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Fenglei Niu

a

, Haihua Zhao

b

, Per F. Peterson

b,

, Joel Woodcock

c

, Robert E. Henry

d

a

Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group MS K764, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

b

Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730, USA

c

Westinghouse Electric Company, Monroeville, PA 15146, USA

d

Fauske & Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL 60527, USA

Received 25 August 2006; received in revised form 14 December 2006; accepted 15 December 2006

Abstract

This experimental research investigates mixed convection and heat transfer augmentation by gaseous forced jets in a large enclosure, at conditions

simulating those of passive containment cooling systems for Gen III+ passively safe reactors. The experiment is designed to measure the key

parameters governing heat transfer augmentation by forced jets, and to investigate the effects of geometric factors, including the jet diameter, jet

injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio. The tests cover a variety of injection modes leading to ow congurations of

interest for mixing and stratication phenomena in containments under accident conditions. Correlations for heat transfer augmentation by forced

jets are developed and compared with experimental data. The characteristic recirculation speed inside the enclosure is introduced and analyzed.

Steady stratied temperature distributions are compared with model simulations of the BMIX++ code.

2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Passive containment cooling systems (PCCS) provide the

safety-related ultimate heat sink for a new generation of pas-

sively safe reactors such as AP1000 and ESBWR. During a

LOCA accident, natural forces, such as gravity, natural circu-

lation, and a small number of automatic valves make the safety

systemwork. The natural circulation and the pipe break injection

cause the combined natural and forced convection heat trans-

fer in the containment. The steel containment vessel, in some

designs like the AP1000, provides the heat transfer surface that

removes heat from inside the containment to the outside.

Mixed convection ows have received considerable attention

since the late 1970s, and comprehensive literature reviews were

given by Incropera and Dewitt (1996). Fox et al. (1992) and

Smith et al. (1992) found that experimental results for transient

stratication of BWR pressure suppression pools could be pre-

dicted using numerical solutions of one-dimensional differential

equations describing the effect of buoyant jets on the vertical

temperature distribution. In University of California at Berke-

ley, some mixed convection and related researches have since

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 510 643 7749; fax: +1 510 643 9685.

E-mail address: peterson@nuc.berkeley.edu (P.F. Peterson).

1990s been performed for both gaseous and liquid uids. Some

accomplishments related to gas-jet mixed convection include:

Kuhn et al. (2002) studied mixing processes and heat transfer

augmentation by a hot-air jet in a large cylindrical enclosure

heated from the bottom, and gave a correlation as a function

of Archimedes number, a uid property factor, and a geomet-

ric factor; Peterson et al. (1991) studied experimentally and

numerically transient thermal stratication in pools with shal-

low buoyant jets; Peterson (1994) showed that large enclosures

mixed by buoyant plumes and wall jets can often be expected to

stratify, and provided a criterion for assessing when the momen-

tum injected by forced jets would break down stratication in

large enclosures; Peterson and Gamble (1998) presented a scal-

ing method that could provide the basis for the design of scaled

experiments for studying jet-induced heat and mass transfer in

large enclosures.

Mixed convection is of interest and importance in a wide

variety of engineering applications. However, mixed-convection

in large rectangular enclosures has not been investigated at great

length. Limited work has been performed on natural-convection

augmentation by forced jets. Few experimental data have been

obtained on mixing and stratication phenomena inside large

three-dimensional enclosures agitated by forced-jet ows.

Much of the research has concerned laminar ow in simple

congurations and geometries. Many experiment geometries

0029-5493/$ see front matter 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2006.12.011

1026 F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032

Nomenclature

A surface area (m

2

)

Ar Archimedes number

b width parameter (m)

C coefcient

d jet diameter (cm)

D

t

diameter of the block tube (cm)

Gr

L

enclosure Grashof number

K empirical loss coefcient

L enclosure characteristic length (m)

m mass (kg)

M momentum ux (kg m/s

2

)

n unit normal vector to surface

Nu Nusselt number

P mechanical energy ux (kg m

2

/s

3

)

r radial coordinate (m)

Re Reynolds number

S surface area (m

2

)

T temperature (K)

u x-velocity (m/s)

u

U velocity (m/s)

V volume (m

3

)

W mass rate (kg/s)

X distance from jet entrance (m)

z vertical coordinate (m)

Greek symbols

T

Taylors jet entrainment constant

coefcient of thermal expansion (K

1

)

dynamic viscosity (Ns/m

2

)

kinematic viscosity (m

2

/s)

density (kg/m

3

)

Subscripts

a ambient

b bulk value

bj free buoyant jet

C centerline

D drag

J jet

L using enclosure characteristic length

m mixed convection

n natural convection

o jet outlet

R recirculation

w wall

are simplied into parallel-plate channels or rectangular cavities

and the thermal boundary conditions are set to be symmetrical.

Extensive mixing experiments in large containment enclosure

are thus needed to improve key scaling, experimental, and

modeling tools for predicting mixing and transport in passive

containments and connement enclosures.

This experimental research studies mixed-convection and

heat transfer augmentation by forced jets in various directions

inside a large enclosure with a vertical cooling surface. The

experiments are performed by varying several geometric fac-

tors, including the jet diameter, jet injection orientation, ow

obstructions, and enclosure aspect ratio. The correlations of heat

transfer augmentation by forced jets are developed and tested by

experimental data. The recirculation speed inside the enclosure

is dened and analyzed. The steady stratied temperature distri-

butions are compared to the predictions made by BMIX++ code

simulation. Both scaling and modeling of stratied mixing in

large enclosures require detailed and accurate empirical models

for wall and free jets. This research effort provides experimental

results to support the development of a new, computation-

ally efcient model for mixing under the stratied conditions

that characterize large volumes in passive systems, and for

assessing the heat transfer augmentation produced by forced-jet

injection.

2. Experimental facilities and test procedures

Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of the experimental sys-

tems. They are an open loop composed of air supplies, heating

systems, a test section with a large insulated rectangular enclo-

sure, cooling systems, and data acquisition.

The large rectangular enclosure was constructed with the

size of 2.29 m2.29 m2.29 m. One of the walls was made

of a 0.32-cm-thick copper plate. Cooling water was circulated

through copper tubes, welded to the backside of the copper

plate, to generate a nearly isothermal surface. All the walls,

ceiling, and oor were surrounded with insulation materials,

making an adiabatic test section. The wall opposite the verti-

cal cooling surface could be moved to change the enclosure

aspect ratio. The jet tubing inserted horizontally into the enclo-

sure through this wall at different locations. The hot air entered

the enclosure from the jet and left through a 53-mm i.d. open-

ing at the bottom of the movable wall. Compressed air was

heated by helical heaters before being injected into the test

section.

Thermocouples and heat ux sensors were embedded in the

copper plate to measure the temperature and heat ux of the

cooling surface. Some thermocouples were mounted in the inlet

and outlet of the cooling water to measure the temperature differ-

ence of the cooling water for the calculation of the cooling rate.

A calibrated orice with a differential pressure transducer was

installed in the cooling water loop to measure the water ow

rate. Heating rates by injected hot air were calculated based

on the ow rate and the temperature difference between the

air inlet and outlet. The air ow rate at inlet and outlet were

measured using calibrated rotameters. The ambient temperature

distribution inside the enclosure was measured by thermocou-

ple matrix. The enclosure was looked as a control volume in

mass balance. There is no signicant pressure change in the

enclosure.

To start the experiment, the water valves and the air valves

were slowly opened until the desired air and water ow rates

were reached. Heaters were turned on and checked regularly.

F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032 1027

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of experimental system.

The heater outlet temperature should be monitored carefully to

avoid overheating. When the temperatures inside the enclosure

did not have signicant changes for 15 min, the systemachieved

a steady state. Data were recorded every 10 s.

Experiments were rst performed to investigate the natural

convective heat transfer in the enclosure, and the results were

compared to those from combined natural and forced convec-

tion. The natural circulation currents could develop in the large

enclosure when the wall is cooled without jet injection.

3. Experimental results and analysis

3.1. Effects of injection orientation and jet diameter on

heat transfer augmentation

To investigate how injection orientations and jet diameters

affect heat transfer augmentation, air is injected into the enclo-

sure with four directions: (A) horizontal injection toward the

cooling plate, (B) 45

tion, and (D) 180

plate. Three different size jet nozzles are employed for each

injection direction.

As illustrated in Fig. 2, the experimental data for augmenta-

tion can be well correlated by

Nu

m

Nu

n

= (1 +C

J

Ar

J

)

1/3

(1a)

where the jet Archimedes number is a function of the jet

Reynolds number, Re

J

=U

J

d

J

/, is the kinematic viscosity of

the air, and the natural convection Grashof number, Gr

L

=g

(T

b

T

w

)L

3

x

/

2

:

Ar

J

=

Re

2

J

Gr

L

x

(2a)

where U

J

is the jet velocity, d

J

the jet diameter, and L

x

the enclo-

sure characteristic length. The temperatureaverage correlation

for the natural convection is

Nu

n

= C

1

Gr

1/3

L

x

Pr

1/3

where C

1

=0.128. Eq. (1a) is the correlation of forced-jet aug-

mentation of natural convection heat transfer, which can be

derived using a combining rule for mixed convection and appro-

priate forced and natural convection models. It is a function of

the jet Archimedes number and the coefcient C

J

, which is in

the range of 5.48.5 and includes the effects of the jet mode,

injection orientation, and enclosure aspect ratio.

The magnitude of heat transfer augmentation is largest for

horizontal injection toward the cooling plate (A), and followed

by 45

back-

ward injection (D). Compared to vertical/up injection, horizontal

injection has better mixing effects, and the injection toward

the cooling plate can signicantly increase the wall jet veloc-

ity at the heat transfer surface, which in turn raises heat transfer.

The data for all injection orientations asymptotically approach

1 at low Archimedes number, where heat transfer is dominated

by natural convection. It is found (more clearly for vertical/up

injection) that the experimental data, regardless of the jet diam-

eter, are clustered into groups of trend lines in accordance with

Fig. 2. Effects of injection orientation and jet diameter.

1028 F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032

Fig. 3. Effects of enclosure aspect ratio on heat transfer augmentation.

their injection orientations, which implies that the effect of jet

diameter is weak.

3.2. Effects of enclosure aspect ratio on heat transfer

augmentation

Fig. 3 gives a comparison of the effects of varying the enclo-

sure aspect ratio. Experiments were performed with vertical/up

jet injections in a large enclosure (2.11 m2.27 m2.18 m)

and a tall narrow enclosure (1.30 m2.27 m2.18 m).

It can be seen the heat transfer augmentation increases with

reduction of enclosure aspect ratio. C

J

is equal to 5.9, and 7.7 for

the large enclosure and medium enclosure, respectively. Some

experiments (Kuhn et al., 2002) have shown that the average

velocities in the enclosure induced by jet injection increase with

reduction of enclosure aspect ratio, which can explain these

experimental results. After the buoyant jet reaches the insulated

ceiling, it transforms to a ceiling jet ow spreading out with

decreasing velocity. In a large enclosure, due to the friction,

the ceiling jet ow may dissipate completely before reaching

the vertical cooling plate. In the narrow enclosure, however,

the ceiling jet ow could have sufcient kinetic energy to reach

the corner and then turn down to accelerate the wall jet on the

cooling surface, which will assist heat transfer between air and

cooling plate. So the smaller enclosure can receive higher heat

transfer augmentation.

3.3. Effects of obstructions on heat transfer augmentation

The experimental data from a simplied, empty enclosure

will inevitably be quite different from those from a real contain-

ment with complex pipes, stairways, and other interior structures

that perturb large-scale recirculation ows. To investigate the

effects of structures on heat transfer augmentation, experiments

were performed with some ow obstructions inside the enclo-

sure.

Experiments were rst performed with the jet directly

impinging upon a 4.2-cm diameter cylinder, which was placed

between the jet nozzle and the cooling plate. With this con-

guration, the cylinder experienced large drag forces and thus

extracted substantial momentum from the jet.

If the jet hits a blocking structure such as the cylinder before

reaching the opposite wall, the loss of jet momentum can sig-

nicantly affect the effectiveness of the mixing, and thus reduce

the heat transfer rate. Except for the small region near the jet

exit or impinged surface, the jet will transit to become a fully

developed jet if it does not impinge on a blocking structure. In

this region, the distribution of the streamwise velocity across a

free expanded jet has been given by List (1982):

u(r) = U

C

e

(r/b)

2

(3)

where U

C

is the local streamwise velocity at the centerline and

b the width parameter. The fractional momentum loss due to

impingement on a cylinder can then be evaluated by

M

loss

M

=

2

_

0

C

D

u

2

(r)/2D

t

dr

_

0

u

2

(r)2r dr

(4)

where the drag coefcient is C

D

0.9 in the range of Reynolds

number of the experiments, D

t

the diameter of the blocking tub-

ing, and the air density, assumed to be constant. Integrating

Eq. (4) yields:

M

loss

M

=

C

D

D

t

2b

(5)

For a given self-similar distribution of mean velocity and

pressure, the width parameter b is related to the local jet

expanded diameter d

bj

(List, 1982):

b =

d

bj

2

2

(6)

where d

bj

was given by Peterson and Gamble (1998):

d

bj

= 4

2

T

x +d

bj0

(7)

where

T

is the Taylors jet entrainment constant, typically tak-

ing a value around 0.05, d

bj0

the jet nozzle diameter, and x is the

distance between the jet exit and the obstruction.

Then from Eqs. (5)(7) the fraction of momentum loss can

be estimated in terms of the jet nozzle diameter, blocking tubing

diameter, andthe distance betweenthe jet originandthe blocking

tubing, as

M

loss

M

=

2C

D

D

t

(4

2

T

x +d

bj0

)

(8a)

This equation is only valid in the linear decay region far from

jet exit and cooling plate. In the regions near the jet exit or

cooling surface, the ow eld has large spatial variations that

make it complicated to estimate momentumloss. Eq. (8a) shows

the fraction of jet momentum loss increases with the projected

frontal size of the blocking structure and decreases with the jet

nozzle diameter and the distance from the jet origin.

Fig. 4 shows one of the experimental results. In this experi-

ment, a 2.2 cm i.d. jet nozzle was used and the distance between

the jet exit and the cylinder was 30 cm. The experimental

results were plotted compared to those from non-obstruction

experiments. The heat transfer augmentation decreased due to

the obstruction, giving C

J

=5.5, compared to C

J

=8.5 for non-

obstruction experiment. This can be explained by the effect of

F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032 1029

Fig. 4. Effects of large drag forces on heat transfer augmentation.

the obstruction on the jet Archimedes number. FromEq. (1a) the

heat transfer augmentation is a function of the jet Archimedes

number:

Ar

j

=

Re

2

j

Gr

L

=

2

u

2

j

d

2

bj0

2

Gr

L

(8b)

The jet momentum ux is conserved along the path of the

free jet and can be expressed as

M

d

2

bj0

u

2

j

4

(8c)

Eqs. (8b) and (8c) imply that, if density variation is neglected,

the jet momentumis proportional to the jet Archimedes number:

M

loss

M

Ar

j,loss

Ar

j

(8d)

So the loss of jet momentum due to obstruction will decrease

the jet Archimedes number, and therefore decrease the heat

transfer augmentation.

The interior structures, even though not impinged by jets

directly, can affect the mixed convection in the enclosure as well.

In order to study the degradation of forced convection augmenta-

tion due to the interior structures, 36 horizontal obstruction pipes

were installed in four vertical arrays inside the enclosure, each

array having nine pipes. Experiments were repeated to compare

the results with those from non-obstruction experiments. Fig. 5

shows the heat transfer augmentation decreases by up to 2030%

due to the ow obstructions.

3.4. Steady temperature prole measurements and

BMIX++ code simulation

Stratication is the formation of horizontal layers of constant

density. Stratication exists in a containment atmosphere if the

density of the layers decreases in the upward vertical direction

and if forced convection mixing is not sufciently strong to dis-

rupt the stable uid layers. Based on the derivations provided by

Peterson (1994), a jet or plume is not able to disturb the stable

Fig. 5. Degradation of forced convection augmentation due to obstructions.

vertical stratication if:

Ar

J

16

<<

_

1 +

d

bj0

4

2

T

L

_

2

(9)

In parallel with experimental work, we have developed and

validated the BMIX++ code (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing

code in C++) for predicting transient mixing in stratied enclo-

sures. BMIX++ code is a one-dimensional Lagrangian transient

ow and heat transfer code. It is only used for low Ar

j

cases.

For high Ar

j

, the enclosure is well mixed and can be treated

as a lumped mass. By applying the Zuber scaling methodology

(1991), scaling rules were developed showing that under strat-

ied conditions in an enclosure the governing conservation

equations for mass, momentum, energy and species reduce to

simpler one-dimensional forms (Peterson, 1994)this scaling

provides the coupled, ordinary differential equations that are

solved numerically by BMIX++.

The modeling of mixing and stratication in a large stratied

enclosure consists of two parts: modeling the ambient volume,

which can be calculated using a one-dimensional Lagrangian

method (tracking movable control volumes), and modeling sub-

structures, such as the jets, plumes, and wall boundary ows,

which can be calculated with one-dimensional integral meth-

ods or analytical methods. The two parts are coupled through

entrainment and discharge processes.

In each simulation of the experiments, four basic models are

employed in the BMIX++ code: free buoyant jet, isothermal

wall jet, small vent, and wall conduction models. Some sec-

ondary effects, such as the ceiling jet caused by impingement

of the free buoyant jet, wall jets along insulated vertical walls,

oor jets caused by impingement of the wall jets, and radiation

heat transfer, are neglected and contribute to differences between

experimental and model results. The direct interactions between

jets and walls are not considered because they typically are only

important at higher Ar

j

, where the enclosure is well mixed. A

detailed description of the BMIX++ code can be found in Zhaos

(2003).

Fig. 6 shows the temperature proles for horizontal injection

with different jet inlet temperatures. The hot air was injected

1030 F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032

Fig. 6. Steady temperature proles for experiment and BMIX++ code simula-

tion: horizontal injection.

horizontally into the enclosure from a point near the movable

wall and at different elevations. A series of experiments with

0.14 m inlet diameter and 1/3 H inlet location were simulated

by the BMIX++ code. The cooling plate temperature was kept

at approximately 15.5

at 0.004 kg/s. Two layers exist inside the enclosure: an almost

homogenous cold lower layer and a linear stratied hot upper

layer. The overall agreement between experiment and simulation

is acceptable, but the upper layer shape predicted by the code

has smaller gradient than the experimental shape.

The following neglected phenomena in BMIX++ code may

explain the discrepancy between the experimental results and the

code prediction. The free buoyant jet impinges directly on the

cooling plate. The heat transfer within the impingement zone is

enhanced, but the heat transfer in the region above the impinge-

ment zone is reduced because the upward wall jet driven by the

impinging jet decreases the velocity of the downward natural

boundary ow along the cooling plate. Therefore, the simula-

tion gives higher temperature just above the injection point and

lower temperature for the upper layer relative tothe experimental

data.

3.5. Empirical loss coefcients and recirculation speed

correlation

When a forced jet is injected into an enclosure, it induces a

large-scale recirculating ow due to the entrainment of ambient

uid into the jet. These large-scale ows can augment heat and

mass transfer. Consideration of the strength of this recirculating

ow can allow the heat and mass transfer augmentation to be

predicted. Most of the jet kinetic energy is lost due to:

irreversible entrainment into the injected jet;

turbulent ow losses in the corners;

drag losses over structures;

wall shear along enclosure surfaces.

The loss of jet kinetic energy by entrainment is relatively insensi-

tive to the enclosure geometry, but the other losses depend upon

the speed of the large-scale recirculation ow induced in the

enclosure. The speed of this recirculation ow will adjust until

the rate of kinetic energy injected by the jet is balanced by these

losses. The strength of this recirculating ow can be character-

ized by a velocity scale. Here this characteristic velocity scale

is called the recirculation speed. The recirculation speed can

be evaluated through an enclosure mechanical energy balance.

If compression work is neglected, and the enclosure Reynolds

number is large so that the Reynolds stress work is much larger

than the viscous stress work, a steady-status mechanical energy

conservation equation for the enclosure can be given by

_

S

_

n

_

1

2

u

2

u +p u

__

dS

+

_

V

( u [ u

])dV +

_

V

g( u e

z

) dV = 0 (10)

Eq. (10) permits the recirculation speed for the enclosure to be

dened as

U

2

R

=

1

m

_

V

(u

2

) dV (11)

The mechanical energy uxes entering and leaving the enclo-

sure across its surfaces can be represented by two terms:

_

S

_

n

_

1

2

u

2

u +p u

__

dS = P

E

P

J

(12)

where P

E

is the mechanical energy ux leaving from the enclo-

sure and P

J

is the mechanical energy ux from the break jet.

Likewise, the volumetric mechanical energy sink terms can

be expressed as

_

V

( u [ u

])dV = P

D

+P

W

+

m

k=1

P

S,k

(13)

where P

D

is the mechanical energy dissipated by uid entrain-

ment in the break jet, P

W

the mechanical energy dissipated by

ow losses to the enclosure walls (both shear stress and form

losses in enclosure corners), and P

S,k

is the mechanical energy

dissipated by drag forces from ow over structures k =1 to m.

Neglecting the buoyancy work, Eq. (10) can then be

expressed as

(P

J

P

D

) +P

E

+P

W

+

m

k=1

P

S,k

= 0 (14)

If the jet does not impinge directly upon structures that would

experience large drag forces from the jet, the momentum of the

jet W

J

U

J

is conserved. If the jet does impinge and loses some

momentum, the loss can be treated with an empirical coefcient.

Thus, at the location where entrainment has equilibrated the

jet mechanically with the large-scale recirculating ow, the net

mechanical energy delivered by the jet is

P

J

P

D

=

K

J

(W

J

+W

entrained

)U

2

R

2

=

K

J

W

J

U

J

U

R

2

(15)

where K

J

is an empirical break-jet loss coefcient.

F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032 1031

For ow leaving the enclosure, the energy loss is

P

E

=

W

J

U

2

R

2

(16)

Inside the enclosure, mechanical energy is dissipated by ow

losses to walls and corners, as well as by drag forces due to

ow over structures. For a given enclosure geometry and break

injection orientation, ow losses to walls and corners can be

correlated empirically as

P

W

= K

W

A

W

a

U

3

R

2

(17)

where A

W

is the wall surface area and K

W

an empirical enclosure

loss coefcient.

Flow losses from drag forces due to ow over structures can

be correlated empirically as

P

S,k

= C

D,k

A

S,k

a

U

3

R

2

(18)

where A

S,k

is frontal area (the area projected perpendicular to

the recirculation ow) of structure k and C

D,k

an empirical drag

coefcient.

With Eqs. (14)(18), the enclosure mechanical energy bal-

ance can then be written as

_

K

W

A

W

a

+

m

k=1

C

D,k

A

S,k

a

_

_

U

R

U

J

_

2

+

J

A

J

_

U

R

U

J

_

K

J

J

A

J

= 0 (19)

The second termof above represents the outowenergy loss that

can be neglected under low exit velocity. Then the relationship

between the recirculation speed and jet velocity can be obtained:

U

R

U

J

=

_

K

J

J

A

J

K

W

A

W

a

+

m

k=1

C

D,k

A

S,k

a

_

1/2

(20)

So the recirculation Reynolds number and the jet Reynolds can

be related by

Re

R,L

x

= Re

J,d

L

x

J

2

a

_

K

J

J

K

W

A

W

a

+

m

k=1

C

D,k

A

S,k

a

_

1/2

(21)

The large-scale recirculating ow augments heat transfer to

surfaces in the enclosure, and the strength of recirculating ow

can be used as a parameter for correlating experimental data for

forced-convection augmentation. Similar to Eq. (1a), the heat

transfer augmentation can also be expressed as

Nu

m

Nu

n

= (1 +C

R

Ar

R

)

1/3

(1b)

where the recirculation Archimedes number is dened by

Ar

R

=

Re

2

R

Gr

L

x

(2b)

With Eqs. (1b), (2b), and (21), we can get the newexpression

of the heat transfer augmentation:

Nu

m

Nu

n

=

_

1 +C

R

L

2

x

_

a

_

2

_

K

J

J

K

W

A

W

a

+

m

k=1

C

D,k

A

S,k

a

_

Re

2

J,d

Gr

L

x

_

1/3

(22)

Eq. (22) gives the quantitative effects of injection conditions

and enclosure geometry. K

J

varies from1.0 for jets which do not

impinge upon structures that generate signicant drag forces,

to a value approaching 0 for jets which are introduced into an

enclosure through highly effective momentum diffusers. K

W

is

a function of enclosure aspect ratio. The drag coefcient C

D

is

a function of Reynolds number and can take the empirical value

for ow over cylinders. C

R

is a strong function of the injection

direction.

Here, the empirical loss coefcients are estimated using Eq.

(20) andthe data of heat transfer augmentationobtainedhere. We

rst consider a large enclosure, which does not contain imping-

ing obstructions or interior structures. In this condition, Eq. (22)

can be simplied into:

Nu

m

Nu

n

=

_

1 +C

R

L

2

x

_

a

_

2

_

J

K

W

A

W

a

_

Re

2

J,d

Gr

L

x

_

1/3

(23)

K

W

is constant for the xed aspect ratio and C

R

varies with injec-

tion direction. We can nd values for these parameters which

give the best correlation, using Eq. (23), for the experimental

values of heat transfer augmentation that have been measured.

After nding C

R

for each injection direction, in the same way we

can continue to nd each K

W

by changing enclosure aspect ratio,

K

J

by adding impinging obstructions, and C

D

by adding interior

structures. Table 1 gives optimal values for the loss coefcients

and Figs. 79 give plots of predicted values versus experimental

data of the heat transfer augmentation, which show good agree-

ment. The heat loss from insulated walls was not included in the

experimental data, which made the heat transfer rates obtained

from experimental date consistently less than predicted values.

3.6. Average relative errors

The error analysis for the experiments was performed using

the standard error propagation methods. The relative errors for

all parameters can be calculated from the uncertainties of the

apparatus and instruments used in the measurement. Table 2 lists

Table 1

Optimal values of loss coefcients

Loss coefcients Optimal values

K

J

1.0 (no blocks); 0.3 (4.2 cm o.d. cylinder

a

); 0

(momentum diffusers)

K

W

0.3 (1.7 m2.27 m2.18 m); 0.14

(0.85 m2.27 m2.18 m)

C

D,k

1.2 (2 in. o.d. horizontal tubing)

C

R

300 (0

injection); 100

(90

injection); 65 (180

injection)

a

At 30 cm from the jet outlet.

1032 F. Niu et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 237 (2007) 10251032

Fig. 7. Large enclosure, 0

Fig. 8. Large enclosure, 0

Fig. 9. Large enclosure, 90

Table 2

Average relative errors of major dimensionless parameters

Name Relative error (%)

Jet Reynolds number 3.1

Enclosure Grashof number 8.7

Average Nusselt number (natural convection) 2.9

Average Nusselt number (mixed convection) 28.9

Jet Archimedes number 10.6

Heat transfer augmentation 29.1

the average relative errors of major dimensionless parameters

used in the experiments.

4. Conclusions

The experimental studies have investigated heat transfer

under combined natural and forced convection with a variety of

jet injection modes. The heat transfer augmentation by forced

jets is controlled by jet Archimedes number, uid properties,

injection orientation, ow obstructions, and enclosure aspect

ratio. The experimental data are well correlated by developed

correlations. The strength of the recirculating ow inside the

enclosure can be characterized by the recirculation speed. The

optimal empirical loss coefcients in the correlation of heat

transfer augmentation were selected, and based on the selected

parameters, the predicted heat transfer augmentation values

agree well with experimental data. For buoyant jets (low Ar

j

)

the steadystratiedtemperature distributions inside anenclosure

can be predicted by BMIX++ code simulation.

Acknowledgements

Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Depart-

ment of Energy(DOE) under the NEERResearchGrant Program

and by Westinghouse Electric Company, as part of the research

to improve understanding of mixing and heat transfer augmenta-

tion by buoyant and forced jets in reactor containments. The rst

author gratefully acknowledges all the members in the Thermal-

Hydraulics Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering,

University of California at Berkeley, who provided so much kind

help and made construction of the experimental facility possible.

References

Fox, R.J., et al., 1992. Temperature distribution in pools with shallow buoyant

jets. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear

Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-5), September 2124, Salt Lake

City, Utah, pp. 12271234.

Incropera, F.P., Dewitt, D.P., 1996. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer.

John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 515516.

Kuhn, S.Z., Kang, H.K., Peterson, P.F., 2002. Study of mixing and augmentation

of natural convection heat transfer by a forced jet in a large enclosure. J. Heat

Transfer 124 (4), 660666.

List, E.J., 1982. Turbulent jets and plumes. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 14, 189212.

Peterson, P.F., Rao, I.J., Schrock, V.E., 1991. Transient Thermal Stratication

in Pools with Shallow Buoyant Jets, Symposium on Nuclear Reactor Ther-

mal Hydraulics. In: Hassan, Y.A., Hochreiter, L.E. (Eds.), Nuclear Reactor

Thermal Hydraulics, HTD-Vol. 190, ASME, New York, pp. 5562.

Peterson, P.F., 1994. Scaling and analysis of mixing in large stratied volumes.

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37 (1), 97106.

Peterson, P.F., Gamble, R., 1998. Scaling for forced-convection augmentation

of heat and mass transfer in large enclosures by injected jets. Trans. Am.

Nucl. Soc. 78, 265266.

Smith, B.L., et al., 1992. Analysis of single-phase mixing experiments in open

pools. Thermal Hydraulics of Advanced and Special Purpose Reactors,

ASME HTD-Vol. 209, pp. 91100.

Zhao, H., 2003. Computation of mixing in large stably stratied enclosures.

Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.

Zuber, N., 1991. An Integrated Structure and Scaling Methodology for Severe

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