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AP Human Geography Chap.

14 Notes -Resource- A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use. -North Americans consume 1/4th of the worlds energy. -Animate power- Power supplied by people or animals. -Inanimate power- Power supplied by machines. -Prior to the industrial revolution we relied on animate power. -Natural gas was the most important fuel source before the industrial revolution. -Fossil Fuels- Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago. Fossil Fuels are finite and unevenly distributed around the world. - Most common way of heating homes and hot water is natural gas. Fossil fuels are formed under intense pressure and chemical reactions slowly convert them. Most fossil fuels are distributed greatly into North America. -Nonrenewable energy- forms so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. The fossil fuels are examples. -Potential Reserve- The amount a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist. -Proven Reserve- The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits. -Saudi Arabia- largest Petroleum reserves. -China- Known for large coal deposits -Japan- consumes more than it produces in energy. -Gas lines were protested for war 1973-1974, Arab members were upset at North American and European countries for supporting Israel during that nations 1973 war with the Arab states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, they boycotted and refused to sell to nations that supported Israel. -Fertilizers- (use nonmetallic minerals) including phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and sulfur. -Metallic Minerals (Ferrous)- Metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel. -Nonmetallic Minerals (Nonferrous)- Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel. -Coal is used for its cheapness, electricity and its abundant reserves. -During the Industrial Revolution MDCs converted to animate power to inanimate power and because of that we have the creation of pollution. That when a discharge constitutes more than its environment can maintain its pollution. -Air Pollution- Concentration of trace and substances, such as carbon monoxide sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in the average air. -Water Pollution- When pollutants are discharged into bodies of water. -Acid Deposition- Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid and return to earths surface. -Acid rain- Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to earth as rain, snow, or fog.

-Photochemical Smog- An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution especially from motor vehicle emissions. -Greenhouse Effect- Anticipated increase in earths temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface. -Non-Point source Pollution- Refers to both water and air pollution from diffuse sources. -Air Pollution- its effect on trees in Ontario Canada and Germanys Black Forest, Acid Deposition or Acid Rain. -Cars mostly produce photochemical smog. - Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)- Threatening the ozone layer, when they leak from these appliances they are carried into the stratosphere, where they break down earths protective layer of Ozone gas. -Steel and chemical industries pollute water because they generate large amounts of water waste. -Disappearance of water in Aral Sea because of divergence of water for irrigation. -Air Pollution vs. Water pollution vs. Slid waste pollution. -Concentration- The spread of something over a given area. -Dispersion-The amount a substance is spread over a unit of space. -Air & water is dispersed, waste pollution is concentrated. -One benefit of incinerating solid waste is producing electricity from it. Nuclear power, nuclear waste, radioactive waste. -Breeder Reactor- (addressed the problem of scarce Uranium) turns uranium into a renewable resource by generating plutonium, also a nuclear fuel. -Solar Energy- Passive solar energy systems- solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices. -Active solar energy systems- solar energy systems that collect energy through the use of physical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors. - Greenhouse is a good example of passive solar energy. Solar energy problem is its cost installation and manufacturings are still rather expensive as compared to other forms of energy. -Leading forms of renewable energy today are things like biomass and hydropower. -In order to deal with waste were looking at minimizing the amount of inputs that go into production less waste. We are looking into how to use the environment more efficiently, reduction of biodiversity tropical rainforest and species extinction. -Conservation- the sustainable use and management of resources. -Preservation- maintaining resources in their present condition. - United nations, sustainable development concept of looking for economic growths, social equity, environmental protection, limiting use of renewable resources, role of cooperation between these different groups so that LDCs and MDCs, the gap between them is smaller and that is one of the purposes of the sustainable concept. -World Wildlife Federation- claims that we have already surpassed out sustainable level in 1980. -Sustainable Development- The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.

- If we want to stop depleting resources we are going to have to look in the future on better ways to increase sustainable development, we can develop things and sustain levels of resources that dont deplete.