Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

23 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- WLF2 2011 0373 Marchi Revised
- Geotechnical Design of Embankment Slope Stability Analyses and Settlement
- 6. NCHRP REPORT 611 Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls Buried Structures Slopes and Embankments
- Chapter 8
- WPH01
- SoilWorks_Catalog.pdf
- NR 320106 Foundation Engineering
- r7410101 Geotechnical Engineering II
- Summer Report-ANN-Slope Stability
- Investigating Slope Failures Using Electrical Resistivity Case Studies
- IJCE-v6n1p1
- Hoek+Bray+Rock+Slope+Eng+Ch+2-3+300
- ch12 abutment.pdf
- Westen Et All Fulltext
- Engineering Geology Landslide Investigations and SAR Interf
- Grillage Decks
- Embankment Slope Design Report For approach road
- Houston 2008
- Rockmass Classification
- IV SEM

You are on page 1of 6

1

2

School of Resources and Safety Engineering,Central South University, Changsha 410083,Hunan China

In hill areas, deep pits, failure of slopes is frequent and hazardous, and recovery of the slopes is often costive .In nearby regions of slopes, buildings are probably constructed, and building loads are transferred to the slope terrain at the foundation level, which may cause the slope fail, so stability of the slope with building loads should be checked. Plane limit equilibrium analysis ,which is often used, is probably insufficient due to overestimation or underestimation of safety factor and unreasonable slip surface, therefore three-dimensional stability analysis is necessary. Based on static equilibrium of slices and extended Spencer method, a series of formulae are given.With the assumption of elliptical slip surface,through random search and genetic algorithm,with a slope as an engineering case, stability of the slope is analyzed considering foundation level. Keywords:three-dimensional slope stabilty;building load;extended Spencer method;genetic algorithm

1.

Introduction

With some deep pits built in urban areas, slopes with building above in hill areas, some kinds of surcharges including traffic loads,building loads will act on them, slope stability considering these surcharges has to be studied, and end effects should not be neglected due to finite margin of surcharge or slopes themselves, therefore, though two dimensional limit equilibrium method is widely adopted in slope stability in plane slip mode and also sometimes used in three dimensional slope failure due to its simplicity(Paul D K & Kumar S,1997), it is certainly insufficient in estimate slope stability(Nihat Sinan Iska,Vedat Doyuran,Resat Ulusay,2004).In this article,stability is analyzed to study bearing capacity of a slope with building loads,and a case will be put forward. In three-dimensional slope stability, Bishop method, Morgenstern-Price method, simplified Janbus method and other limit equilibrium methods are often used, among these, Spencer method is widely adopted, which will be extended to be used in three dimensional slope stability (Chen Zuyu,2003, Jiang Jing-Cai & Takuo Yamagami,2004),and also it will be used in this study. 2. Extended Spencer method Two key problems in three dimensional slope stability are selection of analysis methods, determination critical surface and corresponding safety factor.As mentioned above, extended Spencer method is used in this analysis,see Figure 1.

Gi +1

S

Qi

'

Gi +1

Wi

Gi

Qi +1

Ti '

Wi

Ni

Gi Ni z

o

Ti

'

Firstly a cartesian coordinate system is built,also see Figure 1.In s direction,a static force equilibrium can be listed as followings.

(1)

Where Wi is the weight of a soil bar,Q is the surcharge, N i is support force on the bottom of a soil bar,where water pore pressure is not considered, Ti is the anti-slip force on the bottom of a soil bar,and other symbols are shown in Figure 1. Based on Mohr-Coulomb rule,

Ti = N i tan / F + cAi / F

Where F is safety factor. Combine equation (1) and (2),we can determine the value of N i ,

(2)

Ni =

(Wi + Q) cos ce Ai (mx sin + mz cos ) nx sin + nz cos + tan e (mx sin + mz cos )

(3)

Moment equilibrium along y axis should be satisfied,so

(4)

M = [ (Wi + Q ) xi N i n x z i + N i n z xi Ti m x z i + Ti m z xi ] = 0

And also force equibrium along y direction should be satisfied,

(5)

Y = ( N i n y + Ti m y ) = 0

Direction vector of Ti is perpendicular to one of N i ,

(6)

n = sin y n2 + n2 + n2 = 1 x y z nx mx + n y m y + nz mz = 0

(7)

Where ( n x , n y , n z ) is direction vector of Ti , ( m x , m y , m z ) is direction vector of N i . Combine equations(4),(5) and (6),three variables including F, and ,can be solved.Due to nonlinearity and implicity of the three equations,numerical algorithms should be used.NewtonRaphson method is a suggested one(Chen Zuyu,2003),however,this one is sensitive to initial values of variables,and often fail to obtain accurate values of the three variables.Here genetic algorithm is adopted(Ali R. Zolfaghari, Andrew C. Heath, Paul F,2005),which is shown in Table 2.

Tab.2 Implementation of genetic algorithm F 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

3.

Determination of critical slip surface in three dimensional slope stability is difficult, In order to guarantee critical slip surface close to actual ones, non-regular surfaces are used, which are searched by dynamic programming method(Jiang Jing-Cai & Takuo Yamagami,2004),controlling lines method(Thomaz J E & Lovell C W,1988), NURBS method(Cheng Y M, Liu H T, Wei W B, et al,2005) and so on. Due to the necessity of simplicity, some hypotheses on the shape of critical slip surfac are suggested including elliptical one(Chen Zuyu,2003),cylinder one(M. Semih Yucemen & Azm S. AI-Homoud,1990) ,and so on. Whereas, among these, elliptical shape is relatively reasonable and close to actual slip surface,and it will be used in the analysi.

( x x0 ) 2 ( y y 0 ) 2 ( z z 0 ) 2 + + =1 a2 b2 c2

(8)

Where ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 , a, b, c) is a set of variables,and can be chosen by randomly producing after getting rid of some unresonable values,the procedure of searching critical slip surface is shown in Figure 2.

Fig.2 Procedure of searching critical slip surface Input soil properties and slope geometry

Random cycle

Produce soil bars of slip body based on partition of horizontal projection of it according to prescribed numbers of rows and arrays Genetic approach cycle

Calculation of non-equilibrium of moment of y direction,forces of y direction and S direction Produce new variables population

Generation>maxgen?

Y

Compare old saftey factor and newly one,store smaller one and corresponding slip surface

Cycle number>max?

Y

Output computing reslut

4.

A case

A low building is planned to constructed near to a slope with angle about 420,6m high.Soil properties are listed in Table 2.Search margin of ellip center is x direction 0-36m, y direction -2436m, z direction is 7.2-36m, with three half axis length as 6-36m respectively. Tab.2 Soil properties

Soil types Water content (%) Plain fill Cobbly silt Complete weathering cobbly rock 27.6 25.1 24.1 18.6 20.1 20.2 25.4 47.3 68.3 Density (kN/m3) Cohesion (kPa) Friction angle (0) 12.4 20.3 22.8 Thickness margin (m) 1.6-18.7 0.8-2.0 0-19.0 Average thickness (m) 10.0 1.5 8.0 Bearing capacity (kPa) 150,90 210 260

6300 2400

Unit: mm

3300

21002100 3740

2100

26002600

3900 10001000 1100 o y x Fig.3 Layout of Foundations and their dimensions 1000 slope 5100 1300

With no building loads, safety factor is 3.216.From the computing results shown in Fig. 4, when design load is 150kPa, Safety factor of the slope with foundation level 1.0m and 2.0m below the top surface is 2.53,2.37 respectively ,in other words, even if this building takes effect on the slope,

500

2400

the slope is safe enough. While lowering the foundation level a little, stability of the slope varies little. All in all, the slope is safe. However, for ensuring safety, designers changed the foundation form ,and adopted pile foundation., the critical slip surfaces are shown in Figure 4.

5.

Conclusions

Building loads have effects on the stability of a slope, due to their localization, three-dimensional stability analysis is necessary. Extended Spencer method is a popular method in three dimensional slope stability analysis, of which there are three key parameters, though NewtonRaphson method is a precise one to solve them, however it is not robust due to the sensitivity of initial values. In this study, genetic algorithm is used and proved to be effective. References Ali R. Zolfaghari, Andrew C. Heath, Paul F. McCombie.(2005). Simple genetic algorithm search for non-circular failure surface in slope stability analysis.Computers and geotechnics, 32:139-152 Chen Zuyu.(2003). Soil slope stability: theory, methods and programs.Beijing:China WaterPower Press Cheng Y M,Liu H T,Wei W B,et al.(2005).Location of critical three-dimensional non-spherical failure surface by NURBS functions and ellipsoid with applications to highway slopes.Computers and Geotechnics,32:387-399 Jiang Jing-Cai, Takuo Yamagami.(2004).Three-dimensional slope stability analysis using an extended spencer method.Soils and Foundations,Japanese Geotechnical Society,44(4):127135 M. Semih Yucemen and Azm S. AI-Homoud.(1990). Probabilistic three-dimensional stability

analysis of slopes. Structural Safety, 9:1-20 Nihat Sinan Iska,Vedat Doyuran,Resat Ulusay.(2004). Assessment of a coastal landslide subjected to building loads at Sinop, Black Sea region, Turkey, and stabilization measures.Engineering Geology, 75:69-88 Paul D K,Kumar S.(1997).Stability analysis of slope with building loads.Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,16:395-405 Thomaz J E,Lovell C W.(1988). Three dimensional slope stability analysis with random generation of surfaces.In:Redacteur,ed.Proceedings of the fifth international symposium on landslides:Vol 1. Rotterdam/Brookfield :A.A.Balkema Publishers,777-781

- WLF2 2011 0373 Marchi RevisedUploaded bybene5997
- Geotechnical Design of Embankment Slope Stability Analyses and SettlementUploaded byTony Chan
- 6. NCHRP REPORT 611 Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls Buried Structures Slopes and EmbankmentsUploaded byQuangNguyenVan
- Chapter 8Uploaded byMohan Manickam
- WPH01Uploaded byEbrahim Mohamedali
- SoilWorks_Catalog.pdfUploaded byosmdmorsy4612
- NR 320106 Foundation EngineeringUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- r7410101 Geotechnical Engineering IIUploaded bySiva Sankar
- Summer Report-ANN-Slope StabilityUploaded byAbhijeet Dutta
- Investigating Slope Failures Using Electrical Resistivity Case StudiesUploaded byZamzuri Zaidin
- IJCE-v6n1p1Uploaded byIsmail Magdy Ismail
- Hoek+Bray+Rock+Slope+Eng+Ch+2-3+300Uploaded byPari D. ShitPosting
- ch12 abutment.pdfUploaded byjrobert123321
- Westen Et All FulltextUploaded bymaxmorio
- Engineering Geology Landslide Investigations and SAR InterfUploaded byAnuragBajpai
- Grillage DecksUploaded byNatarajan Saravanan
- Embankment Slope Design Report For approach roadUploaded byAnonymous 96nyzui
- Houston 2008Uploaded byHOMOUNIVERSAL
- Rockmass ClassificationUploaded bytruman
- IV SEMUploaded byCivil HOD FXEC
- INDO FOOD FEST 2017_CertofAppreciation_IDN ManilaUploaded byFebrianti Tricahyani
- Liang Vita 2012-UpfdatedUploaded bySen Hu
- Pore-Water Pressure Defined Using Ru.pdfUploaded byaecom2009
- Ch-12Uploaded byKareem Ashour
- 2007_03Uploaded byRenugopal
- Lecture 16 - CE 342 - FE1 - S2019 - Slope StabilityUploaded byBedirhan Kizar
- Clay ShaleUploaded byMuhammad Iqbal Hamidi
- 697765.pdfUploaded byEdgardo Davidi
- ch12Uploaded byMike Lemus
- cap 6.pdfUploaded bySan Thiago Huamansaire

- Blasting TechnologyUploaded bycarlos_carabetti
- BASIC LOG INTERPRETATION_HLSUploaded byDavide Boreaneze
- Comparison Between Numerical Analyses and Actual Test in Field for Prestress Anchors (Monobars)Uploaded byrobbyon
- Geotechnical Risks on Large Civil Engineering ProjectsUploaded byrobbyon
- Analysing of the Representative Length of Rock Mass Subjected to Load by in Situ Loading Tests to Evaluation of Rock Mass Deformation ModulusUploaded byrobbyon
- The Strength of Hard-rock PillarsUploaded byrobbyon
- Estimating Mohr-coulomb Friction and Cohesion Values From the Hoek-brown Failure CriterionUploaded byrobbyon
- Rock Mass Properties for Underground MinesUploaded byrobbyon
- slope stabilityUploaded byzakko
- Application and Research of Seismic Investigation Methods to Predict Rock Mass Conditions Ahead of the FaceUploaded byrobbyon
- Water Pressure Tests for Dam FoundationsUploaded byrobbyon
- A Parametric Study on Flow of Groundwater in Fractured-porous Media 3d SimulationUploaded byrobbyon
- A Study on Estimating Hydraulic Characteristics of Rock Specimens Using Elastic WaveUploaded byrobbyon

- seisme-design1522Uploaded byMoussaàb Redaounia
- Soil Nailing AbridgeUploaded byMarcelo Quisbert
- Eurocodes-Library-Guide.pdfUploaded byChan Joe
- 2009 - Coasts and Ports Submission 2009-Vacuum Trial BrisbaneUploaded byPham Van Duong
- Bs Codes for PileUploaded byConcisely
- 3..Oil Field TubularsUploaded byDarshan Sharma
- Tech Focus TAM and EONUploaded byAmin
- Understanding the PDA Pile Stress WaveUploaded byAlbert Loh
- safetyUploaded byhutuguo
- Latihan UAS Tekbor 2Uploaded byLa Ode Hadi Augustman
- Foundation Design Philosophy for Rotating EquipmentUploaded byDan McCarthy
- Handbook Review Temporaywork Deep ExcavationUploaded byKen Liew
- Piles for Expansive Soil-ReportUploaded byTrudeep Dave
- Site Investigation- Speedy TestUploaded byFazwan Nasir
- Normas drilling NorwayUploaded byAdolfo Angulo
- Final - End of Well ReportUploaded byYougchu Luan
- metode seismikUploaded byMuzzammilAlMacky
- L26 Advanced Geotechnical EnginneeringUploaded bylincol88
- AlbawiUploaded byOvaid Avoid
- Slurry Trench Practice for Diaphragm Walls and Cut-OffsUploaded byshachen2014
- An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the EarthUploaded bysergioddr
- BOQ_T1_2011 05 181Uploaded byGeorge K George
- Microsoft Word - Exercise 1Uploaded byKR
- Analysis of Welbore InstabilityUploaded byMubin Ashraf Sheikh
- DHBOPUploaded byC Sai Sudarshan
- 04-11YohannanUploaded byRaja Rajan
- Guideline for Providing Structural Engineering Design Services in BuildingsUploaded bywickremasinghe
- Well Logging NotesUploaded byOpio Arnold
- California Landslide Guidelines Special Publication 117Uploaded bychprice
- Critical Issues in Soft RocksUploaded byCarlos Augusto Sánchez Rondón