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Wild Things: What Was Abstract Art?
Barry Schwabsky February 19, 2013 | This article appeared in the March 11-18, 2013 edition of The Nation. Like 71 Tweet 8 0
All the marquee names are here: not only Picasso and Kandinsky, but also Malevich and Mondrian, Duchamp and Léger, Arp and Schwitters, Albers and Lissitzky. They may not have been solitary artists, but that’s no proof they weren’t geniuses. Some play a bigger role than might be expected. Because Francis Picabia gets routinely associated with Dada and Giacomo Balla with Futurism, we may not remember them as great proponents of abstraction. This exhibition tells us otherwise. It also cogently charts the way abstract painting gave birth to abstract sculpture—not so much because sculptors imitated what painters were doing, but because abstraction drew the attention of painters toward the tactile substance of their materials, which turned many of them into sculptors. But as an exhibition on this scale should do, it also offers surprises. I didn’t know that abstraction had found a toehold in Bloomsbury as
About the Author Barry Schwabsky
Barry Schwabsky is the art critic of The Nation. Schwabsky has been writing about art for the magazine since 2005, and...
early as 1914, when Duncan Grant created a long, scroll-like Abstract Kinetic Collage Painting With Sound and Vanessa Bell made several abstract paintings—including one, with floating rectangles of various colors against a yellow surround (now in the collection of the Tate), that is far more thoroughly reduced, flat and frontal than anything anyone else, even Mondrian, had made at that time. Yet Grant and Bell must have found these experiments unsatisfactory (I certainly do), because they soon returned to making figurative art. Also from 1914 is a striking Chromatische Phantasie (Chromatic Fantasy) by Augusto Giacometti, cousin of the far more famous Alberto Giacometti. The very few of his works I’ve seen before have been landscapes and still lifes of a broadly post-Impressionist stamp, and no more abstract than a work by Gauguin or Bonnard. But this piece—made, it seems, by roughly dabbing colors onto the canvas with a palette knife—is not only resolutely nonrepresentational but also an abstraction of a sort that seems out of place with anything else in the show, and out of time. With its confident formlessness, and the way touch and color become one, I’d have guessed it to be the work of a tachiste of the 1950s.
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For a contrast to Giacometti’s cultivation of the near-random-seeming placement of quite physically distinct bits of paint, there are three drawings by Wacław Szpakowski. Made in 1924, they describe patterns formed by continuous black lines undergoing incessant movement, though always at right angles: the line is always moving either horizontally or vertically, but the patterns created include diagonals. If Giacometti is an unheralded precursor of tachisme , then I suppose Szpakowski plays the same role in relation to Op Art, which makes much of similar optical effects. But as with Giacometti, what’s exciting is not that Szpakowski anticipated a later development; it’s that even within his own time, there is something inexplicable about his having done what he’s done. Using ideas and information similar to those of his peers, he’s arrived at something that is abstract in the strong sense of remaining somehow uncategorizable and even, in a deep sense, unknowable—abstract in a way unlike anything else in “Inventing Abstraction.” Unfortunately for an exhibition goer who wants to know how Giacometti came to make his Chromatische Phantasie or why he didn’t continue along this line, there’s not a word about him in the catalog. In Szpakowski’s case, one can learn from Jaroslaw Suchan’s contribution that he “was drawn to abstraction by his fascination with the mathematical laws observable in nature” and that “he developed his work not just in isolation from the Polish avant-garde but in complete indifference to the art of the time.” You might find his drawings difficult to distinguish from the kinds of mathematical, scientific or even spiritualistic images that Dickerman insists “are not art at all” because “they were intended to produce meaning in other discursive frameworks.” But that is part of what makes his drawings unsettling and strong. Szpakowski died in 1973, and his works were first exhibited in 1978. The network isn’t everything, and isolation can be necessary even to those who may not quite be geniuses. Szpakowski wasn’t concerned, as Picasso was, with expressing his own anxiety; he was searching for impersonal patterns of universal order. Yet his art was distinctly personal, with a flavor peculiar to itself. Perhaps this is the great lesson of abstraction: that sometimes it can overcome its own antinomies. *** For curators, the inconsistencies between an exhibition and its catalog can be hard to overcome. Anyone who has seen Dickerman’s previous blockbusters for MoMA—on the Bauhaus in 2009 and on Dada in 2006—knows that she is adept at organizing complex exhibitions with scads of material in a lucid way. The same is mostly true here: only the
Dickerman’s substantial but fairly succinct introductory essay is followed by thirty-six brief texts on various topics by twenty-four authors (including herself)—not only art historians but luminaries from other fields. issue—shortly after the opening of the new site of the Barnes Foundation— Barry Schwabsky looked at the pioneering collectors of modern art. such exhibitions have a particularly symbiotic relation with their catalogs. in “Extreme Eccentrics. concluding that Picasso’s interlocutor. and she’s right—but then why isn’t one of them on view? I don’t normally think of Duchamp as a great painter. 'Zero Dark Thirty' This Week: The President Must Stop the Pipeline RSS . Activism.com) Cardinal Rick Santorum Leaves For Rome (National Memo) Recommended by Ad Policy More Books and the Arts Sundance. World) As Oscar Show Nears: Three New Hits vs. which need to fill in and give perspective to the historical narrative. Françoise Gilot. the inclusion of his Bottle Rack (1914) or his snow shovel. 2013 edition of The Nation. However.” with any identifying “attributes” added only as an afterthought. those works are at once paradigmatic and almost inscrutably idiosyncratic. Perhaps in deference to her fascination with networks. At times. In Advance of the Broken Arm (1915). it’s good to be reminded that Le passage de la vierge à la mariée (The Passage From Virgin to Bride. who do not always agree with each other or with her.com A Night at the Oscars for Israel-Palestine Hollywood Ending? From Around the Web 17 Books You Should Have Read Last Year (DailyCandy) 10 Misspelled Tattoos (Daily Fun Lists) 'America Doesn't Torture'—It Kills Rousey wins in victory for women's MMA fighting At War With Art (SI. Yve-Alain Bois refutes this. for that matter. by claiming Duchamp’s readymades as products of abstraction. She ends her essay with a brilliant stroke.” Barry Schwabsky February 19. Like much of the best abstraction. As a result. 1912) is as ravishingly painted as anything in the show. 2013 | This article appeared in the March 11-18. Activism) Nation Media John Nichols: The 'Fix the Debt' Campaign's Astroturf Roots Obama Wants Quality Preschool for All Kids—Will We Get It? Bill McKibben: Stopping Keystone XL For Good Will Congress Deliver on Immigration Reform? Also From The Nation Letter From Tanzania IV: A Visit to Morogoro Divestment Convergence at Swarthmore Kicks Off (Environmental Issues. Environment) The Sip Heard Round the World (Humor) A Night at the Oscars for Israel-Palestine (War and Peace. In her introductory essay. Even so. Film.attempt to integrate music into the story falls flat. the Oscars and the Decline of Film Criticism—Not Just a Lady Problem (Feminism. Dickerman’s introduction doesn’t even agree with the exhibition. In this respect. and the composition was done as composition. had either misunderstood the painter or that he had been indulging in some kind of “convenient” fib. Film) Oh Yoko! Ms. Dickerman seems to take at face value Picasso’s assertion that his first Cubist paintings were done more or less as “pure painting. such as the composer David Lang and the historian of science Peter Galison. there is insufficient mediation between her overview and the multitude of details it ought to encompass. but really. Like 71 Tweet 8 0 Web Letter (0) | Write a Letter | Single Page More from TheNation. and which have been parceled out to the various contributors. 2012. would have shown another outcome of his interest in abstraction altogether. In our July 16-23. “Inventing Abstraction” is a disappointment. Global Warming and Climate Change. But in his entry. Ono at 80 (Arts and Entertainment.