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physics

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Ph. Lebrun

Accelerator Technology department, CERN

CAS & ALBA School on Vacuum in Accelerators Platja dAro, Spain 16-24 May 2006

Contents

Introduction Cryogenic fluids Heat transfer & thermal insulation Cryogenic distribution & cooling schemes Refrigeration & liquefaction Cryogen storage & transport Thermometry

cryogenics, that branch of physics which deals with the production of very low temperatures and their effects on matter

Oxford English Dictionary

2nd edition, Oxford University Press (1989)

New International Dictionary of Refrigeration

3rd edition, IIF-IIR Paris (1975)

Cryogen Methane Oxygen Argon Nitrogen Neon Hydrogen Helium (*): Point Triple point [K] 90.7 54.4 83.8 63.1 24.6 13.8 2.2 (*) Normal boiling point [K] 111.6 90.2 87.3 77.3 27.1 20.4 4.2 Critical point [K] 190.5 154.6 150.9 126.2 44.4 33.2 5.2

130 000 m3 LNG carrier with double hull

Ariane 5

25 t LH2, 130 t LO2

Space Shuttle

100 t LH2, 600 t LO2

Entropy and temperature

the entropy of a thermodynamical system in a macrostate corresponding to a multiplicity of microstates is S = kB ln adding reversibly heat dQ to the system results in a change of its entropy dS with a proportionality factor T T = dQ/dS high temperature: heating produces small entropy change low temperature: heating produces large entropy change

a temperature is low when kBT is small compared with the characteristic energy of the process considered cryogenic temperatures reveal phenomena with low characteristic energy and enable their application

Phenomenon Debye temperature of metals High-temperature superconductors Low-temperature superconductors Intrinsic transport properties of metals Cryopumping Cosmic microwave background Superfluid helium 4 Bolometers for cosmic radiation Low-density atomic Bose-Einstein condensates Temperature few 100 K ~ 100 K ~ 10 K < 10 K few K 2.7 K 2.2 K <1K ~ K

Phenomenon Debye temperature of metals High-temperature superconductors Low-temperature superconductors Intrinsic transport properties of metals Cryopumping Cosmic microwave background Superfluid helium 4 Bolometers for cosmic radiation Low-density atomic Bose-Einstein condensates Temperature few 100 K ~ 100 K ~ 10 K < 10 K few K 2.7 K 2.2 K <1K ~ K

1.E+04 1.E+03 1.E+02 1.E+01 1.E+00 1.E-01 1.E-02 Psat [kPa] 1.E-03 1.E-04 1.E-05 1.E-06 1.E-07 1.E-08 1.E-09 1.E-10 1.E-11 1.E-12 1 10 T [K] 100 1000 He H2 Ne N2 Ar O2 CH4 CO2 H2O

Phenomenon Debye temperature of metals High-temperature superconductors Low-temperature superconductors Intrinsic transport properties of metals Cryopumping Cosmic microwave background Superfluid helium 4 Bolometers for cosmic radiation Low-density atomic Bose-Einstein condensates Temperature few 100 K ~ 100 K ~ 10 K < 10 K few K 2.7 K 2.2 K <1K ~ K

Contents

Introduction Cryogenic fluids Heat transfer & thermal insulation Cryogenic distribution & cooling schemes Refrigeration & liquefaction Cryogen storage & transport Thermometry

Helium Hydrogen Neon Nitrogen Argon Oxygen 0 20 40 60 80 T [K] 100 120 140 160 180 Below Patm Above Patm

Property Normal boiling point Critical temperature Critical pressure Liq./Vap. density (*) Heat of vaporization (*) Liquid viscosity (*) (*) at normal boiling point [J.g-1] [Pl] [K] [K] [bar] He 4.2 5.2 2.3 7.4 20.4 3.3 N2 77 126 34 175 199 152 H2O 373 647 221 1600 2260 278

[mg.s-1] 48 5

Latent heat and enthalpy of gas 0.75 liter 0.12 litre 0.29 litre

Using LHe from 290 to 4.2 K LHe from 77 to 4.2 K LN2 from 290 to 77 K

10000

SOLID

LINE

He II He I

100

PRESSURIZED He II (Subcooled liquid)

10

VAPOUR SATURATED He II

1 0 1 2 3 Temperature [K] 4 5 6

Phase domain Advantages

Fixed temperature High heat transfer Monophase Negative J-T effect Low temperature High conductivity Low viscosity

Drawbacks

Two-phase flow Boiling crisis Non-isothermal Density wave instability Second-law cost Subatmospheric

Saturated He I Supercritical

He II

Contents

Introduction Cryogenic fluids Heat transfer & thermal insulation Cryogenic distribution & cooling schemes Refrigeration & liquefaction Cryogen storage & transport Thermometry

T2 Qcon dT S

Fouriers law:

Qcon = k (T ) S dT dx

dx

Integral form:

k(T) dT

Qcon

S T2 = k(T) dT L T1

T1

From vanishingly low temperature up to OFHC copper DHP copper 1100 aluminium 2024 aluminium alloy AISI 304 stainless steel G-10 glass-epoxy composite 20 K 11000 395 2740 160 16.3 2 80 K 60600 5890 23300 2420 349 18 290 K 152000 46100 72100 22900 3060 153

5 K cooling line (SC He) Aluminium intercept plates glued to G-10 column Aluminium strips to thermal shield at 50-75 K

Thermal radiation

Qrad1

Wiens law

Maximum of black body power spectrum max.T = 2898 [m.K] Black body

T1 1

T2 > T1 Qrad2 2

Stefan-Boltzmanns law

(Stefan Boltzmanns constant) Qrad = A T4 emissivity of surface Qrad = E A (T14 T24) E function of 1, 2, geometry

Radiation from 290 K Surface at 77 K Stainless steel, as found Stainless steel, mech. polished Stainless steel, electropolished Stainless steel + Al foil Aluminium, as found Aluminium, mech. polished Aluminium, electropolished Copper, as found Copper, mech. Polished 0.34 0.12 0.10 0.05 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.12 0.06 Radiation from 77 K Surface at 4.2 K 0.12 0.07 0.07 0.01 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.02

T1 d

Viscous regime

At high gas pressure molecule << d Classical conduction Qres = k(T) A dT/dx Thermal conductivity k(T) independant of pressure

T2

molecule : mean free path of gas molecules

Molecular regime

At low gas pressure molecule >> d Kennards law Qres = A (T) P (T2 T1) Conduction heat transfer proportional to pressure, independant of spacing between surfaces depends on gas species Accommodation coefficient (T) depends on gas species, T1, T2, and geometry of facing surfaces

Complex system involving three heat transfer processes QMLI = Qrad + Qsol + Qres With n reflective layers of equal emissivity, Qrad ~ 1/(n+1) Due to parasitic contacts between layers, Qsol increases with layer

density Qres due to residual gas trapped between layers, scales as 1/n in molecular regime Non-linear behaviour requires layer-to-layer modeling Typical data available from (abundant) literature Measure performance on test samples

In practice

Typical heat fluxes at vanishingly low temperature between flat plates [W/m2]

Black-body radiation from 290 K Black-body radiation from 80 K Gas conduction (100 mPa He) from 290 K Gas conduction (1 mPa He) from 290 K Gas conduction (100 mPa He) from 80 K Gas conduction (1 mPa He) from 80 K MLI (30 layers) from 290 K, pressure below 1 mPa MLI (10 layers) from 80 K, pressure below 1 mPa MLI (10 layers) from 80 K, pressure 100 mPa 401 2.3 19 0.19 6.8 0.07 1-1.5 0.05 1-2

Cross-section A . m vapour flow Cp(T)

Assuming perfect heat exchange between solid and gas, i.e. Tsol(x)=Tgas(x)=T(x):

x T Qcon T

k (T ) A

Tbath Qbath LHe

Qbath can then be calculated by numerical integration for : - different cryogens, - different values of aspect ratio L/A - different values of vapour flow

Qbath [W]

Vapour cooling flow: A: 1 g/s B: 0.1 g/s C: 10-2 g/s D: 10-3 g/s F: no flow

Vapour cooling of necks and supports with perfect heat exchange in self-sustained mode

A particular case of gas cooling is the self-sustained mode, i.e. He vapour flow is generated only by the residual heat Qbath reaching the bath. Then:

& Qbath = L v m

k (T ) A

Qbath

Effective thermal conductivity integral from 4 to 300 K ETP copper OFHC copper Aluminium 1100 Nickel 99% pure Constantan AISI 300 stainless steel Purely conductive regime [W.cm-1] 1620 1520 728 213 51.6 30.6 Self-sustained vapour-cooling [W.cm-1] 128 110 39.9 8.65 1.94 0.92

Cross-section A . m vapour flow Cp(T) Q+dQ dQ x Q T

& dQ = f m Cp(T) dT

With f, the efficiency of the heat transfer In steady state, the heat balance equation becomes:

x+dx

T+dT

Tbath

Qbath

LHe

Cross-section A Current I k(T) (T) Q+dQ dQ x Source:

(T) I2 dx A

In steady-state, heat balance equation:

x+dx

T+dT T

d dT dT (T) I2 & k(T) A dx f m Cp(T) dx + A = 0 dx Solid Vapour Joule conduction cooling heating

Assuming the material of the lead follows the Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz (WFL) law: k(T) (T) = L 0 T L0: Lorenz number (2.45 10-8 W..K-2) Then numerical integration

Uncooled 47 W/kA

The WFL law essentially states that good electrical conductors are also good thermal conductors Current leads need good electrical conductors with low thermal conductivity Superconductors are bad thermal conductors with zero resisitivity Build current lead with superconductor up to temperature as high as possible, i.e. HTS

Type Resistive HTS (4 to 50 K) Resistive (above) 0.1

[W/kA]

1.1

[W/kA]

430

150

1430

500

Contents

0.5

Temperature difference [K] Pressurised He II Saturated LHe II He I

0.4

SSC (HEB)

0.3

SSC (main Ring)

0.2

UNK

0.1 0

Distance [km]

Monophase vs. two-phase

temperature control hydrostatic head & flow instabilities

efficiency & cost reliability & safety

LN2

cooldown and/or normal operation capital & operating costs of additional fluid safety in underground areas (ODH)

Lumped vs. distributed cryoplants Separate cryoline vs. integrated piping Number of active components (valves, actuators) Redundancy of configuration

Pt 5 Pt 4 Pt 6

Beam Screen

Vacuum Vessel

Heat Exchang

Pt 2 Pt 1 Pt 8 Pt 7

1.8 K Supply

Pt 3

Support Post

Header D Header B

Header C

Header F

Cryogenic plant

Contents

T0= 300 K Q0 R Qi Ti

Hence, W T0 First principle [Joule]

Q 0 = Qi + W

Q 0 Qi T0 Ti

Qi Qi Ti

which can be written in three different ways: introducing entropy S as Carnot factor

1 W T0 Si Qi 2 3

Si =

Qi Ti

T W Qi 0 1 T i

W Ei

introducing exergy E as

T Ei = Qi 0 1 T i

Consider the extraction of 1 W at 4.5 K, rejected at 300 K The minimum refrigeration work (equation 2) is:

In practice, the most efficient helium refrigerators have an efficiency of about 30% w.r. to the Carnot limit.

Wreal =

500

400

300

200

100

Carnot

TORE SUPRA

RHIC

TRISTAN

CEBAF

HERA

LEP

LHC

Introduction to the T-S diagram

T B A Q S, entropy

Q = T dS

A

To make a refrigeration cycle, need a substance, the entropy of which depends on some other variable than temperature

T2 T D Q2 T1 A Q1 S B C

Refrigeration cycle A B C D

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 Temperature [K] 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Entropy [J/kg.K]

H= 30 J/g 40 50 100 50 20 10 5 10 5 2 110 100 1 0.5 0.2 P= 0.1 MPa 90 80 70 = 2 kg/m 60 120 130 140

T P1

P2 (< P1)

B1

B3

B'2 B2

Cryogenic turbo-expander

Cryogen Helium Hydrogen Neon Air Nitrogen Oxygen Maximum inversion temperature [K] 43 202 260 603 623 761

While air can be cooled down and liquefied by JT expansion from room temperature, helium and hydrogen need precooling down to below inversion temperature by heat exchange or work-extracting expansion (e.g. in turbines)

E1

T1

Pa Pa M 4 0. 0. 1 M M Pa

E3

T2

E6

T3

T2 75 K

E7

T3

T4

E8

49 K 32 K

LHC shields

Adsorber E9a

T4 20 K

E9b

13 K 10 K

T5 T7

T5

T7

E10

T6

M Pa

E12 T6 E13 T8

0.

E11

1.

33 kW @ 50 K to 75 K 23 kW @ 4.6 K to 20 K 41 g/s liquefaction 4 MW compressor power C.O.P. 220-230 W/W @ 4.5 K

Contents

Type Gas Bag MP Vessel HP Vessel Liquid Pressure [MPa] 0.1 2 20 0.1 Density [kg/m3] 0.16 3.18 29.4 125 Dead volume [%] 0 5-25 0.5 13 Cost [CHF/kg He] 300(1) 220-450 500(2) 100-200(3)

(1): Purity non preserved (2): Not including HP compressors (3): Not including reliquefier

Contents

Triple points H2 Ne O2 Ar Hg H2O

Pt resistance thermometer

He 4 gas thermometer

He 3 gas thermometer

He vapour pressure

0,1

10 Temperature [K]

100

1000

Fixed point H2 triple point Ne triple point O2 triple point Ar triple point Hg triple point H2O triple point (*) exact by definition Temperature [K] 13.8033 24.5561 54.3584 83.8058 234.3156 273.16 (*)

Ge RhFe wire RhFe thin film Cernox Carbon A-B Carbon TVO CBT

1cm

Chromel-constantan thermocouple Au-Fe thermocouple

Pt resistance

Rh-Fe resistance

Ge resistance

1 10 100

Some references

K. Mendelssohn, The quest for absolute zero, McGraw Hill (1966) R.B. Scott, Cryogenic engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton (1959) G.G. Haselden, Cryogenic fundamentals, Academic Press, London (1971) R.A. Barron, Cryogenic systems, Oxford University Press, New York (1985) B.A. Hands, Cryogenic engineering, Academic Press, London (1986) S.W. van Sciver, Helium cryogenics, Plenum Press, New York (1986) K.D. Timmerhaus & T.M. Flynn, Cryogenic process engineering, Plenum Press, New York (1989) Proceedings of CAS School on Superconductivity and Cryogenics for Particle Accelerators and Detectors, Erice (2002) U. Wagner, Refrigeration G. Vandoni, Heat transfer Ph. Lebrun, Design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnet Ph. Lebrun & L. Tavian, The technology of superfluid helium Proceedings of ICEC and CEC/ICMC conferences

Refrigerator

Compressor HP T0= 300 K Cold Box LP HP T0= 300 K

Liquefier

Compressor LP

Cold Box

T

T 300 K

isobar (1.3 bar) 18.8 J.g-1 R Q1 23.1 4.2 -1 -1 J.g .K J.g-1.K-1 S 1543 J.g-1

Q1 4.2 J.g-1.K-1

4.5 K

S

What is the isothermal 4.5 K (T1) refrigeration equivalent to 1 g.s-1 liquefaction of helium? & & Wmin.lique = mlique (T0 S Q1 R )

& mlique = 1 g.s 1, T0 = 300 K, S = 27.3 J.g-1.K -1, Q1 = 18.8 J.g1, R = 1543 J.g1

& Wmin.lique = 6628 W

Write that the same amount of work is used to produce isothermal refrigeration at 4.5 K: & T & Wmin.refrig = Q1 0 1 T & Q1 = 100 W 1 & & W =W = 6628 W

min.refrig min.lique

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