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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Aloe vera
Aloe vera plant with flower detail inset.
Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Monocots Order: Asparagales Family: Xanthorrhoeaceae Subfamily: Asphodeloideae Genus: Aloe Species: A. vera Binomial name Aloe vera
Aloe vera - MHNT Aloe vera is a succulent plant species that probably originated in northern Africa. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or
1 Toxicity 6 See also 7 Further reading 8 References 9 External links Description Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall. each flower being pendulous.1 Folk medicine o 5.4 Preliminary research 5. Contents • • • • • • • • • 1 Description 2 Taxonomy and etymology 3 Distribution 4 Cultivation 5 Uses o 5. and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies. The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. There is.2 Dietary supplement 5. spreading by offsets. . with a yellow tubular corolla 2–3 cm (0. with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces.1 Phytochemicals o 5.3 Commodities o 5. little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of A. Aloe vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza.soothing properties. green to grey-green.8–1. however.2.  Like other Aloe species.4. The leaves are thick and fleshy. Taxonomy and etymology Spotted forms of Aloe vera are sometimes known as Aloe vera var. chinensis.2 in) long. vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall. a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.
 The species epithet vera means "true" or "genuine".. Nigeria. Cultivation . This distribution is somewhat similar to the one of Euphorbia balsamifera. Aloe sinkatana. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Aloe perfoliata var. Somalia. With the exception of the South African species A. as the species has been widely cultivated throughout the world. and Sudan. through North Africa (Morocco. vulgaris Lam. these Aloe species are native to Socotra (Yemen). Aloe indica Royle. The lack of obvious natural populations of the species have led some authors to suggest that Aloe vera may be of hybrid origin. leaving these few patches isolated. The species is widely naturalised elsewhere. First Aid Plant. Techniques based on DNA comparison suggest that Aloe vera is relatively closely related to Aloe perryi. the species varies widely with regard to leaf spots and it has been suggested that the spotted form of Aloe vera may be conspecific with A. Barbados Aloe. var. along with the Canary. Aloe perfoliata L. Belize.The species has a number of synonyms: A. Common names include Chinese Aloe. but has been dramatically reduced due to desertification in the Sahara. Aloe scobinifolia. Indian Aloe. occurring in temperate and tropical regions of Australia. chinensis. Pistacia atlantica. True Aloe. suggesting that a dry sclerophyl forest once covered large areas. however. Naturalised stands of the species occur in the southern half of the Arabian peninsula. Distribution The natural range of Aloe vera is unclear. using chloroplast DNA sequence comparison and ISSR profiling have also suggested that Aloe vera is closely related to Aloe forbesii. Several closely related (or sometimes identical) species can be found on the two extreme sides of the Sahara: Dragon trees (Dracaena) and Aeonium being two of the most representative examples. vera and A. Some literature identifies the white spotted form of Aloe vera as Aloe vera var. Egypt) as well as Sudan and neighbouring countries. Mauritania. Paraguay and the United States It has been suggested that the actual species' distribution is the result of human cultivation. Barbados. and was described again in 1768 by Nicolaas Laurens Burman as Aloe vera in Flora Indica on 6 April and by Philip Miller as Aloe barbadensis some ten days after Burman in the Gardener's Dictionary. a species that is endemic to Yemen. The species was introduced to China and various parts of southern Europe in the 17th century. barbadensis Mill. Burn Aloe. striata. and Madeira Islands. and a few others. and Aloe striata. massawana. Similar techniques. Aloe inermis. vera. Cape Verde.
Aloe vera has been widely grown as an ornamental plant. mealy bugs. When potted aloes become crowded with "pups" growing from the sides of the "mother plant. Large scale agricultural production of Aloe vera is undertaken in Australia. Tanzania and South Africa. Jamaica. although it is intolerant of very heavy frost or snow. This succulence enables the species to survive in areas of low natural rainfall." they should be divided and re-potted to allow room for further growth and help prevent pest infestations. Mexico.Aloe vera can be grown as an ornamental plant. though spider mites. Potted plants should be allowed to completely dry prior to re-watering. the species requires well-drained sandy potting soil and bright sunny conditions. form. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. China. Terracotta pots are preferable as they are porous. scale insects. Aloe vera may become dormant. aloe plants can burn under too much sun or shrivel when the pot does not drain the rain. however. India. the Dominican Republic. The species is popular with modern gardeners as a putatively medicinal plant and due to its interesting flowers. Cuba. Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera . the species is best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses. Bangladesh. during which little moisture is required. and aphid species may cause a decline in plant health. The use of a good-quality commercial propagation mix or pre-packaged "cacti and succulent mix" is recommended. making it ideal for rockeries and other low-water use gardens. The species is hardy in zones 8–11. In areas that receive frost or snow. During winter. and succulence. The species is relatively resistant to most insect pests. Kenya. along with the USA to supply the cosmetics industry with Aloe vera gel. as they allow good drainage. In pots.
 in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century AD along with the Juliana Anicia Codex produced in 512 AD. such as acetylated mannans. moisturizing. Uses Preparations made from the plant Aloe vera are often referred to as "aloe vera".  Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotions. a compound found in the exudate of some Aloe species. beverages. anthrones. and healing properties of aloe vera. and some desserts. the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing. with side-effects occurring at some dose levels both when ingested or applied topically. and various lectins. Phytochemicals Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity. but there is neither scientific evidence nor regulatory approval to support this claim. The species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of many countries. called kathalai in Ayurvedic medicine. Although toxicity may be less when aloin is removed by processing. Aloe vera juice is marketed to support the health of the digestive system. anthraquinones. is used as a multipurpose skin treatment. The NTP says more information is needed to determine the potential risks to humans. polymannans. This may be partly due to the presence of saponin. such as emodin. The extracts and quantities typically used for such purposes appear to be dose-dependent for toxic effects. Commodities . A 2-year National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on oral consumption of non-decolorized whole leaf extract of Aloe vera found evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats. Folk medicine Early records of Aloe vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BC. Dietary supplement Aloin. anthraquinone C-glycosides. Emodin (although not obtained from Aloe vera) has been shown to have insecticidal properties. a chemical compound that acts as an anti-microbial agent. Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory. when the Food and Drug Administration ruled that aloin was a class III ingredient. thereby banning its use. was the common ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) laxative products in the United States prior to 2003. it has toxic properties when used either for ingested or topical applications.Aloe vera gel being used to make a dessert. yogurt. Aloe vera has potential toxicity. Despite this. although at certain doses. aloe vera that contains aloin in excess amounts may induce side-effects. Aloe vera.
Gels from Aloe vera have been compared to those derived from other aloe species and with other plants belonging to the family Asphodelaceae. and in acute hepatitis. Aloe is also used as a food substance.Aloe vera is now used on facial tissues. Compounds extracted from aloe vera may act as an immunostimulant in cats and dogs. Preliminary research has assessed whether aloe vera extracts affect blood glucose or blood lipids. Topical application of aloe vera may also be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries. or other damage from the sun. Evidence on the effects of its sap on wound healing. or for water conservation in small farms. is used widely for burns and a host of skin afflictions. shaving cream or shampoos. where it is promoted as a moisturiser and/or anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose of users suffering hay-fever or cold. aloe vera extracts failed to show antibiotic properties against Xanthomonas species. Preliminary research Aloe vera may be effective in the treatment of wounds. however. Bulbine frutescens. effects that may be associated with compounds such as mannans. It is common practice for cosmetic companies to add sap or other derivatives from Aloe vera to products such as makeup. It has also been suggested that biofuels could be obtained from Aloe vera seeds. Some studies. soaps. A 2007 review concluded that the cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. Aloe vera has not been proven to offer protection for humans from sunburn. . aloe vera polysaccharides preserved the number and morphology of immunosuppressive and dendritic cells in skin damaged by ultraviolet exposure. inner-leaf gel from aloe vera was shown in one study to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and Shigella species in vitro. In a double-blind clinical trial. in contrast. such as boils and benign skin cysts and may inhibit growth of fungi causing tinea. For bacteria. In studies on mice. moisturizers. Aloe vera extracts might have antibacterial and antifungal activities. which possibly could help treat minor skin infections. However. other studies show that wounds to which aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal than those treated with conventional medical preparations. In contrast. while. is limited and contradictory. Although claimed to be effective. sunscreens. show that aloe vera promotes the rates of healing. but no statistically significant difference was found between the two. but this treatment has not been confirmed or scientifically tested in humans. for example. possibly for its gelling properties (see image above). anthraquinones or lectins. Other uses for extracts of aloe vera include the dilution of semen for the artificial fertilization of sheep. tissues. incense. both the group using an aloe vera containing dentifrice and another using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque. suntan. as a fresh food preservative. for example.
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Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese) (English) Immunotherapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer .) Berger Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine. chinensis (Haw. Somayyeh Ghafouri-Fard 06/29/2012 Categories: • • • • • • • • • Aloe Medicinal plants Flora of North Africa Flora of Macaronesia Flora of the Middle East Flora of the Mediterranean Garden plants of Africa Drought-tolerant plants Succulent plants Navigation menu • • • • • • • Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction • • • • • Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia .• • Aloe vera (L.Medscape News Dermatology Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard.) Burm. var. f.
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