21 with Brazil. Western Sahara and the Middle East. As of 2007. Between 4 and 5 November 2005. 16 . Argentina entered into 294 bilateral agreements. Paraguay.[89] Military Main article: Military of Argentina Libertador Building.[87] The armed forces are currently participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti. the defense budget is now around US$3 billion. though the economic asymmetries between South America's two largest countries have produced tension at times. FTAA negotiations have effectively stalled until at least the conclusion of the 2006 Doha round global trade talks. You can also see the ARA Presidente Sarmiento. 12 with the People's Republic of China. with the goal of forming a Latin American trade block. 30 with Bolivia. but marked a clear split between the countries of the Mercosur. Although the themes were unemployment and poverty. 37 with Chile. the city of Mar del Plata hosted the Fourth Summit of the Americas. during Kirchner's almost four years in power. Argentina supported. from 2003 onwards. Spain and Russia. the candidacy of Venezuela (a Mercosur member) over Guatemala for a non-permanent seat in the Security Council. Argentina has chosen to form a block with Brazil when it comes to external negotiations. 9 with the United States and Italy. and the supporters of the FTAA. In 2005. The summit was a failure in this regard. like all Mercosur countries. but has chosen instead to abstain. 10 with Germany. plus Venezuela.[88] Within the term of President Néstor Kirchner. and 7 with Cuba.after 1981 and though there have been recent increases.

The modern Argentine Military Forces are fully committed to international peacekeeping under United Nations mandates. there are two forces controlled by the Interior Ministry: the Argentine National Gendarmerie. the cavalry unit that. exercising a useful role in supporting 17 .9% of GDP only exceeds Suriname [92] Since 2000s. its 0. Argentina maintains close defense cooperation and military-supply relationships with the United States. the Argentine defense industry was relaunched after the politics of privatization carried out during the 1990s by Carlos Menem administration virtually eliminated all[clarification needed]. Granaderos. as has been the tendency in other Latin American countries. Argentina military spending is one of the lowest of South America [90] [91] and as of 2010. and the Naval Prefecture. the strengthening of confidence among the member countries has been beneficial to the peace in the region. Spain. and to a lesser extent. Germany. France. Starting in 1930 and throughout the 20th century. followed San Martín across the Andes in 1817 to liberate Chile and Peru. with Israel. are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense. a gendarmerie used to guard borders and places of strategic importance. democratic governments were more often than not interrupted by military coups (see History of Argentina). humanitarian aid on emergencies relief and support the country's continuous presence at Antarctica. among other feats. were considerably more influential in former times. The Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. The Argentine military. In addition to the army. Democratic governments since 1983 straightened the military budget and did not approve any large scale equipment purchases. and Italy. a coast guard used to protect internal major rivers and maritime territory. The terrible consequences of the last dictatorship destroyed the military image as the moral reserve of the nation and opened the way to transform them to into today's armed forces.The ARA Almirante Brown (D-10) led the formation in an operation UNITAS Military aircraft of OA-4AR Argentine Air Force. While Mercosur is only an economic entity so far. in Spanish Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina. Traditionally. navy and air force.

for example.democracy. to discourage theParaguayan military from an attempted coup in early 2000.[95] On 2009. Argentine Chilean Antarctic Combined Search And Rescue Patrol) with support of the German Space Agency which provided satellite imagery [97] Political divisions Main articles: Provinces of Argentina and List of Argentine provinces by population Argentina is composed of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city.[93] Argentina created with Chile a combined force for future United Nations mandates. On 2007 an agreement for cooperation in peace operations was signed with France. the South America countries union. and the municipalities. the new force began assembly in 2008 with headquarters alternately on each country every year.[94] Named Cruz del Sur (English: Crux). except for Buenos 18 . The Mercosur served. The administrative divisions of the Provinces are thedepartments. Buenos Aires. UNASUR. created the CDS ( Spanish: Consejo de Defensa Sudamericano (South American Defence council) in order to promote cooperation and transparency between their armed forces [96] On 2011 they perform with Chile the PARACACH (Patrulla de Rescate Antártica Combinada Argentina-Chile.

Falkland Islands. Río Negro. became a province in 1990. The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the national territory of Los Andes. Misiones did so in 1953. shaping the original thirteen provinces. and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. Chaco.[98] La Pampa andChaco became provinces in 1951. whose territories were incorporated into Jujuy. and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands.[98] A 1862 law determined that the territories under control of Argentina but outside the frontiers of the provinces would be called national territories. The anarchy of the year XX completed this process.Neuquén. Geography Main article: Geography of Argentina 19 . Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego. Buenos Aires was made a federal territory in 1880. The provinces are organized as a federation. La Pampa. Formosa. Chubut and Santa Cruz in 1955. b Tierra del Fuego Province includes claims over Argentine Antarctica. though the intervention of their cabildos. This allowed in 1884 to establish the governorates of Misiones.Aires Province. Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Surb La Rioja Tucumán a Not a Province. Buenos Aires accepted the Constitution of Argentina of 1853 in 1860.[98] Mendoza Autonomous City of Buenos Airesa Misiones Buenos Aires Province Neuquén Catamarca Río Negro Chaco Salta Chubut San Juan Córdoba yes boi truss Corrientes San Luis Entre Ríos Santa Cruz Formosa Santa Fe Jujuy Santiago del Estero La Pampa Tierra del Fuego. Chubut. which is divided into partidos. Neuquén. Tierra del Fuego. (Also known as Buenos Aires City). Autonomous City and seat of National Government. Río Negro. each one with a local constitution. After seceding for a decade. and Formosa.[98] They hold all the power that is not specifically delegated to the national government. The City of Buenos Aires is divided intocommunes. Salta and Catamarca in 1943. Jujuy seceded from Salta in 1834. The last national territory.[99] During the Argentine War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces.

[20] The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province.[102] The highest point above sea level is in the Mendoza province at Cerro Aconcagua (6. Because of the unevenness of the coastal landmass.[104] The lowest point isLaguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz province. Paraguay. Río Negro.936 mi) long Atlantic coast[20] varies between areas of sand dunes and cliffs.[2] of this.[103] This is also the lowest point in South America.831 ft)). and the Gran Chaco is between the mesopotamia and the Andes. with the Andes on the west[100] and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east and south.073.[20] The major rivers are the Paraná (the largest). The southern coast of Tierra del Fuego forms the north shore of the Beagle Channel. Colorado. the Patagonian Shelf. this shallow area of the Atlantic is called the Argentine Sea. and the Argentine Northwest is at the North of it. The Mesopotamia is a lowland enclosed by the Paraná and Uruguayrivers. The 4. Misiones. The Paraná and the Uruguay join to form the Río de la Plata estuary.57%. the Chubut in Patagonia.Argentina as seen from space in a satellite photo taken by NASA Argentina is situated in southern South America. −105 m (−344 ft) below sea level. 43. Argentina has six main regions.[20] and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego. the Pilcomayo.880 sq mi). the Río Grande in Jujuy and the San Francisco River in Salta.Salado and the Uruguay.959 m (22. The continental platform. before reaching the Atlantic.725 km (2. or 1. The Patagonia is a large plateau to the south.[101] Argentina has a total surface area (excluding the Antarctic claim and areas controlled by the United Kingdom) of 2. Bermejo. Regionally important rivers are the Atuel and Mendoza in the homonymous province.710 km2(16.[103] also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemisphere.780. The Pampas are fertile lowlands located in the center and east.[20] the westernmost in the Perito Moreno National Park in Santa Cruz province. Cuyo is at the east side of the Andes. is water.[105] The easternmost continental point is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen.500 sq mi). The two major ocean currents affecting the coast are the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falkland Current. the two currents alternate in their influence on climate and do not allow temperatures to fall evenly with higher latitude.[106] Climate Main article: Climate of Argentina 20 . is unusually wide.400 km2 (1.

snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations.[citation needed] Domestic tourism amounted to over 80% of this and tourism from abroad contributed US$ 4. humid summers with mild drier winters. especially in mountainous zones.930 million dollars of income from divisas. warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter.[111] According to official figures from the World Tourism Organization. and one of the largest fresh water reserves in the world.[citation needed] Buenos Aires is in the midst of a tourism boom.[107] Central Argentina has a temperate climate.[108] The Zonda. Misiones (Northeast). Los Glaciares National Park. Tierra del Fuego. The north is characterized by very hot. when the Zonda blows (June–November). Snow and cold in Ushuaia. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6.3 billion. One of the most visited glaciers worldwide. which meant about 4. Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph).685 ft) descent from the Andes.300. following the cold front. Patagonia (South) and tropical climate inIguazú Falls. Santa Cruz.8 million. and is subject to periodic droughts.[108] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Argentina As of 2011. rough seas and coastal flooding. Around 4. Travel + Leisure Magazine. becoming the third largest source of foreign exchange in 2004. in 2010 the country received more than 5. a monthly publication 21 . and higher moisture at the east. Declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981. and the prestigious travel and tourism publication.6 million foreign visitors arrived in 2007. The World Economic Forum estimated that. and employed 1.[109] Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Windsblowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and thePampas. creating mild conditions. The generally temperate climate ranges fromsubtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south.000 foreign tourists. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary. a hot dry wind. yielding a positive balance vis-à-vis the number of Argentines traveling abroad.Perito Moreno Glacier.[110] The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains.000 m (19.[108] The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall. in 2006 tourism generated around US$25 billion in economic turnover. fueling wildfires and causing damage. and cool winters. it reveals strong growth for Argentina Travel and Tourism in 2007 and in coming years. affects west-central Argentina. according to the World Travel & Tourism Council. Argentina is the most visited country in South America and the fourth most visited in the Americas. with hot summers with thunderstorms.

to the west. which currently houses the Academia Nacional de la Historia (National Academy of History). is City Hall. and the Banco de la Nación Argentina building. including the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes. among those of many other Argentine historical and cultural figures. which was renovated during the construction of Avenida de Mayo and Julio A. and fashionable shopping. exquisite cuisine.[citation needed] Buenos Aires. Other important colonial institutions were Cabildo. To the north. Lastly.[citation needed] The most popular tourist sites are found in the historic city core. the Café La Biela and the Cementerio de la Recoleta. the Biblioteca Nacional. Touristic centers in Argentina 22 . where Eva Perón's crypt can be visited. the Faculty of Law of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. a legendary nightlife. regarded as the "Paris of South America. the administrative center of the Spanish Colony. the Palais de Glace. a parcel of land originally owned by Juan de Garay. the official seat of the executive branch of the government of Argentina. the Catedral Metropolitana which has stood in the same location since colonial times. To the south is the Congreso de la Nación(National Congress). comprising Montserrat and San Telmo. To the east of the square is the Casa Rosada. the Centro Cultural Recoleta.Italy.leader in the world-wide market of travel magazines. travelers voted Buenos Aires the second most desirable city to visit after Florence."[by whom?] offers elegant architecture. Roca. The city was originally constructed around the Plaza de Mayo. The borough of Recoleta is home to a number of places of interest. the Basílica Nuestra Señora de Pilar. to the northwest.

Buenos Aires. 23 . Perito Moreno Glacier in Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz.Ischigualasto in San Juan. capital and most visited city in South America.

Southern right whale.Biodiversity Main article: Environment of Argentina Ushuaian Fox. Flamingos. A Jaguar from the Argentine Mesopotamia 24 .

puma. include alerce. toucans. large reptiles (crocodiles). In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem. mañío hembra and pehuén. bush dog. a large flightless bird. and the rhea (ñandú). and various species of turtle and tortoise. andocelot. Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north. maned wolf. to make way for commercial agriculture. huililahuán. cavias. The soil is hard and rocky. The original pampa had virtually no trees. semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. the only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreenOmbú. Other animals include the tapir. the Argentine Black and White Tegu and a species of caiman. There are a wide variety of birds. pampas cat. mara. capybara. also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba and prosopis nigra). and swallows. Tucán. from Formosa. primates (howler monkey).A Puma from the Northwest. Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes.[112] The national government maintains 4 natural monumentsand 33 national parks. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe. shrubby bushes and plants. ciprés de las guaitecas. and tinamous (perdiz. is suited to dry conditions. this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem. so the flora. The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater.cypress and pine. Prominent animals from the subtropical north include big cats like the jaguar. making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. falcons.lleuque. flamingos. The western pampas receive less rainfall. The pampa is one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth. ciprés de la cordillera. peccary.[113] Prominent animals from the subtropical north includebig cats like the jaguar. armadillo. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. Common plants are the copihue and colihue. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. 25 . herons. Some of these species extend into Patagonia. with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian Rosewood and thequebracho tree. while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such ascoihue.Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego. lenga and ñire. In Cuyo. There are alsopampas deer and pampas foxes. however. notably hummingbirds. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce. Hawks.

Argentina is considered an emerging market by the FTSE Global Equity Index. The government has manipulated inflation statistics. inflation has been privately estimated at over 30%. a highly literate population. These include the llama. non-native wild boar. Andean Mountain Cat. High inflation has been a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades.[115] with a Very High Human Development Index and a relatively high GDP per capita.[114] Economy and infrastructure Main articles: Economy of Argentina.[119] Officially hovering around 9% since 2006. and Tourism in Argentina In the present Argentina is the third largest oil producer in South America after Venezuela and Brazil.[117] The country benefits from rich natural resources. and whales like the southern right whale. Argentine foreign trade. and is one of theG-20 major economies.The western mountains are home to different animals. and income maldistribution and poverty increased. fur seals. Agriculture in Argentina. orcas. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Argentina's economic performance has been very uneven. the Andean Condor. and introduced. sea lions and species of penguin. vicuña. among the most recognizable species of South America. Sea fish include sardines. and the largest flying bird in the New World. kodkod. salmon. guanaco. however. the country's largest. The far south is populated by cormorants. viscacha. The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals.[118] though it is now an upper-middle income country. Bank of the Argentine Nation. Historically. pudú (the world's smallest deer). The Hornerowas elected the National Bird after a survey in 1928. The territorial waters of Argentina have mammals such as dolphins. Southern Argentina is home to the cougar. also present are squid and King crab(centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. in which high economic growth alternated with severe recessions.[121] The urban 26 . The economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest.[116] It is classified as an upper middleincome economy by the Wold Bank. and sharks.[120] becoming a contentious issue again. Argentine hakes. particularly during the late twentieth century. an exportorientedagricultural sector and a diversified industrial base. huemul. Early in the twentieth century it was one of the richest countries in the world and the richest in the Southern hemisphere. Also in this region are the fox. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and a very venomous pit viper named the yarará. a major tourist draw for naturalists. dolphinfish.

and Ushuaiaare also significant industrial centers. is still considerably unequal. apparel and leather.[130] Industry President Fernández inaugurating a factory in Ushuaia. with another 190 slated to open during 2012. chemicals andpharmaceuticals. industrial production has become highly diversified in Argentina.[138] Another important rubric historically dominated by imports – farm machinery – will likewise mainly be manufactured domestically by 2014. huge taxes and tariffs. which in turn exported a somewhat larger number to Argentina). tobacco products. and two-thirds of the construction was for residential buildings. and is wellintegrated into Argentine agriculture. and industrial and farm machinery.[137]The production of computers. beer overtook wine production in 2000.income poverty rate has dropped below the numbers of the 2001 economic crisis[122] Income distribution. The construction sector accounts for over 5% of GDP. and servers grew by 160% in 2011. [128] The Kirchner administration responded to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009 with a record public-works program. HPand Motorola have set up plants in Tierra del Fuego.[131] Manufacturing is the largest single sector in the nation's economy (19% of GDP).000 (mainly to Brazil. and regulatory interference that undermines efficiency and productivity growth. new tax cuts and subsidies. the latter city became the nation's leading center of electronics production during the 1980s. furniture. electronics andhome appliances. among others. were nationalized to shed a budgetary drain as well as to finance high government spending and debt obligations. kitchen appliances and cellular phones. to nearly 3.[134] The country's auto industry produced 829.[134] Other manufactured goods include: glass and cement. lack of judicial independence. although Córdoba.000 motor vehicles in 2011. lumber products. which required growing subsidies to cover.[133] Leading sectors by production value are: Food processing and beverages.[125][126] Argentina ranks 100th out of 178 countries in the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. Private pension plans. having improved since 2002.[135] Beverages are another significant sector. Firms like BlackBerry.[139] Construction permits nationwide covered nearly 19 million m² (205 million ft²) in 2008. and exported 507. drawn by tax breaks. recording andprint media. and today leads by nearly two billion liters a year to one. with half the nation's industrial exports being agricultural in nature. and biodiesel.[129] and the transfer of private pensions to the social security system.4 million units. steel and aluminum. and Argentina has long been among the top five wine producing countries in the world. plastics and tires. These latter include over three million big ticket items.[123][124] Argentina began a period of fiscal austerity in 2012. textiles. laptops. and covered two-thirds of local demand.[132] Based on food processing and textiles during its early development in the first half of the 20th century.[136] Nearly half the industries are based in the Greater Buenos Aires area. refinery products.[132] 27 .motor vehicles and auto parts.[134] Most manufacturing is organized around 280 industrial parks.[127] Reported problems include government corruption. Rosario. as well as an array of electronics.

Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. alongside Canada and Russia of cobalt-60. Nuclear energy is also of high importance. the first Latin American awarded with a Nobel Prize in the Sciences. Bernardo Houssay. Science and technology Main articles: Science and technology in Argentina. Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales. Bariloche Atomic Centre.[141] and the country is one of the largest producers and exporters.[140] This was generated in large part through well developed natural gas and hydroelectric resources.Argentine electric output totaled over 122 billion Kwh in 2009. Argentine research has led to the treatment of heart diseasesand several forms of cancer. Argentina has three Nobel Prize laureates in sciences. Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose 28 . René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronarybypass surgery. César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies.Tecnópolis. and Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant Argentine satellite SAC-D Aquarius is an Argentine Earth science satellite built by INVAP and launched on June 10. Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant. a radioactive isotope widely used in cancer therapy. 2011. discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals.

Algeria. Enrique Finochietto designed operating table tools such as the surgical scissors that bear his name ("Finochietto scissors") and a surgical rib-spreader. A team led by Alberto Taquini and Eduardo Braun-Menéndez discovered angiotensin in 1939. [143] Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe method of blood transfusion. having resulted in a research reactor in 1957 and Latin America's first on-line commercial reactor in 1974.[144] The SABIA-Mar.[145] As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Argentina's nuclear program is highly advanced. Australia and Egypt. scheduled to be launched in 2017. Argentina developed its nuclear program without being overly dependent on foreign technology. and was the first to describe the enzymatic nature of the renin-angiotensin system and its role in hypertension. Luis Federico Leloir. a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons.into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizingcarbohydrates. one of the five Nobel Prize winners for Argentina. Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.[147] 29 . however. [142] The Leloir Institute of biotechnology is among the most prestigious in its field in Latin America. Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts[146] and is highly committed to global nuclear security. the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium. Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru. In 1983. is a Brazilian/Argentinean earth observation satellite Dr. since then.

revolutionizing the heart transplant field.000 college students within the Argentine University System. The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes. who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Luis Federico Leloir in Chemistry in 1970. the Argentine space agency. biotechnology. computer sciences. Argentina has the highest rate of university students in Latin America. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990). an Argentine-American scientist. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world. when Dr. farming machinery and military defensive systems.[149] and those developed by CONAE. Argentina has three Nobel Prize winners in the sciences: Bernardo Houssay in Physiology or Medicine in 1947. was the father of modern fingerprinting (dactiloscopy).[156] to name a few. Víctor-1 (1996). physics. Juan Vucetich. is the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory. where Dr. Official sources recently reported roughly 1. Guggenheim Foundation[155] awards or the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.[152] Other projects are focusing on IT.[148] Juan Maldacena. academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s. of the SAC series.[153] in June 2009.[152] Argentina has its own satellite programme. ecology.In other areas. Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. nanotechnology. Likewise.[154] Four out of five Argentine adults have completed grade school. molecular biology. Education Main article: Education in Argentina 30 .500. helicopters. the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and. where Argentine scientists have successfully mapped the genome of a living being. Domingo Liotta created the first artificial heart in 1969. as well as CONAE's own. oncology. nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP. Mendoza. secured an agreement with the European Space Agency on for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory. and cardiology. a world first. over a third have completed their secondary education and one in nine Argentine adults have college degrees. Established in 1991. PEHUENSAT-1 (2007). a Croatian immigrant. and César Milstein in Physiology or Medicine in 1984.[150] The Pierre Auger Observatory near Malargüe.[157] this represents the highest rate – relative to its total population – of academic students in Latin America and exceeds the ratio in many developed countries. besides having more within the southern hemisphere with professors and institutions awarded prestigious prizes and fellowships from philanthropic institutions like the John S. which provides several countries with nuclear reactors.[151] Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks. They have also contributed to bioscience in efforts like the Human Genome Project. the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock. Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro. is a leading figure in string theory. domestic research projects. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology.

the schools' administration and funding became a provincial responsibility. Sarmiento encouraged the immigration and settling of European educators and built schools and public librariesthroughout the country.University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and one of the most prestigious of the Americas. in 2007. lay in that federal revenue sharing did not increase accordingly. when in 1947. helped lead to the establishment of the Argentine Catholic University. which forbade parochial schools from issuing official degrees directly but only through a public university. Teacher's Day (on September 11) commemorates his death. and parochial institutions began again receiving subsidies. compulsory. however. pro-clerical policies were reinstated by General Pedro Aramburu. which advanced private education generally. in particular. The first national laws mandating universal. from 1992 onwards. The education in Argentina known as the Latin American docta has had a convoluted history. Following the university reform of 1918. 31 . The nonreligious character of this system. harmed the relations between the Argentine State and the Catholic Church. after which his earlier. The church began to re-emerge in country's secular education system during the administration Juan Perón. Argentine education. [159]There was no effective education plan until President Domingo Sarmiento (1868–1874) placed emphasis on bringing Argentina up-to-date with practices in developed countries. The policy's weakness. and parochial. became more independent of the government. whereby. particularly given the decision to shift two primary school years to the secondary system. [161] Real government spending on education increased steadily from the return of democratic rule in1983 (with the exception of the crises in 1989 and 2002) and. A sudden reversal in the policy in 1954 helped lead to Perón's violent overthrow. catechism was reintroduced in public schools. in Argentina. The program of deregulation and privatization pursued by President Carlos Menem in reaction to the country's socio-economic crisis of 1989 led to the decentralization of the Argentine secondary school system. leading to resistance from the local clergy and a heated conflict with the Holy See (through the Papal Nuncio). Aramburu's Law 6403 of 1955. free and secular education (Law 1420 of Common Education) were sanctioned in 1884 during the administration of President Julio Roca. Catholic-run schools (those staffed with lay techers). or more often. in a programme that finally doubled the enrollment of students during his term. especially at university level.[160] Children of Primary Education. totaled over US$14 billion. as well as the influential Catholic Church.

called Educacion Secundaria and the Polimodal.[162] Argentina built a national public education system in comparison to other nations. placing the country high in the global rankings of literacy. UBA. Universidad Nacional de Rosario. and the National Technological University are among the most important. the system was split into different types of high school instruction. which led to a decline in overall quality. and a secondary or high school level lasting between five to six years. Some provinces adopted thePolimodal while others did not. The Argentine school system consists of an elementary or lower school level lasting six or seven years. [166] The University of Buenos Aires. The Law School. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. A project in the executive branch to repeal this measure and return to a more traditional secondary level system was approved in 2006.2% over age 15 have completed secondary school studies or higher. Today Argentina has a literacy rate of 97. Public universities faced cutbacks in spending during the 1980s and 1990s. as well as forty-six private ones. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. In the 1990s.4%.[163] and 16. Transport 32 .[165] There are forty-seven national public universities across the country.[164] School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17.

though in the past it was widely used. like the 1951 opening of the 200 km Santa Fe-Rosario expressway. by 1929. Argentine motorists have since been driving on the right-hand side. SUBE card. Buenos Aires additionally has an underground.000 kilometres long and more than 1. The importance of the long-distance train is minor today. as there are few bicycle-paths. it has long had Latin America's widest accessibility to motor vehicles. A majority of people employ public transport rather than personal cars to move around in the cities.000 vehicles[168](more than half the total in Latin America.Buenos Aires Metro. Since Argentina is almost 4. Argentina was already home to over 400.000 km wide. Within the urban areas. though they are spread throughout the country. crossed by relatively inexpensive long-distance buses and by cargo trucks. serving nearly half the nation's population. The country also has a number of national and international airports. Several toll expressways spread out from Buenos Aires.000 mi)[167] of roads are currently paved. Ezeiza Airport and city buses Transport in Argentina is mainly based on a complex network of routes. at the time). Though. are two-lane national and provincial routes and. 33 . Argentina. when the National Highway Directorate was established.2 million registered cars. especially in common business hours. and Greater Buenos Aires is serviced by a system of suburban trains. however. trucks and buses. less than a third of Argentina's 230. Argentina is home to around 9. bus lines transport millions of people every day in the larger cities and their metropolitan areas. Fluvial transport is mostly used for cargo. Paid for at first with an excise tax on gasoline. Cycling is not very common in big cities.[169] virtually all long-distance travel was done on the nation's vast railways. making it difficult to move with them other than in recreational areas. The majority of Argentine roads. long distance transportation is of great importance.[170] on a per capita basis. since parking can be both difficult and expensive.[171] Left-lane drivers until 1945. the bureau could claim some important accomplishments. the main transportation system is uy the bus or colectivo. Latin America's first. lacked a road-building program until 1932. The Vehicle registration plates of Argentina are based on a three letters-three numbers per car (with the exception of some trucks) system. the only one in the country. then. It is used on public transport services within the Buenos Aires metropolitan area.000 km (145.

and infectious diseases. Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America. with Cama being similar to an airline'sbusiness class. government insurance plans.1 in 2009[175] and raisedlife expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76. deaths fromcardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total.000 medical graduates.000 physicians and 37. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the population. Argentine long distance buses are fast. a 5000-km stretch along the Andes range and the 3000-km sea-side trunk road National Route 3. while others stop at restaurants by the road. the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens. those from tumors from 14% to 20%.[175][177] The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948[178] to 12. 121. alma mater to many of the country's 3. running from Buenos Aires to Ushuaia. Competing providers differ little on their timehonoured formula. The most important of these is probably the Panamerican National Route 9 Buenos Aires–Rosario–Córdoba freeway. injuries.Expressways have been recently doubled in length (to nearly)[172] and now link most (though not all) important cities. Semi-cama (semi-bed).[175][176] The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005. The longest continuous highways areNational Route 40.respiratory problems from 7% to 14%. towns and villages. Health care Main article: Health care in Argentina The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine. and Cama (bed). Some services have also on-board dining. strokes a steady 7%.[176] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Argentina See also: Argentine people 34 . 4%. annually. digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest.[173] Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales). they have become the primary means of long-distance travel since railway privatizations in the early 1990s greatly downsized Argentina's formerly ubiquitous passenger rail service. 6%. Long and middle-distance buses cover almost all paved-accessible cities. they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006. offering three different services regarding the number of stops and type of seats: the Regular.[178] Though these figures compare favorably with global averages.000 hospital beds.000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations). affordable and comfortable. public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans.[174] There are more than 153.

947 2010 40. compared here as they have similar religious practices and proportions.3 children per woman is still nearly twice as high as that in Spain or Italy. The net migration rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1.893. 1869 1.[182][183] The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.528 2001 36. with a birth rate of 17. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates. illustrated in a population pyramid Historical population Year Pop.12% 1.044. Argentina had a population of 36. and preliminary results from the 2010 censuswere of 40.827 1960 20.431 1980 27.55% 1.359 inhabitants.6%. and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.000 inhabitants.13% 1869 – 2001 In the 2001 census [INDEC].[181] Ethnography Main articles: Ethnography of Argentina and Immigration to Argentina 35 .662 1947 15.615.359 ±% p. somewhat below the world average of 28%.05% 1.[179][180] Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally.091.Argentine population structure in 2009.949.8%. recently about 1% a year. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1. as well as a comparatively lowinfant mortality rate.14 years. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area.05% 3.000 inhabitants.364. well below the world average of 50 persons. — 3.79% 1.911 1914 7.53% 2.903.260.480 1991 32.4 deaths per 1.830.214 1895 4.03% annually.[181] The proportion of people under 15 is 25.013.091. which is currently 7%.77% 1.793 1970 23.7 live births per 1.4% 1.130.223. In Latin America this is second only toUruguay and well above the world average. Its birth rate of 2.a.000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.

Ecuador and Romania. at those times. The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense.[184][185][186] Most Argentines are descended colonial-era settlers.000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program[192] to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas——so far over 670. Australia. Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.[188][190] Recent Illegal immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia and Paraguay. Italian and Spaniard are the two main European ethnic group. which occasions the use of alternate verb forms as well). An estimated 8% of the population is Mestizo and 4% of Argentines are of Arab or Asian heritage. Argentina was second only to the US in the numbers of European immigrants received and. whose speakers are primarily located in theRío de la Plata basin.[191] The Argentine government estimates that 750. Argentina is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo(the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú (you). 36 . usually called castellano (Castilian) by Argentines.000 applications have been processed under the program. and the United States. with smaller numbers from Peru. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.4% of Argentina's population selfidentify as being of European descent. having one the largestItalian and Spanish diaspora. as well as other European groups. As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada.[189] and 86. and 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe. the national population doubled every two decades.[193] Language Main article: Languages of Argentina The de facto official language of Argentina is Spanish. The Argentine Ernesto Guevara was dubbed the che due to the frequent use of the argentine tag che.[187][188] During the 18th and 19th centuries especially.Argentina has long been a melting potfor a wide range of cultures.

the only Argentine 37 . with scores ranging from 0–10 where 0 represented low levels of regulation or persecution. 4% are agnostics and 5% areatheist.[195] Recent immigrants have brought Chinese and Korean (mostly to Buenos Aires). Tucumán.0 on Social Regulation of Religion. Guaraní is spoken by some in the north east.Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo. Chaco.9% Buddhist and others.4 on Government Regulation of Religion. La Plata. In Patagonia there areWelshspeaking communities with around 25. and still helps shape a variety of legislation.[181] Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America.5 million Italian speakers (making it the second most spoken language in the country) and 1 million speakers of the North Levantine dialect of Arabic (spoken in Syria. Argentina received a score of 1.000 using it as their second-language. Entre Ríos. 1. Some indigenous communities have retained their original languages.[202] A recent study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious (which includes those who believe in God but do not follow a religion). 6. Brazilian Portuguese and French are also spoken. Tucumán.Aymara is spoken by members of the Bolivian immigrant community.000—500. than any other spoken language. making it one of the largest urban areas in the world. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the accent of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires (known as porteños) is closer to the Neapolitan language. especially in Corrientes (where it enjoys official status) and Misiones.[197] In a study assessing world-wide levels of religious regulation and persecution.[205] The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1. English. Protestants were the only group with a majority of followers who regularly attended services. 1.[195] Standard German is spoken by 400. including 15 million people in Buenos Aires Province. permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well. 0. and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas. Lebanon and Cyprus). The population is unequally distributed amongst the provinces: about 60% live in the Pampa region (21% of the total area). 6.[204] The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population.000 Argentines of German ancestry.[195] making it the fourth most spoken language. the slang spoken in the region. Córdoba Province Santa Fe Province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. [198] According to the World Christian Database Argentines are: 92.Quechua is spoken by some in the north west and has a local variant in Santiago del Estero.9% Muslim. Religion Main article: Religion in Argentina The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but also requires the government to support Roman Catholicism economically. 3. Salta and Santa Fe[205][206] have at least half a million people each.3 million inhabitants each[205] and Mendoza. Salta. and 0. Mar del Plata.1% Christian.9% atheist. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires City and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 13 million.3% Jewish.1% agnostic. Corrientes and Misiones.9 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 6 on Religious Persecution.[199] Argentine Christians are mostly Roman Catholic with estimates for the number of Catholics varying from 70%[200] to 90% of the population[201] (though perhaps only 20% attend services regularly).[194] According to Ethnologue there are around 1.[196]Catholic policy remains influential in government though. Tucumán is the most densely populated with 60 inhabitants/km². spoken in Southern Italy.[203] Urbanization See also: List of cities in Argentina by population Argentina is highly urbanized. Overall 24% attended religious services regularly.

168 Aires Buenos 10 San Juan San Juan 453.000 12 Santa Fe 1.000 Neuquén 255. 377.000 Misiones 287. Culture Main articles: Culture of Argentina and List of Argentines 38 .733 Estero del Estero Mendoza Buenos 9 Santa Fe Santa Fe 493.050.563 Plata Salta Salta 516. 2008-03-31.728 11 city) Córdoba 1.Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos.000 Mendoza Mendoza Tucumán Tucumán 789. Retrieved 2008-06-06.000 19 Merlo 244.000 (Autonomous 3.province more densely populated than the world average.242.000 Buenos 304. while the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1 inhabitant/km².000 Santiago del Santiago 244.000 Rosario Entre Ríos 268.810 Aires ^ "3218. v t e Largest cities or towns of Argentina (2007 INDEC estimate)[n 1] Rank 1 2 3 4 Buenos Aires 5 6 7 Córdoba 8 City name Buenos Aires Córdoba Rosario Province Pop.000 La Plata Buenos Aires 732. Rank City name Province Pop.000 13 885.000 Aires Jujuy 298.0 . 2006-07".372.229 20 Quilmes 230.434 14 15 16 17 18 Resistencia Chaco Corrientes Bahía Blanca San Salvador de Jujuy Posadas Paraná Neuquén Corrientes 345. INDEC. Argentina.503 Mar del Buenos Aires 604.

as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Silvina Bullrich. and Facundo byDomingo Faustino Sarmiento. Some of the nation's notable writers. and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture. He published shortessays. Roberto Arlt. its cultural capital. is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent. Literature Main articles: Argentine literature and Historiography of Argentina Jorge Luis Borges. Enrique Banchs. Esteban Echeverría. with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. poets and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi. set the tone for Argentine literature of the time. Borges is most famous for his works in short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph. Argentine writers have figured prominently in Latin American literature since becoming a fully united entity in the 1850s. Buenos Aires. a federalist. modernizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Adolfo Bioy Casares.[207] The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. stories and poems. Eugenio Cambaceres. and this period in turn was followed by vanguardism. Jorge Luis Borges. Argentina has a rich literary history. Ezequiel Martínez Estrada. The Argentine literature is the body of literary work produced in Argentina. is a great example. It was followed by the modernistmovement.Argentine culture has significant European influences. its most acclaimed writer. Eduardo Mallea. found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to writers all over the globe.[209] Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist. was opposed to the centralizing. Finally. considered one of the lead authors of the twentieth century literature. The struggle between the Federalists and the Unitarians. indigenous American traditions (like yerba mate infusions) have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.Tomás 39 . Leopoldo Lugones. arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences and therefore a more prosperous society. Julio Cortázar. Hernández. which emerged in France in the late 19th century. His work in literature and critical thinking in universal and has been the subject of careful analysis and multiple interpretations. Jorge Luis Borges. transcends any classification and excludes all kinds of dogmatism.[208] The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández. Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families.

with the province of Córdoba as its center. Two names stand out from this period: Gaspar Juárez Baviano. They were partly inspired by oral aboriginalpoetry—in particular. also known as "Beata Antula". Osvaldo Soriano.Alfonsina Storni and María Elena Walsh. due to the foundation of the National University of Córdoba. Antonio Berni. Pantaleón Rivarola and Esteban de Luca. The only remarkable poet of this period was fray José Luis de Tejeda who wrote Coronas líricas and El peregrino de Babilonia. according to Carlos Abregú Virreyra. the name of the country itself comes from a Latinism which first appeared in a literary source: Martin del Barco Centenera's epic poem La Argentina (1602).Eloy Martínez. The letters of the colonial age (Viceroyalty-neoclassicism. the first important urban settlement in Argentina). During the 17th century. The word was reintroduced in Argentina manuscrita. Manuel Puig. A symbiosis emerged between the aboriginal and Spanish traditions.000 verses and describes the landscape as well as the conquest of the territory. a prose chronicle by Ruy Díaz de Guzmán. Victoria Ocampo.[citation needed] Visual arts See also: Argentine painting Benito Quinquela Martín. juríes. Argentine baroque was poor in comparison with that from Europe and some other parts of the New World. Ernesto Sabato. by the lules. who wrote prose and poetry. baroque and epic) grew under the protection of the independentist fervor: Vicente López y Planes. Gradually. diaguitas and tonocotés. creating a distinct literature. As a matter of fact. 40 . This composition runs 10. the cultural axis moved eastward. geographically limited (well into the 18th century) to the Argentine north and central regions. Argentine literature began around 1550 with the work of Matías Rojas de Oquendo and Pedro González de Prado (from Santiago del Estero. with the economic prosperity of the port. and Antonia de la Paz y Figueroa.

Pío Collivadino and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (post-impressionist). A similar environment inspired Adolfo Bellocq. Guillermo Kuitca (abstract). Martín Blaszko. began in Argentina in 1946. Tomás Maldonado is one of the most well known abstract artists. Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia became the part of the national landscape and today. Luis Aquino. in particular. It is considered the only artistic movement founded in Buenos Aires to have a significant impact internationally. which developed in the 1940s from. was excellently suited. 41 . Waldo Longo.[citation needed] It was founded by Gyula Kosice and Carmelo Arden Quin. Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (realism). whose surrealist work used watercolors as readily as unorthodox painting media. Artists of this group include Julio Barragán. Evocative monuments ny Realist sculptors Erminio Blotta. Luis Seoane.[211] The movement spread to Europe and later the United States. Emilio Pettoruti (cubist). They have developed a constructivist rather than figurative style. The works of Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (in Naïve artstyle). though it is not quite abstract.[210] while a different source says that Madí is not necessarily a response to that oppression. Eduardo Mac Entyre(Generative art). Juan Del Prete (later the creator of Futucubismo. of course. and Diyi Laañ. and Roberto Aizenberg(Surrealism) are a few of the best-known Argentine painters. and included artists such as Rhod Rothfuss. The Madí Movement. he also "invented" two imaginary languages. Ciruelo is a world-famous fantasy artist and sculptor. Gyula Košice (constructivism). Lucio Fontana and León Ferrari are acclaimed sculptors and conceptual artists. Carlos Torrallardona. One source claims Madí was founded in protest to the government control of the arts under Juan Perón. Others include Benito Quinquela Martín. a mixture of Cubism and Futurism) came from the abstract art movement in Argentina.One of the most influential Argentine figures in fine arts was Xul Solar. and Marta Minujín is an innovative Conceptual artist. whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s. concrete art. and Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez. Argentina's "modern painters" are a difficult group to define. Antonio Berni(neo-figurative). a quintessential 'port' painter for whom the working class and immigrant-bound La Bocaneighborhood. Fernando Fader (impressionism). Atilio Malinverno.

inside of Galerías Pacífico. Argentine Bon Marché. 42 .Architecture See also: Architecture of Argentina European style is the influence in theArchitecture of Argentina.

Francisco Salamoneand Viktor Sulĉiĉ left an Art Deco legacy. the new generations of architects incorporate. However. The simplicity of the Rioplatense baroque style can be clearly appreciated in Buenos Aires. andAlejandro Bustillo created a prolific body ofRationalist architecture. each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century." and tried to find an architectonic identity. Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th. reflected in numerous important buildings of Buenos Aires. Since the latter part of the 20th century. in particular. and the Museo de Arte Hispano Fernández Blanco. worldwide. made him one of the world's most prestigious architects. such as the Santa Felicitam Church by Ernesto Bunge. and the National Congress and the Colón Opera House. both by César Pelli. The construction of skyscrapers proliferated in Buenos Aires after 1950. as well as around the world. by Vittorio Meano. in the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella. Juan Antonio Buschiazzohelped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture andFrancisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau withItalianate styles. In the following decades. Cinema and theatre Main article: Cinema of Argentina 43 . This search for identity is reflected in the Banco de Londres building finished in 1967 by Clorindo Testa with Diego Peralta Ramos. The architecture of the second half of the 20th century continued adapting French neoclassical architecture. and the Torre Fortabat by Sánchez Elía. in the churches of San Ignacio. as always. Clorindo Testa introducedBrutalist architecture locally and César Pelli's andPatricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities. in recent decades. when the European tendencies penetrated into the country. Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscapes and. Argentine architects have become more prominent in the design of prime real estate projects in the country. after the early 1930s. the Central Post Office and Palace of Justice. though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century.Catalinas Norte. those around the world. though a new generation started rejecting their "brutality. Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s. commercial office buildings. and Santiago Sánchez Elía. most notably the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers. such as the headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina and the NH Gran Hotel Provincial. Italian and French influences increased after thewars for independence at the beginning of the 19th century. among whom Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams stand out in this new vein. by Norbert Maillart. European vanguardist styles. the Cathedral and theCabildo. Alfredo Agostini. and new techniques. by Mario Roberto Álvarez.Nuestra Señora del Pilar. the influence of Rationalist architecture and of Le Corbusier became dominant among local architects. by Martín Noel. such as the Le Parc tower and Torre Aqualina. built by Alejandro Bustillo.

and viewing per capita is the highest in the region.[208] The Teatro Colón is a national landmark for opera and classical performances. Nine Queens. A Place in the World. Copi. Marco Denevi. Man Facing Southeast. Julio Bocca. El Círculo in Rosario.[208] The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina. It is thought of as 'the street that never sleeps' and sometimes referred to as the Broadway of Buenos Aires. Son of the Bride.Teatro Colón considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world The Argentine film industry creates around 80 full-length motion pictures annually. Independencia in Mendoza and Libertador in Córdoba are also prominent. Griselda Gambaro. and The Secret in Their Eyes. Jorge Donn.[213] Since the 1980s. [214] Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score nods. winner of the 2009 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the more prominent Argentine playwrights. The Teatro Argentino de La Plata. Lalo Schifrin has received numerous Grammys and is best known for the Theme from Mission: Impossible. Corrientes Avenue is synonymous with the art.[207] With its theatre scene of national and international caliber. its acoustics are considered the best in the world. Music Main article: Music of Argentina 44 . Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition. Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater. Blessed by Fire. A new generation of Argentine directors has caught the attention of critics worldwide. by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani. José Neglia and Norma Fontenla are some of the great ballet dancers of the modern era. such as The Official Story (Best foreign film oscar in 1986). in 1917 and 1918. The Motorcycle Diaries. Carlos Gorostiza. [215] The Teatro General San Martín is one of the most prestigious along Corrientes Avenue and the Teatro Nacional Cervantesfunctions as the national stage theater of Argentina. Roberto Cossa.[207][212]The per capita number of screens is one of the highest in Latin America.

only exponent of electric harp teacher in Argentina. Francisco Canaro. is Argentina's musical symbol. 45 . Incorporating acoustic music and later. featuring large orchestral groups too.[clarification needed] Tango. argentinesinger. Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo. It has influences from the European and African culture. Tango show in Buenos Aires. bandoneón virtuoso Ástor Piazzollapopularized "new tango" creating a more subtle. Bajofondo and the Gotan Project. synthesizers into the genre after 1955. Astor Piazzolla.Carlos Gardel. Aníbal Troilo. ever-evolving. neo-tango is a global phenomenon with renown groups like Tanghetto.[216] The golden age of tango (1930 to mid1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United States. Today tango enjoys worldwide popularity. His oeuvre revolutionized the traditional tango into a new style termed nuevo tango. the music and lyrics (often sung in a slang called lunfardo). is perhaps the most prominent figure in the history of tango. harpist and composer. incorporating elements fromjazz and classical music Athy. intellectual and listener-oriented trend. like the bands of Osvaldo Pugliese.

Following the emergence of "new tango" in the 1960s. The Mambo Kings.Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s. when Richard Wagner'sParsifal was broadcast by a team of medical students led Enrique Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo. including Héctor Germán Oesterheld. The tenor saxophonist worked with renownedbig band orchestra conductor Lalo Schifrin in the early 1960s. The major national newspapers are from Buenos Aires. the two recorded Complete Communion in 1965. Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America. Later in the 1970s and through the 1990s. The best-known Argentine jazz musician internationally is probably Leandro Gato Barbieri.[221] The Argentine television industry is large and diverse. like fellow bandoneónist Dino Saluzzi. Alberto Breccia.[218] Other nationally circulated papers are La Nación (center-right. when Argentine bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere. guitarist Lito Epumer and alto sax man Bernardo Baraj. Chango Spasiuk and Soledad Pastorutti have brought folk back to younger generations. Media Main article: Communications in Argentina The print media industry is highly developed. Carlos Franzetti's work and arrangements for the 1992 feature film. Dante Quinterno. the best-selling daily in Latin America and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world. one of Piazzolla's fellow bandoneónists he influenced most became a noted jazz composer in his own right. Current popular bands include: Babasónicos. The most circulated newsmagazine is Noticias. including the centrist Clarín. Barbieri went on to record his influential Caliente! (1976). Rata Blanca. published since 1870). Intoxicados. collaborating with Latin jazz greats like Paquito D'Rivera and Claudio Roditi. an album combining Latin jazz and experimental work such as his own and jazz fusion great Carlos Santana's. Beyond dozens of regional dances. Rodolfo Mederos' 1976 album Fuera de broma 8 fused be-bop with tango and acoustic rock. Horacio Altuna. Ámbito Financiero (business conservative).[220] There are currently 260AM broadcasting and 1150 FM broadcasting radio stations in Argentina. Roberto 46 . drummer Pocho Lapouble became well known for his jazz trio and film scores. and began on 27 August 1920. His success with jazz fusion inspired others. similar to percentages in North America. Catupecu Machu. Argentine jazzsaxophonists have also become prominent in their genre. Perón's Argentina would give rise to nueva canción. The style went on to influence the entirety of Latin American music. earned him a Latin Grammy. Today it is widely considered the most prolific and successful form of Rock en Español. Hired by jazz trumpeter Don Cherry. records extensively to this day.[219] Radio broadcasting in Argentina is predated only by radio in the United States. and composers like Charly García. Horcas. Los Piojos. and Fito Páez are referents of national culture. León Gieco's folk-rock bridged the gap between Argentine folklore and Argentine rock. as artists began expressing in their music objections to political themes. Luis Alberto Spinetta. a national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s.Bersuit. shortly before Schifrin became internationally known for his composition of the theme to Mission: Impossible. who emerged in 1986 performing the film score for Hombre mirando al sudeste ("Man Facing Southeast"). Francisco Solano López. introducing both styles to millions overseas in successive tours.[222] Argentine comic artists have contributed prominently to national culture. [217] Today. as well as Qué pasa (1997). which draws more deeply from Argentine folklore roots. Alto saxophonist Andrés Boiarsky. widely viewed in Latin America.[citation needed] Bands such as Soda Stereo or Sumo. Carajoand Miranda!. and its productions seen around the world. Página/12 (left-wing). when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of several garage groups and aspiring musicians. Attaque 77. with more than two hundred newspapers. Mederos has since recorded numerous albums and film scores. Serú Girán bridged the gap into the 1980s. Olé (sports) and Crónica (populist). an album that secured their reputation in the jazz world.

It is also part of the country's culture. FIFA World Player of the Year and UEFA Best Player in Europe awards. The sport is played by children during breaks at school. fourteen Copa América. whose grotesque characters captured life's absurdities with quick-witted commentary. The Argentine Primera División is the top 47 . but the most popular sport is association football. and by grown-ups in the plenty of both indoor and outdoor fields located throughout the country. one Confederations Cup. Lionel Messi. The official national sport of Argentina is pato. and have won the Intercontinental Cup or the FIFA Club World Cup 9 times. successive Olympic gold medals (in 2004 and 2008).811 registered football players. and Quino. winner of theFIFA Ballon d'Or.[224] The national football team has won 25 major international titles[225] including two FIFA World Cups. a record shared with Brazilian clubs. The Argentina national football team has won the FIFA World Cuptwice (in 1978 and 1986). and six Youth World Championship's. Sports Main article: Sports in Argentina Diego Maradona celebrating after having won the 1986 World Cup. Over one thousand Argentine players play abroad.[223] played with a six-handle ball on horseback. Argentine clubs have won the Copa Libertadores (the top continental competition) a record 22 times. the majority of them in European football leagues. who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American champions in 2006. Football is the most popular sport in Argentina. known for the soup-hating Mafalda and her comic strip gang of childhood friends.Fontanarrosa. two Olympic gold medals and fourteen Copa Américas.[226]There are 331.[227] with increasing numbers of girls and women.

level domestic competition. The country's most famed national football idol historically is Diego Maradona. Argentina's fiercest rival is Brazil. The rivalry is sometimes known as the Battle of the South Americans. They have played each other numerous times in the Copa América, and in the Confederation Cup, and the clubs of these countries have met several times in the Copa Libertadores finals. Argentina is one of the few national teams in football that have beat Brazil on a regular basis, although in the latest years, Brazil has turned the situation in its favor. The youth teams have also met at various tournaments. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, the under-23 teams met in the semi-final clash, with Argentina winning 3–0 in a hard-fought game. In addition, the abovementioned Maradona has been often compared with Brazilian iconic soccer player Pelé. Women's football is far behind in terms of popularity and professionalism. Nevertheless, the Argentina women's national football teamhas competed in the Sudamericano Femenino since 1995, finishing as runner-up three times, before finally winning the competition in2006, with a 5–0 victory over Brazil in the last match of the final group stage. The national team also played in the 2003 and the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup, but finished last in its group on both occasions. Basketball Main article: Argentina national basketball team

Emanuel Ginóbili, NBAprofessional player of San Antonio Spurs. Basketball is a very popular sport, mostly in the provinces of Argentina. The Basketball Clubs' Association organizes the Liga Nacional de Básquet, the top level of the country's league system. Although the Argentine national team won the first FIBA World Championship in 1950, the sport did not gain country-wide popularity until the 2000s, when the national team conquered the Olympic gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics, and had a good performance in the 2002 and 2006 World Championships, finishing respectively in second and fourth position. Argentine NBA star Emanuel Ginóbili also won NBA rings in 2003, 2005, and 2007, as a member of the San Antonio Spurs, the last one with compatriot Fabricio Oberto. Though women's basketball is not professional in Argentina, the national team participates in most of the international competitions, reaching its highest point at the 2006 FIBA World Championship for Women, when they finished in 9th place. Tennis Main article: Tennis in Argentina

48

Juan Martin del Potro.

David Nalbandian.

Gisela Dulko. Tennis in Argentina is regulated by the Asociación Argentina de Tenis(Argentine Tennis Association), which also selects the coaches of the Argentine teams for the Davis Cup and Federation Cup. There are many tennis courts in Argentina, and the sport, even though still considered middle- to upper-class, is practiced by many regardless of age.

49

Juan Mónaco. Although British immigrants brought the sport to Argentina, it was not until late in the 1970s that Guillermo Vilas' success made the sport popular, reaching second place in the 1975 ATP ranking. He was internationally recognised and was later included in the International Tennis Hall of Fame. During the 1980s, José Luis Clerc (4th), Alberto Mancini (8th) and Martín Jaite (10th) followed Vilas and kept interest in the sport alive. Argentina won the 1980 World Team Cup beating Italy 3-0, and reached the final of the 1980 Davis Cup, losing to United States 3-1. In the 1990s it wasGabriela Sabatini who best represented Argentine tennis, becoming an international figure on and off the court. The boom of Argentine tennis players came in the 2000s, when many players became important in the circuit reaching high ranks. Paola Suárezwon eight Grand Slam doubles between 2001 and 2005 and was, together with Spaniard Virginia Ruano Pascual, the top women's couple for three years in a row. In 2002, José Acasuso, Guillermo Cañas, Lucas Arnold and Gastón Etliswon again the World Team Cup for Argentina, this time 3-0 against Russia. Five years later, Acasuso, Juan Ignacio Chela, Agustín Calleriand Sebastián Prieto won it again, this time 2-1 against Czech Republic. David Nalbandian lost in the final of Wimbledon in 2002. The 2004 French Open saw an Argentine final between Gastón Gaudio and Guillermo Coria. The following year's French Open saw Mariano Puerta reach the final. Another example of the importance of the Argentine presence on the circuit was the August 2005 male rankings that counted five Argentine players among the top 12 (from 8th to 12th) of the ATP ranking, and three in the top ten of the Champions Race (5th, 8th and 9th). In April 2007, there were 13 Argentine male players in the ATP top 100, rivaling with the 13 Spanish, 12 French and 10 US citizens[1]. The 2005 Tennis Masters Cup, due to a series of last-minute resignations, had 4 Argentine players of the total of 8, with Gaudioreaching semi-finals, and Nalbandian winning the competition against #1 Roger Federer. This tennis in Argentina is better than the tennis in USA in the last five years. In 2009 Juan Martin del Potro became the first Argentine to win the US Open since Guillermo Vilas did in 1977. Del Potro defeated world number 2 Rafael Nadal in straight sets in semifinals to reach the final and eventually beat world number 1 Roger Federer in five sets. That year Del Potro reached the final of the ATP World Tour Championship. Field hockey

Las Leonas. 50

Juan Nelson. Quilmes. La Espadaña. Alfredo Harriot and Horacio Heguy). 1975. Argentina was host of the ninth edition of the World Polo Championship (for teams of up to 14 goals) at the Estancia Grande Polo Club. The sport spread fast between the skilful gauchos and several clubs opened in the following years in the towns of Venado Tuerto. Andrés Gazzotti. 2009. and Marcos Heguy). G. 1992–1993 (Bautista Heguy. Gonzalo Pieres. Among them. Juan Carlos Harriott. although they won the 2005 and 2007 Champions Challenges. participating in the World Cup and Champions Trophies. Flores and later (1888) Hurlingham. 2008. 1977–1979 (Alberto Heguy. Also. 2010. in the province of San Luis in October 2011. and 2012. In the Olympic Games held in Paris in 1924 a team composed by Juan Miles. Gonzalo Heguy. In the Olympics. and are usually positioned among the top ten teams in the world. Las Leonas won the annualHockey Champions Trophy on five occasions. mainly because Argentina is notably the country with the largest number ever of 10 handicap players in the world. Diego Cavanagh and Enrique Alberdi. in 2001.. the game spread powerfully across the country and Argentina is credited globally as the mecca of polo. Indios Chapaleufú. Brooke Naylor and A. Peña obtained the gold medal. In the other hand. Roberto Cavanagh. Luciana Aymar is the only player in history to receive the International Hockey Federation World Player of the Year award seven times. Lucas Monteverde. 1989–1990 (Carlos Gracida. 2009 (Facundo Pieres. Pablo Mac Donough and Juan Martín Nero). the men's team hasn't been able to win any major tournament except for the hockey tournament at the Pan American Games in 8 occasions.Las Leonas (Argentina's national women's team) is one of the usual contenders in all the premier tournaments in women's field hockey. David Shennan is credited with having organised the first formal polo game of the country in 1875.. they won the silver medal in2000. La Dolfina. as well as bronze in 2004 and 2008. Mariano Aguerre y Bartolomé Castagnola). Gonzalo Pieres Jr. Polo Adolfo Cambiaso. one of the most famous argentine polo player. Juan Nelson. From then on. this also occurred in Berlín 1936 with players Manuel Andrada. Alfonso Pieres y Ernesto Trotz Jr. They conquered the Women's World Hockey Cup in 2002 and 2010. Meanwhile. British settlers in the Argentine pampas started practising it during their free time. In 1892 The River Plate Polo Association was founded and constituted the basis for the current Asociación Argentina de Polo. Luis Duggan. Enrique Padilla. Horacio Heguy Jr.[228] Cuisine Main article: Argentine cuisine 51 . Five great teams were able to ensemble together four 10 handicap players in order to make a 40 handicap team: Coronel Suárez. Ellerstina. 2009–2010 (Adolfo Cambiaso Jr.). Cañada de Gómez. Arturo Kenny.

Argentina is the country that consume more meat in the world. 6. the country is the fifth largest producer of wine in the world. and morcilla (blood sausage). onion. Other popular items include chorizo (a spicy sausage). a sort of milk caramel jam. a discardable varietal in France (country of origin).952 m (22. sweetbread. "Wine tourism" is important in Mendoza province. includes various types of meats. has found in the Province of Mendoza an ideal environment to successfully develop and turn itself into the world's bestMalbec. asadoas well as a parrillada. beans. in 2007. providing a very desirable destination for international tourism. bacon. Besides many of the pasta. chitterlings.808 ft) high. Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations. and gourd). Argentine beef. long among the largest outside Europe.Argentine wine. Malbec grape. which includeempanadas (a stuffed pastry). meat. the latter considered Argentina's national beverage.[230] The country is the fifth most important wine producer in the world. 60% of foreign investment worldwide in viticulture was destined to Argentina. facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and Dulce de leche.[229] The Argentine wine industry. are also popular. The Argentine barbecue. has benefited from growing investment since 1992. Argentines have the highest consumption of red meat in the world. humitas andyerba mate. Mount Aconcagua.[230] Mendoza accounts for 70% of the country's total wine production.[231] with the annual per capita consumption of wine among the highest. sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe. National symbols 52 . with the impressive landscape of the Cordillera de Los Andes and the highest peak in the Americas. locro (a mixture of corn. among them chorizo. sandwiches de miga. Thin sandwiches. all originally indigenous Amerindian staples.

[233] The Schinopsis balansae was declared "National forest tree" in 1956. it was adopted as a national symbol 20 July 1816. Note: Area does not include claims in Antarctica(965.Main article: National symbols of Argentina Flag of Argentina. The Coat of Arms of Argentina.[234] The Rhodochrosite is the national stone. the Falkland Islands (11. which represents the union of the provinces.INDEC. was unanimously designated as Argentina's national animal in 1927. came into use in 1813 as a seal for official documents. including the South Orkney Islands). The Argentine National Anthem. with the Sun of May in the centre of the middle. Argentina has a number of national symbols.com/151/ar. It has been subsequently shortened to only three paragraphs. adopted in 1813. 53 . white stripe. horizontal stripes. superficie y densidad por provincia o jurisdicción. after omitting the lyrics' attacks against former occupant Spain. the South Georgia (3.[232] The National Flag consists of three.[237] The Virgin of Lujan is Argentina's patron saint. colored light blue.[236] and wine the national liquor.html ^ a b c "Cuadro P3. Total del país. some of which are extensively defined by law.[232] while the horseback game ofpato is its national sport.bartleby. The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812. was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera. The Cockade of Argentina was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later. Población total. equal in width. Años 2001–2010". INDEC. habitating practically across all the national territory.597 km2.[238] See also Geography portal South America portal Latin America portal Argentina portal Outline of Argentina Index of Argentina-related articles Argentina at Wikipedia books International rankings of Argentina References ^ http://www. white and light blue. ^ "Población por sexo y año calendario".560 km2) and theSouth Sandwich Islands (307 km2). The ceibo is the country's designated national flower and tree.410 km2). The Hornero. [232] The national dishes are asado[235] and locro.

Instituto Geográfico Nacional. trade and conflicts in Latin America. GSI ^ "Argentina country profile". "Culture. edited by Gerard Mangone (Dordrecht." in The Territorial Factor. p. gives equal recognition to "United Provinces of the River Plate". 55 ISBN 0521759889. "Datos de la República Argentina [Data of the Argentine Republic]" (in Spanish). 2000). ^ "The southern cone of South America. p. 283. ^ According to the latest estimates by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (World Economic Outlook Database. 2011. 2009). ^ ""The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers." See Michael Morris. "The Clash of Civilisations. edited by Gertjan Dijkink and Hans Knippenberg (Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA. 1988). "Overlapping regional mechanisms of security governance. Ukraine. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes. edited by Shaheen Rafi Khan (New York: Routledge. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". 6. Saudi Arabia and Argentina. imf. Brazil and Argentina. and Democracy.ar/republica_argentina ^ Santillán. "Regional Hierachies.org. ^ a b "Human Development Report 2011". 2009).uk. edited by Rick Fawn (UK: Cambridge University Press. ^ Article 35 of the "Constitution". Edmundo Claro and Hernan Blanco. "The Srait of Magellan. 61. news. October 2012". Power. 18. 2010). The International Dimension of EU Competition Law and Policy (New York: Cambridge University Press.gob. Brazil and Argentina. ^ "[. 2001). "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and authorizes the use of "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws ^ "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century.ign. ^ "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view include Great Britain. p.] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers.com/definition/english/Argentina?rskey=4JcHsk&result=1 ^ http://www. CIA. ^ CONSTITUCIÓN DE LA REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA (24 de diciembre de 1826) sancionada por el Congreso General Constituyente de 1824–1827 (Spanish) ^ http://oxforddictionaries." See David Lake." See Tom Nierop. 2006-09-14.^ "Argentina Population". the two regional powers. Huntington. edited by Rick Fawn (UK: Cambridge University Press." See Emanuel Adler and Patricia Greve. and Democracy. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. April 2011) and the World Bank (World Development Indicators database) ^ According to the Legatum Institute: Economy – Ranked 42nd: Argentina’s economy appears stable. Japan. ^ Wurst J (2006) Middle Powers Initiative Briefing Paper. Pakistan. but confidence in financial institutions remains low The 2010 Legatum Prosperity Index ^ a b c d e f g Rubén Albanese (2009)." in Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution. Peter Goldschag. p. ^ a b c d "Argentina – World Economic Outlook Database. 2009). has recently become a pluralistic security community.bbc.co. "Regional integration. including Argentina and Brazil. p. p." See Alejandra Ruiz-Dana. p." See Anestis Papadopoulos." in Globalising the Regional." inGlobalization. ^ Samuel P. 17 54 ." in Globalising the Regional. Index Mundi.. 63.. ^ "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers. can develop their own rules for further managing regional relations. p. edited by Marc Plattner and Aleksander Smolar (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 78. The World Factbook. especially Argentina and Brazil. South Korea." in International Straits of the World. Power. United Nations.

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