Chicha Maize Types and Chicha Manufacture in Peru


INTRODUCTION The importance of maize in the indigenous civilizations of Peru is attested for by innumerable archeological and historical records, and by the important place that maize has to this day in the economy and lives of the Indian population of the-country (8, 9, 13, 17). Similar "maize cultures" existed in other regions of the continent. Maize in these regions had a profound religious and magical significance, as well as great economic importance. This relationship was expressed in many forms, but the chief of these was, undoubtedly, in the drinking of chicha (19, 20). In all the primitive fertility rites of the Indians, chicha always played a predominant role. As Otero (15) has written : "La chicha era el vehiculo que unia a los llombres y a los dioses, a trav6s de la fecundidad de la tierra. ''a There are many descriptions of the use of chicha as means of intercession with the gods (12). If the onset of the rainy season was delayed, elaborate rituals were practiced to induce the Thunder God to send rain: "The people dressed in mourning and marched weeping through the town. They tied up black llamas and dogs so that these would cry from hunger and thirst, and'sprinkled chicha beer around them, hoping thus to appeal to the sympathies of the deities. ''4 Garcilaso de la Vega (7), in describing
1Maize beer. The word is discussed in the text. 2Agriculture and Research Section, United Nations Special Fund for Economic Development, N. Y. aFree translation: "Chicha was the vehicle that linked man to his gods through the fecundity of the earth." 4Acosta (1), translated by Mason (11). Received for publication 5 August, 1960.

the solemn ceremonies of the first day of Inti-Raymi (The Sun and Harvest Festival held in June). reports how the Inca would drink chicha from a gold cup in the presence of the people as soon as the sun appeared in the east. "Presently the King rose to his feet, the rest being still prostrate, and took two great cups of gold, called aquilla, full of the beverage that they drink. He performed this ceremony as the first-born, in the name of his father the Sun, and, with the cup in his right hand, invited all his relations to d r i n k . . . Having given the invitation to drink, the Inca emptied the vase in his right hand, which was dedicated to the Sun, into a jar of gold, whence the liquor flowed down a stone conduit of very beautiful masonry from the great square to the temple of the Sun, thus being looked upon as drunk by the diety." Many superstitions associated with chicha are still found in some regions of Peru. Perhaps the most striking of these are, as in antiquity, the rituals which link chicha and the soil. Great care is taken, for instance, not to spill a single drop of chicha when it is being drunk in company (8). If some is spilt by accident, it is said that it happened because "the earth is thirsty." In some areas a few drops of chicha are still sprinkled on the land at planting time. always by young girls. The word chicha is mainly applied in Peru to fermented maize chicha. However, some unfermented beverages made of maize and other products are also called chicha. In some areas, fermented chicha from plants other than maize is also made. In the eastern lowlands, for instance, several fruits, yuca (Manihot), and other plants are used; and in the Pa-


1000-1500. The ear is of medium size with about 14-16 rows. Amarillo. and husks. of which one of the most important is the choice of the maize type used. using saliva to convert starches to sugars to facilitate fermentation and increase the alcoholic content. Aleli. specifically for chicha.CHICHA MAIZE TYPES AND CHICHA MANUFACTURE IN PERU 291 cific lowlands some chicha is also made from al#arrobo or mesquite (Prosopis). chichilia and atl mean "to ferment" and "water" respectively. to be in even greater need of investigation than the manufacturing technology itself. The manufacture of both jora and chicha consists of a complex series of steps. Chicha is made directly from germinated maize flour (huifipo or jora) (4. MAIZE TYPES 1. Northern Coastal Region The Northern coastal region from Tumbes south to Casma grows the Alazan and Viru groups of maize types. The color of the kernel ranges from light to dark red. and the chewers of the flour. and also the main types of maize used. "to spit" or "spit. as a derivation from chichal or chichiatl. Chicha from wild plants is now ahnost exclusively confined to the eastern lowlands of Peru.ralis tuberosa) and molle (Schinus molle) is no longer conimon. 17). Mixtures with a yellow type from the lower Pacific slopes of the Andes (Maiz Serrano) grown in the region of H u a n c a b a m b a . Anthocyanin coloration is usually present. and the two Southern highland regions of Arequipa and Cuzco (14). The making of chicha in the highlands from quinoa (Chenopodium qMnoa. The usual practice was to chew the maize flour. In the latter case. In the Peruvian highlands the Quechua word for chieha is akka or acca. describes the principal way in which chicha was made in the past. which are undoubtedly Race Coroico (5). of chewing the grain. . This variety is extraordinary in being very similar to the long-eared flexible types from the eastern lowlands of Peru (Yurimaguas. In Aymara it is kufa. while in the former case chi means "with" and chal means "saliva. very little appears to be known about the technology of several primitive manufacturing processes using maize. However. oca (O. In Quechua chewed flour is muko. These are also three of the most important maize growing regions of Peru. The most common maize types within this group are Alazan proper. But the practice of chewing maize flour is quite rare today in the highlands and completely absent in the Pacific lowlands. being very marked in some plants on the stem. a task that was usualIy done by women. may have been one of the important criteria used in antiquity in producing some of the many maize types of Peru. together.D. muccupuccuk. Colorado. This account deals with the following three chicha producing regions: the northern coastal lowlands (Departments of Piura. 1 This region coincides closely to that where the Chimu culture developed in approximately A. however. The origin of the word chicha is not clear. but it appears to be of Caribbean (Arawak) origin. The relationships between the two appear. The Alazan group is early maturing and highly drought resistant. St. Sauer in 1948 (19) stated that the "distribution of sprouting and roasting. and Motupefio. and of the fermentation (roasted and unroasted ?) meal needs further study. Lambayeque and La Libertad). leaves.). The Virfi group 1Collections of maize ears of all the types mentioned in this paper are kept at the Missouri Botanical Garden. Chachapoyas)." The word." and.A y a b a c a are cmnmon. Louis. therefore. It is possible that the selection of maize types. There is also some mixture in the Pacasmayo area with a strictly local variety called Pagadroga or Pogaladroga. as does the occurrence of wine from greenstalks. the two voices." Some of the main features of chicha nIanufacture in three different regions of Peru are therefore described in this paper.

extremely complex. in the Arequipa region and also in Ayacucho. especially in the Virfl Valley itself. Chaminco. however. the liquid is left to cool and sugar and lemon juice are added. 3. being found in the Provinces of Quispicanchi. The ears of Maiz Morado are small. Huaira-sara and Amarillo. but there is much "multiplication. though the ears of both types are at first sight similar in appearance. and cinnamon. The Cuzco Region The maize types used for good quality chicha in the Cuzco region are also quite distinct. Maiz Negro approaches the general Cuzco type in appearance with large ears and about 10 rows of kernels. The centers of Alazan cultivation are the valleys of Piura. Some chicha is taken from Catacaos to neighboring towns and villages. the Negro of Arequipa is reputed to produce excellent quality chicha. There are several important subsidiary centers of chicha manufacture and consumption in the region. The maize growing regions of. especially Amarillo. is less drought resistant. but mainly from the upper Piura and Chira Valleys. The maize used for chicha manufacture in the village comes from the whole region. pineapple skin. Maiz Morado is grown at 4 to 6. where superior quality jora and Chicha are also found. Chira.292 ECONOMIC BOTANY includes the only yellow type (Amarillo). and is grown in very small quantities. in the warmer. The chicha is made by boiling kernels and cobs of Maiz Morado with various fruits . Maiz Negro is. The Virfl group is grown further south in the coastal valleys of the La Libertad Department. more sheltered valleys. on the other hand. The Maiz Blanco of Arequipa belongs to the same group since it differs from Negro only in kernel color. of which Motupe is one of the best known. but chicha is made from poor grade maize of ahnost any type. Both groups are dented and soft. The most important of the distinct ehicha types are the following: Chchullpi (or Chulpi). a completely different type from the purpleblack Maize Morado. therefore. Row number is 10-12. Paucartambo. Kulli. while Morado matures quickly (5-6 months). Maiz Negro. Arequipa Region In the preparation of huifiapo (the jora of the lowlands) the only maize types used are the purple-black Negro types of Arequipa.000 ft. and Anta. Convenci6n.Cuzco is. especially because of the large number of different maize types grown in the region. Chicha is consumed in very large quantities in the whole of this region. are also grown in Arequipa." The kernels are very easily detachable from the cob. As with Alazan. especially Cuzco Blanco. but the alerone is rust red. The situation in . and slightly longer maturing than Alazan.Cuzco are well defined.500 ft. The endosperm is . but one of the areas of greatest consumption. and are used almost entirely for chicha. Within each of these 2. Some Cuzco types. Morado is a dye type grown throughout the highlands.white. is grown at 8. a non-alcoholic sweet drink popular in many parts of Peru. The two types also differ in the height of the plant (Negro is much taller) and the intensity of anthocyanin pigmentation on leaves and stems (extremely marked in Morado). and the maize is always sold on the ear. chiefly for chicha morada. The section of the valley where Catacaos is situated is now a cotton producing area where very small quantities of maize are grown. is centered in the village of Catacaos in the Piura Valley. After the proper amount of boiling. cloves. This type has a long growing season (8-9 months). including quince. But in the main. attracted by the Sunday market and the many chicherias. the reputation of the "chicheras" (the women who make the chicha) of Catacaos is so high that chicha drinkers come from many miles around. Motupe and Lambayeque.

However.) where the valley is constricted into a narrow canyon. Huevo de P~. Confite (also Reventador. slight dent and slight 1. to a maximum 10. Maize is grown as far down the valley as the town of Ollanta (9. Sacsa (all commercially the most important and oll the whole.).400 ft. .800 ft. and from the plateau of Anta and other higher altitude zones with a puna climate. Occe-sara is a dark. Mistura is uniformly deep bright red. The Ucayali. grain covered tip. maize is grown in a few well known valleys and plateaus. properly speaking.cce-sara. This region includes the greater part of the high "puna" of Peru at altitudes above 10. This is the only mottled type. Malz Moscado. Amarillo. Pescocc-runtum and O. Kulli is the only black type. Arroz.). near Puno where the lake modifies the climate slightly and Altiplano types of maize are grown. at the town of Marangani (10. but the types grown are totally different from typical sierra and Cuzco maize. Amarillo (also Uhina. With one exception. Mistura Kulli. Colorado.CI-IICHA MAIZE TYPES AND C H I C H A MANUFACTURE IN PERU 293 provinces. and west to Arequipa. maize is not known in the whole of the region of southern Peru from Marangani to Juliaca and Puno. Ubina and Ckello-sara) . slight taper towards the point. and Huatanay. Huaira-sara is also uniformly gray. of which the most important are the Vilcanota-Urubamba Valley and the Plateau of Anta. and Marcapata. Puca-Sara. eventually joins the Marafion to form the Amazon river. Maize is also grown in the tropical part of the valley in the Province of Convencidn. Thus. Sacsa: Huaira-sara (also Maiz Negro or Morado) .800 ft. The single exception is a small zone off the shores of Lake Titicaca at 11. The varieties grown in the Urubamba valley include the following: Imperial Blanco (also Blanco de Yucay. in turn. and the latter is a small valley that joins the Urubamba River at the head of which the city of Cuzco (10. and in the relative size of the ear and kernel. while Pescocc-runtum has gray kernels as well as splashed gray and purple with a creamy white background. The most important area by far is the Urubamba valley. Chchullpi (also Maiz Duke or Malz Arrugado) . The two former are situated at lower altitudes in a sentitropical region. the maize growing region in this valley is in the highlands and begins. Mistura (also Chaminco. They differ from one another in color. Capuli.) is situated. Nueva Granada. uniformly gray type. from the Ollanta--Urcos region in the Urubamba valley. Popcorn): Pescocc-runtum (also chchuspi. therefore. Paucartambo.ointing of the kernel. The river of the Vilcanota-Urubamba Valley--the old sacred valley of the Incas --originates in the Vilcanota range and flows due North to join the Apurimac river which flows into the Ucayali.500 ft. Only relatively small quantities of chicha are produced in this area. Paucartambo.000 ft. Sangre de Toro) : Nueva Granada (also Rosado) . Sacsa is variegated red on yellow. eight well-marked rows. The other valleys are Marcapata. from tile Urcos--Marangani--Huatanay valley region at a higher altitude (9. In the whole region of Cuzco. and the kernels are wider in the middle than at the tip. Huaira-sara. Ten of these types are different forms of the Imperial Cuzco race as described by Cutler (5) : very large kernels.400 ft. Chamico. but exactly like Blanco in every other character. and both types and Huaira are the only gray types found. Nueva Granada is white and rose-pink. Blanco de Urquillos. These types are Blanco. four main groups of maize types can be distinguished: those from the tropical and semi-tropical Provinces of Convenci6n.200 ft.jaro) : Occesara (also Malz Plomo). The kernels of Peseocc-runtum are narrower Oll the whole than those of Occe-sara. the most used for Chlcha). The ears are somewhat smaller than the standard Imperial Blanco. Paraccaisara) .

The ears are small." Finally. while Blanco has a colorless pericarp and aleurone. usually requiring 50 days from the time of planting to the appearance of the silks. flattened grains of Uchukilla from the larger number of somewhat irregular rows of rounded. and a mininmm of mixing with other types. with small kernels. approach Uchukilla in appearance. grown at Chuquicahuana. such as Amarillo Oro. and frequently very slightly beaked. There are interesting and important variations in aleurone colors. Amarillo. These types represent. a colored pericarp and colorless aleurone. or with a pronounced pointing of the kernels. hard kernels. a colored aleurone and pericarp of different colors . pointed or dented. a yellow type. Capuli has a deep yellow aleurone and deep red pericarp. are the following : Chancha. The plants are small and mature earlier than other races in the same district. Cutler has classified Chchullpi--which he calls Chuspillo. and pink to deep red in the others. which are known locally by other names. The cheaper and less desirable maize has varying proportions of second grade kernels. to distinguish the few and distinct rows of nearly diamond-shaped. The following description is based on data obtained in the northern coastal lowlands of Peru. Amarillo is the only yellow type. Calhuai (or Calhuay) and Sorccas. the Bolivian name--as a form of Valle race. however. five totally different pericarp-aleurone color variations. two special types occur in the Cuzco region and in many other parts of the Peruvian sierra. dark red on creamy yellow. The pointed types also have eight rows and large kernels. 1. Puca-sara. usually yellow and often red. Ears of Altiplano maize which have low row numbers and a less spherical ear shape. and together with Blanco makes up the standard typical Cuzco type of maize. which he described as follows: "The race includes. except at the crown.294 ECONOMIC BOTANY with the color placed at the sides of the kernel and rarely on the crown: Capuli has the same color pattern as Nueva Granada. The differences in method are greatest between the lowlands and the highlands. being white only in Blanco and the gray types. where the pericarp is colorless and the yellow aleurone beneath is visible through it. It is nearly always Fossible. and in the highlands in Arequipa and Cuzco. and mix- . or slightly pointed and imbricated grains of Altiplano maize. These types have been classified by Cutler (5) as a distinct race (Uchukilla). while the hard-kerneled types. however. therefore. Amarillo Puntiagudo. both yellow and both grown near Urcos in the Huatauay valley. These grains are widest about two-thirds of the distance from the base to the tip. have a tendency to 10 rows. Thus. with 8 to 10 straight rows of grains. but is a deep. Occe-sara and Pescocc-runtum have colorless pericarp and colored aleurone. Cob color shows some differences. The group of varieties grown in the intermediate zone between Urubamba and the Altiplano. These are Chchullpi of Chulpi and Confite (or Maiz Arroz). Quality in this sense means mature kernels in good physical condition. some flour and semi-flint varieties. than usual. and Granada and Sacsa. In all cases the endosperm is white. Amarillo Oro. This type is used for good quality and highly alcoholic chichas CHICHA MANUFACTURE A sunmlary description of the process in the northern coastal region and in one of the highland regions is sufficient to illustrate the most important stages in the manufacture of chicha in Peru. The Pacific Lowlands The first step in the manufacture of chicha in Catacaos begins with the choice of good quality Alazan maize. in the region of Catacaos in the Department of Piura. The outstanding difference between this group and the Urubamba group is the predominance of yellow types with small.

5 ~ F. and is the chief reason given locally for the superiority of Aladan for chicha. The first part consists in making pachucho. however. but this is rarely ~hieved with the primitive means at hand. and in 5 to 10 days at 48. Germination. and the second in the making of the chicha from the pachucho. the maize is not moved. "Humeo. In this region of Peru. and 14. 10). parched maize is spread out in the sun. Every effort is made to maintain an even temperature. Uniformity in the rate of germination is extremely important at this stage. The product is known as . The pachucho is made as follows: Soaking. no real control exercised over temperature variations within the mass of germinating maize. Excessive drying prevents proper germination and water is sometimes sprinkled over the maize to keep it moist.6 ~ F. For two days the heap is left untouched. and pachoucho to ground or milled germinated maize. at 43. and the heap is carefully covered with layers of burlap or other material. Each stage is quite complex. to 58." The germinated maize is heaped up in a convenient place. Drying is continued until the maize is perfectly dry (2 to 5 days) for otherwise grinding or milling is difficult. The broken pieces of roots and seedling shoots (pufio) are also very carefully gathered. The various stages in the making of chicha can be divided into two distinct parts. and any coverings. The optimum stage is reached when most of the maize has germinated and the plumule is about inch to ~ inch long and tastes sweet.7 ~ F. as is the case with wheat and barley. Maize germinates in 10 to 20 days. After two days. There is. but pachucho previously made by specialists. as a layer about one half inch thick and is turned frequently." or pressure. and a very marked specialization exists in Catacaos. the absorption of water is uniform over the whole surface. It is whitish being covered with a thin layer of ash. such as Maiz Serrano from the highlands and Colorado from Viru. when used.. The most important factor at this stage is to ensure that the maize is in the dark and that the area is not exposed to wind or direct heat. The minimum and maximum temperatures for maize germination are approximately 41~ F. Since the maize kernel has ilo semipermeable membrane. Once the maize is dry. and it can be easily recognized in a mixture with Alazan. The soaking takes about 12-18 hours. Drying. The color of the latter is of a distinct shade of red. A "well-filled" kernel. must be of light weight (straw or sacking is preferred). therefore. with the optimum at 91 ~ F. The germinated. and differential temperature variations in the germinating maize no doubt also account for marked variability in germination time. and jura." The determination of the exact degree of soaking ("well-filled" kernels) is done to some extent by "feel. Germination takes about 3 days.C H I C H A M A I Z E TYPES A N D C H I C H A 1KANUFACTURE I N P E R U 295 ture with non-Alazan types. where the chicha maker does not buy maize. The maize is said to be "humeando" or smoking. jura refers to dried. The shelled maize is put into large earthenware pots full of water which are placed in a hole in the ground. Some "grading" is done to separate the fast from slow germinating kernels especially when the range in germination time is great. The wet maize is spread in a suitable place in a layer about 2 to 3 inches thick.. (9. it is put into burlap sacks. Excessive soaking turns the kernels black and causes loss of "consistency.8~ F. germinated maize. usually overnight. is one that has the desirable degree of turgidity as determined by pressing the kernel between finger and thumb.. During this time. The temperature generated in the smoking heap is high enough to burn a man's hand if placed inside it. the maize has the appearance of having been thoroughly parched. The possible temperature range is therefore very wide.

but second grade cheaper chichas are also made from mixtures of pachucho with ordinary corn meal. This operation is called the "taqueo. it is not ready to drink." or semi-sharp. The left hand holds the other corner and an appropriate amount of chicha is placed on the cloth. and therefore already inoculated with yeast. and the mixture is continuously stirred with a stick called a "chicula." Since chicha is unstable. Water is constantly added as evaporation takes place. The grinding of jora on a wooden "batan" (mortar) with a balanced stone has practically disappeared in Catacaos. each hold- ing diagonally opposite corners of the cloth with the right hand as tightly and firmly as possible." or straining. and serves to "endulzar" or sweeten the chicha. it is said to possess the correct flavor. and allowed to fall t. who produce pachucho or milled jora for sale to the chicha makers. and some 14 to 15 gallons of chicha." After boiling. The sugar is usually "chancaca" (brown sugar) or molasses. and left to "desfogar. The material left on the cloth is called "piqua" and is fed to chickens and pigs.296 ECONOMIC BOTANY jora.o the bottom of the second pot. The raspeo may take another day. of pachucho. The jora is." and is sweeter and more potent than the bottom and thicker layer. It is evidently done in order to get a perfect separation of hull and starch. wooden stick about four or five inches in diameter. it becomes less and less sweet as time goes on." usually unbleached cotton or "tucuyo. Cooling and desfogeo is followed by the "colado. a 100 lb. a very important activity follows. and other taints. Then. The chicha at this stage is said to be "empufiando ~cido." This is done with a "raspador. approximately 7 gallons. sometimes known as "raspeo. and handfuls of boiled pachucho are scooped out of the first pot. the liquid is shaken sufficiently to permit a good straining. The next day. rubbed on the stick. The liquid is strained through a large square piece of suitable cloth. literally. or "chicha espesa" or "blanca. This first boiling takes about 3 ~ hours over a very hot fire. Hence. "gripping acidity. sack of shelled maize gives approximately two almus of pachucho. Chicha is made directly from pachucho. that it may have picked up during the boiling. Pachucho keeps well for about four to six weeks. From one almu four standard "ollas" or pots of chicha are obtained. by jerking the cloth with the left hand in exact timing. Straining may also be done after the first boiling. Fermentation takes place in these pots for one whole day. it is added during the second boiling. The stick is placed horizontally across a pot. the "sedazo." A wire sedazo may also be used. the pachucho is put back into the original pot and is boiled for a second time for about 4 hours. Two people are needed. Cooling is done by gradually reducing the fire underneath the earthenware pot. nowadays. until it turns to vinegar. but as soon as it turns "medio picantona." The strained liquid falls into prepared pots or "cantaros" regularly used as containers. The uppermost clear layer is called "claro. The amount of pachucho used for chicha making is measured in "almus" one alnm containing 40 lbs. The loss of weight between maize and pachucho is from 10 to 15~. When the mixture is thoroughly cold. The chicha is divided into two layers." Desfogar means leaving the liquid standing still for a period to clear it of smoke. The maximum quantity of corn meal that can . the first slow cooking period follows. which takes up to 24 hours." So long as it tastes sweet." or." or rough-barked. usually sold to millers. The pachucho is mixed with water and boiled in an "olla" or earthenware cooking pot. For the best chicha pachucllo alone is used. Then it is again cooled. When sugar is added to the chicha in order to increase its alcoholic potency and quicken the fermentation process.

This chicha must be consumed the same day. but is used in the forms of ccon.C H I C H A MAIZE TYPES AND C H I C H A MANUFACTURE I N PERU 297 be safely used is 20 lbs." These are large earthenware pots (usually four). If sugar is added. except for minor details. all of which influence the ultimate quality of the chicha. a small quantity of fresh. Germination takes about 8 days. Huifiapo in Arequipa is made as in the coastal regions of the north. Water is added constantly during the boiling. it is transferred back to the tinaja. and again back to the cconcha. it is done at the chicha husma stage. especially during the rains." This mixture is stirred until the right temperature for fermentation has been evenly obtained throughout the mixture. which gives the resulting blend a distinct dark color and differentiates it from ordinary jora "blanca. which takes about three hours. before it has turned to vinegar. After 24 hours it begins to turn rather sour. Drying is done in the sun. with a piece of cloth. The Highland Region The making of "huifiapo" (jora) in Arequipa is essentially similar to Piura. with a cool climate. situated at 8. There are several differences in detail from region to region in the manufacture of chicha in the highlands. as in the lowlands. This process takes some six hours." a stick about three feet long. A mixture of chicha and water ("chuya") is sometimes added towards the end of the boiling. After the first boiling. the chicha sayana is not wasted. is also made in Arequipa. or flour from toasted maize. but hot "chicha husma" is also added to the "chicha verde. "crecedera") is well covered. and is transferred to another pot in the morning after further straining. The quality of pachucho is determined by taste and smell." However. Poor drying greatly affects the quality of the chicha in Arequipa. The next step is to decant the liquid~ but not the sediment ("crudo") into the "cconcha.cho in the manufacture of the next lot of chicha. already fermented. the cconcho is added to produce "chicha verde. The taste of pachucho is decidedly sweet. placed permanently on a firm cement or adobe base." A mixture of these two kinds of jora is sometimes used. rainless desert conditions of the coast. A slow drying will cause the wetter huifiapo to become "caliente" (hot). However. as evaporation takes place. A wood fire is built underneath and the second boiling takes place." Stirring is done with the "ccaihuina" or "caiguina. The residue. after straining. 2. The mouth of the pot. At this point. a poor chicha. The soaking takes three days and nights. and it is then called "chicha sayana. of ground huifiapo in a "tinaja" or "olla. more generally. and germination is obtained by ensuring that the place where the maize germinates (usually a pit called "poyo" or. therefore musty and of bad quality. texture and odor. Chicha is made by boiling about 30 Ibs. from germinated maize. is called "anchi" and is given to animals. and the hot. This is done. the principal method used in the Cuzco re- . While the liquid is still hot." This liquid is left to settle overnight. Similarly. Some of the more important of these are due to climatic differences between Arequipa." Cconcho is day old chicha." a process called the "relleno. It is usual to add burnt sugar to the maize flour. The well-known black jora ("jora negra"). but it may take as long as 15 days during the cold months. and. the chicha is left to settle. the liquid is known as "chicha husma. When the contents of the cconcha have been strained. After an interval. called the "huiro qqueqque" is produced when the plumule is too green. but expert chicha-makers can determine fine gradations in sweetness.500 ft." or maturity. or fermented. At this stage the straining of the liquid begins. or even the whole pot is then covered up until the chicha reaches "madurez. per almu.

Uniformity of type. T. with reference to the types of maize used for chicha. and the relationship between them. Harvard Univ. Jora or huifiapo (both words are used) is made in Cuzco in the way already described.hanchi is then boiled for a second time to give the "sege. molle ( Schinus molle). 22. Andrews. as in Catacaos and Arequipa. 1. the technology of chicha manufacture is essentially the same in all of them. Arto. Some chicha from chewed jora is also made (muko). especially from mani (Arachis hypogaea). lZ: 257-291. and the "sutuchi. H. appears to be much more closely associated with the production of jora or huifiapo than with the fermentation process itself. F. and allowing it to germinate. . Cavassa. The uppi then becomes "hanchi." which is the final residue used for animal feed. by soaking the maize in ~vater. and Beals. The strainirLg is done by t. A small amount of one day old chicha is added to the uppi. No.he making of chicha in relation to the maize types used.has been obtained in Peruvian maize by careful selection over a long period of time. and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa. considered of primary importance by the makers of jora. No. while the chicha is cooling and settling.298 ECONOMIC BOTANY gion. and appears to be fundamental in the differentiation of maize types used for chic. This characteristic of the maize types used for jora is. The external appearance of the kernel is used only as a "marker. The method used in Cuzco and Puno is essentially similar to that used in Cochabamba. According to Cutler and Cardenas (6) and others (16). is by malting. and they have described the process in detail for the Cochabamba region. The effects of soaking in water and of aeration on the growth of Zea mays. 1916. The preparation of the chicha from huifiapo is done as in Arequipa. C. indicates that." The ." the liquid obtained after the second boiling. M. Fondo de Cultura Econ6mica. but this method is much commoner in the Puno and Lake Triticaca region of Peru than in Cuzco. frutilla ( Fragaria chilensis). 1919. C. II. Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. the chicha has a reddish tinge.he use of a basket filled with ichu grass. but the chewing is traditionally done by young girls." so as to distinguish maize types with varying rates of germination. is made from a blend of Malz Blanco and quinoa. Lima. 1946. 1916. La Cr&fica M6dica. Jose de. The hraki is then covered and fermentation takes place overnight.. means uniformity of germination rate. It is tentatively suggested that the study of germination rates may serve as an additional tool in the classification of maize into races (16). Cutler. A type of chicha called tekhte. Club 46: 91. although each region uses its own characteristic types of maize.). the amount of huifiapo used for a day's consumption (a "hraki") is about 40 lbs. DISCUSSION This brief description of some maize LITERATURE CITED Acosta. 5. C. the use of "salivated" maize for chicha making is quite common in Bolivia. After the first boiling. 2. 3. 4. Races of maize in South America. The least desirable maize is a mixture of types. However. Bot. At the same time. NicolAs. . Leaf. 647. Mfixico. La chicha como factor del alcoholismo en el Peril. This uniformity . Mus. Valor alcoh61ico de la chieha de jora. Reforma M6dica. Lima. types of Peru. When Chaminko variety has been used. Sugar is sometimes added after this boiling. Bull. their origin. the quality of jora and the amount produced is largely dependent on uniformity of germination rate. the unfermented chicha ("uppi") is strained into the hraki. who have never chewed coca. and the process of making Ghicha in three regions. Other types of chicha in small quantities. Torrey Bot. 1940.ha. in practice.

1945. Mason. La comida en el antiguo Peril. Inst. Anthrop. Council. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. 1920. R. Edgar. No. 20. J. La ehicha en el distrito de San Sebastian. Mo. Lima. and Maldonado. Selection of maize for germination and other tests. Hist. Nature 127: 382. La chica. 14. Bernal Daniel. B. Ricardo. Pontifica Universidad Cat61ica del Peril 3 (6) : 11-25. 1938. M~xico D. Bull. Edward. 15. William L. Las lenguas de la regi6n Tallanca. Efrain and Grant. 1949. Jimenez Borja. Smithsonian Inst. Mesa. Rick. No. 1953. Arturo. 8. La piedra mS. Maxwell. 9. 1957. J. Exact. Fis. J. Ramos Cabredo. 40: 224-234. Weston. 1948. y Nat. 1960. 1931. Cultivated plants of South and Central America. 1950. David H. Timothy. Lima. Malhotra. 1945. 10(39) : 13-106. Contribuci6n al estudio de la materia m6dica persuana. 2. Afio 1.gica. 299 16. C. Rev. Vol. 1957. Contribucidn al estudio del maiz y de la chicha de maiz. . Otero. Res. Psiquiatria. Native American beers. Leaf. 14: 144-152. Handbook of South American Indians. U. Rev. 19. 22: 113134. Chicha. Alden. Amer. Fascieulo 1. Acad. and Anderson. Manuel A. 21. Colomb. 143. Hermilio. 36: 405-412. Thomas J. Cardenas. Ramirez.F. Invest. Primera Parte de los Comentarios reales. Velaquez. Penguin Books. and Cutler H. M. Vega. Instituto Indiginista Americano. bebida de los primitivos peruanos. Facnltad de Medicina. Ann. de la Acad. 1951. 1947. Peril. Emec& 2 vols. Bot. Gard. Gustavo Adolfo. C. Edgar. G. 11. Nat. Harvard Univ. Ethnohistory 3(1) : 46-71. Bot. 1956. Mus. Sci. Sauer. 5. 6. 13. On some uses of maize in the Sierra of Ancash. Pub. de Cienc. E. Buenos Aires. Vadizan. 7. Revista Mus. 1918. Jorge C. Anderson. Garcilaso de la. Agricultural ceremonies in the central Andes. 18. Diaz. Historia natural del maiz. Races of maize in Bolivia. Lima. C.CHICHA MAIZE TYPES AND CHICHA MANUFACTURE IN PERU 6. Nat. 747. 487-545. Nac. pp. Angel. A native South American beer. and Brown. 12. 17. 13(3) : 33-60. Ed. Revista del Museo Nacional. C. La Barre. 10. Muelle.. Laboratorio de Farmacologia. in collaboration with Nicholson.

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