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1860 1861 as president. 1861 1861 1862 casualties.

1863 1863

Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the United States. February - The Confederate States of America is formed, with Jefferson Davis sworn in

April 12 Confederates fires on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. April 19 Lincoln orders the blockade of ports in Confederate states. June 25 The Seven Days (the Peninsula Campaign) for Richmond, Virginia; 36,000

April 21 to May 11 The Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia; 30,051 casualties. July 1 to 3 The Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania 51,000 casualties.

1863 November 19 Lincolns Gettysburg Address dedicates a battlefield cemetery at Gettysburg Pennsylvania. 1865 Virginia. 1865 February 3 Lincoln meets with Confederate Peace Commission at Hampton Roads,

April 9 Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. "See what a lot of land these fellows hold, of which Vicksburg is the key! The war can never be brought to a close until that key is in our pocket.... We can take all the northern ports of the Confederacy and they can defy us from Vicksburg." Abe Lincoln On reaching that place on July 1, General Reynolds found Buford's cavalry warmly engaged with the enemy . . . Major-General Reynolds immediately moved around the town of Gettysburg, and advanced upon the Cashtown road, and without a moment's hesitation deployed his advanced division and attacked his enemy. . . . george meade Driving back these troops to within a short distance of the town, he there encountered a larger force, with which two of his divisions became engaged, Ewell, coming up with two of his divisions by the Heidlersburg road, joined in the engagement. The enemy was driven through Gettysburg with heavy loss, including about 5,000 prisoners and several pieces of artillery.-robert lee The civilians along the line of march could not do enough for us. Most every household standing ready with water buckets dealing out water to the boys as we marched along, and the Stars and Stripes hanging out in all directions. It made us feel as if we were home once more, and the citizens of Southern Pennsylvania, through their kindness to the soldiers have put now life into us.- henry Kaiser

The enemy was driven back and we regained the ground lost a short time before. We halted in a hollow behind a stone fence, having marched, since last evening, thirty two miles. Kaiser It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus so nobly advanced- Lincoln . . . We assert that fourteen of the states have deliberately refused for years past to fulfill their constitutional obligations, and we refer to their own statutes for the proof. The Constitution of the United States, in its 4th Article, provides as follows: "No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due." South carolina justification