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- Solutions to Problems in Sakurai's Quantum Mechanics - P. is B. Brinne
- LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION
- Zeeman Effect Guide
- Derivation of the Lorentz transformation
- Sakurai J.J. Modern Quantum Mechanics (AW, 1994)(802dpi)(T)(513s)
- 6 - 6 - The Lorentz Transformation, Part 3 (29-25, High-Def)
- The Stern-Gerlach Experiment
- Stern Gerlach Exp
- Para Magnetism
- The Faraday induction law in relativity theory
- The Zeeman Effect.pdf
- Plasma
- Wonders Cosmic
- Specimen-IAL-QP-Unit-3-Edexcel-Physics-A-level.pdf
- Sakurai quantum mechanics solutions 4
- Solutions 2 Matrices
- Sakurai quantum mechanics solutions 2
- Sakurai quantum mechanics solutions 3
- Zeeman Effect Note
- SternGerlachEraser.pdf

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, y

, z

, t

) that coincide at t = t

= 0.

The unprimed system is stationary and the primed system moves to the right along the

xdirection with speed v:

,

v

x

y y

z

x

z

,

,

At time t = t

x = x

= 0, y = y

= 0, z = z

= 0:

z

y

x

,

,

x

,

ct

ct

y

z

,

Since the speed of light is the same (= c) in both systems, the wave front will satisfy both

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= (ct)

2

(1)

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= (ct

)

2

. (2)

If we substitute Galilean transformation x

= x vt; y

= y; z

= z; t

= t

into Eq. 2, we obtain:

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

2xvt + v

2

t

2

. .

not compatible with Eq. 1

= (ct)

2

.

The Galilean transformation does not work. Note that the unwanted terms above involve

both space and time. If we stick with the reasonable assumption that y = y

; z = z

(implying that there is no eect perpendicular to the relative motion), then the only way

we can avoid an unwanted term such as (2xvt + v

2

t

2

) above is to assume that t

is a

function of both x and t.

The questions arises then how (x, y, z, t) and (x

, y

, z

, t

systems are inertial (that is, no relative acceleration), then a particle moving along a

straight line in one system must move along a straight line in the other. Otherwise we

would introduce spurious forces into the system with a curved trajectory. Hence we re-

quire linear transformations.

1

The most general, linear transformation between (x, t) and (x

x

= a

1

x + a

2

t (3)

t

= b

1

x + b

2

t, (4)

where a

1

, a

2

, b

1

, b

2

are constants that can only depend on v, the velocity between the co-

ordinate systems, and on c.

Before substituting Eqs. 3 and 4 into Eq. 2, we note that the origin of the primed frame

(x

= 0) is a point that moves with speed v as seen in the unprimed frame. Its location

in the unprimed frame is given by x = vt.

So Eq. 3 must satisfy:

0 = a

1

x + a

2

t, x =

a

2

a

1

t = vt or

a

2

a

1

= v.

Lets now rewrite Eq. 3:

x

= a

1

_

x +

a

2

a

1

t

_

= a

1

(x vt).

Then we have eliminated a

2

. Lets now substitute Eqs. 3 and 4 into Eq. 2, then we obtain

[a

1

(x vt)]

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= c

2

[b

1

x + b

2

t]

2

.

Expanding and rearranging gives:

_

a

2

1

c

2

b

2

1

_

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

=

_

c

2

b

2

2

a

2

1

v

2

_

t

2

+

_

2b

1

b

2

c

2

+ 2a

2

1

v

_

xt.

The only way this is consistent with x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= c

2

t

2

(Eq. 1), is if:

a

2

1

c

2

b

2

1

= 1, (5)

c

2

b

2

2

a

2

1

v

2

= c

2

, (6)

2b

1

b

2

c

2

+ 2a

2

1

v = 0, (7)

We can solve theses three equations for the three unknowns a

1

, b

1

, b

2

. A little bit of alge-

bra gives:

from Eqs. 5 and 6, we get

b

2

1

=

a

2

1

1

c

2

b

2

2

= 1 +

v

2

c

2

a

2

1

,

squaring Eq. 7 and substituting Eqs. 5 and 6 gives:

b

2

1

b

2

2

c

4

= a

4

1

v

2

_

a

2

1

1

c

2

_ _

1 +

v

2

c

2

a

2

1

_

c

4

= a

4

1

v

2

2

or

_

a

2

1

1

_ _

c

2

+ v

2

a

2

1

_

= a

4

1

v

2

a

2

1

c

2

c

2

v

2

a

2

1

= 0

and a

1

=

1

_

1

v

2

c

2

we chose +

since as v 0 x

= x, and not x

= x.

Substituting a

1

= into Eqs. 5 and 6, gives

1

1

v

2

c

2

c

2

b

2

1

= 1 or b

2

1

=

v

2

c

2

_

1

c

2

v

2

_

=

v

2

c

4

2

c

2

b

2

2

1

1

v

2

c

2

v

2

= c

2

or b

2

2

=

1

1

v

2

c

2

=

2

We chose b

2

=

2

= + , since t

= t and not t

= t when v 0,

and b

1

=

v

c

2

, where the minus sign is required by Eq. 7: b

1

=

a

2

1

v

b

2

c

2

=

v

c

2

So we summarize our new (Lorentz) transformations:

x

= (x vt)

y

= y

z

= z

t

=

_

t

v

c

2

x

_

Inverting primed and unprimed coordinates (v v) gives:

x = (x

+ vt

)

y = y

z = z

t =

_

t

+

v

c

2

x

_

Note, that when v << c, or

v

c

0, then 1 and

v

c

2

=

1

c

v

c

0, and

x

= x vt

y

= y

z

= z

t

= t.

So Galilean transformations are a limiting case of the Lorentz trnasformations

when

v

c

0.

3

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