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A Naming service performs lookups of stored information, such as: • Host names and addresses • User names • Passwords • Access permissions • Group membership, automount maps, and so on This information is made available so that users can log in to their host, access resources, and be granted permissions. The name service information can be stored locally in various forms of database files, or in a central network-based repository or database. Without a central naming service, each host would have to maintain its own copy of this information. Naming service information can be stored in files, maps, or database tables. If you centralize all data, administration becomes easier. Naming services are fundamental to any computing network. Among other features, naming services provide functionality that does the following. • Associates (binds) names with objects • Resolves names to objects • Removes bindings • Lists names • Renames information A network information service enables systems to be identified by common names instead of numerical addresses. This makes communication simpler because users do not have to remember and try to enter cumbersome numerical addresses like 192.168.0.0. For example, take a network of three systems that are named, pine, elm, and oak. Before pine can send a message to either elm or oak, pine must know their numerical network addresses. For this reason, pine keeps a file, /etc/inet/hosts, that stores the network address of every system in the network, including itself.
instead of updating each client's local file. . Although the main purpose of a network information service is to centralize information. The following figure illustrates the client-server arrangement. an administrator updates only the information stored by the network information service. Doing so reduces errors.168. mail data. As a result.0. Sales and Manufacturing (Manf). assume your company has set up a network which is connected to the Internet. which can be queried by any system. This arrangement.com. is known as client-server computing. of a server providing centralized services to clients across a network. so its network is divided into a main network and one subnet for each division.0 and the domain name example. the list stored of information grows. systems store security information. In addition to storing addresses. Each net has its own address. For example. the network information service can also simplify network names. the systems must keep similar files.Likewise. A network information service stores network information on a server. Whenever information about the network changes. network services information and so on. each system might keep an entire set of files that are similar to /etc/inet/hosts. inconsistencies between clients. in order for elm and oak to communicate with pine or with each other. The Internet has assigned your network the network address 192. As networks offer more services. Your company has two divisions. and the sheer size of the task. The systems are known as clients of the server.
Instead of addressing mail or other network communications to 198. as shown above.3. Clients C4. Instead of addressing mail to 192. Clients C1. C5. The physical network would then no longer parallel the corporate structure.com Network Network Address Network Name Server Clients 192. Table 1-1 Representation of example. .Each division could be identified by its network address. Names are also more flexible than physical addresses.com network is supported by three servers. but company organization tends to change. C6 Now.168. but did not create a third subnet.com.com or manf.0 sales. Testing. which borrowed some resources from the other two divisions.example.com 192.168. C5.2. C3 192. mail could be addressed to sales. and S3.168. mail could be addressed to example. Assume that two of those servers.3.168.com S3 C4.example.168.example.0. The resulting network is summarized in the following table. C2. S2. and C3 would obtain their network information from server S2. The table is a generalized representation of that network but does not resemble an actual network information map. S1.example.2. C2.com S2 C1.168.0 or 192. assume that you create a third division. and C6 would obtain information from server S3.com. but descriptive names made possible by naming services would be preferable.0. assume that the example. S2 and S3.0 S1 example.0 manf.1. Physical networks tend to remain stable. For example. support clients.0.
Thus. Subsequent changes in your organization would be accommodated by changes to the network information structure without reorganizing the network structure. C3. clients C1 and C2 would obtain their information from server S2. but would instead be split between 192. its network information service can change its mapping as shown here. . and C5 obtain information from server S3. However.2. Now. with a network information service.168.0. when an organization changes.0 and 192. the Test Division traffic could have its own dedicated network.Traffic for the Test Division would not have its own subnet.168. C4.3.
DNS names are assigned through the Internet Registries by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). These contain the bulk of the DNS information and are superceded by RFCs 1535-1537.com and 3Com. and the system is the data structure and data itself. resolver 2. Read RFCs 1034 and 1035. The service is the act of querying the database. The domain name system database is divided into sections called zones. Naming hosts within the domain is up to individuals administer their domain. A zone is a subtree of DNS and is administered separately. A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) consists of the host name plus domain name as in the following example: computername.domain. Host names are not case sensitive and can contain alphabetic or numeric letters or the hyphen. Avoid the underscore. The domain name is a name assigned to an internet domain. For example. A name server may be authoritative for more than one zone. The resolver will send requests to the name servers to return information requested by the user.DNS(Domain Name Service) Host Names Domain Name Service (DNS) is the service used to convert human readable names of hosts to IP addresses. The nameserver answers the queries. Access to the Domain name database is through a resolver which may be a program or part of an operating system that resides on users workstations.com The part of the system sending the queries is called the resolver and is the client side of the configuration. mycollege. The Domain Name System is used to provide information to the Domain Name Service to use when queries are made. The name servers in their respective zones are responsible for answering queries for their zones. Three main components of DNS 1. In Unix the resolver is accessed by using the library functions "gethostbyname" and "gethostbyaddr". but most are less. name server 3. The Domain Name System is similar to a file system in Unix or DOS starting with a root. The names microsoft. Naming is in RFC 1591.edu represents the domain name of an educational institution. There are multiple name servers for a zone. Each label can be 63 characters long. The requesting computer tries to . with the total domain name (all the labels) limited to 255 bytes in overall length. Each branch in the DNS is called a label. Branches attach to the root to create a huge set of paths. database of resource records(RRs) Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is basically a large database which resides on various computers and it contains the names and IP addresses of various hosts on the internet and various domains. The main function of DNS is the mapping of IP addresses to human readable names. There is usually one primary nameserver and one or more secondary name servers.com represent the domain names at those commercial companies. Each text word between the dots can be 63 characters in length.
Any other organization not previously listed.S.".Educational body.Government body. Each branch moves down from level to level. Note that any name ending in a ". they are referred to from the bottom up with the root designator (period) at the far right. Military. the assigned top-level domains in the U. Example: "mymachine. .Networks COM . EDU . Outside this list are top level domains for various countries.connect to the name server using its IP address rather than the name. Structure and message format The drawing below shows a partial DNS hierarchy.mycompany. It is designated with a period. DNS is hierarchical in structure.com. are: • • • • • • • GOV . Each node on the domain name system is separated by a ".Commercial entity. A domain is a subtree of the domain name space.".com. MIL ." is an absolute domain name since it goes back to root.U. Example: "myhost.". From the root. INT . ORG . S.International organization NET . At the top is what is called the root and it is the start of all other branches in the DNS tree.mycompany. When referring to DNS addresses.
A. query type and query class. Time to live field .variable 96-?? lengths Answers . The answers. They include NS. if truncated. 1. Class . The query types are listed in the table below. 5.DNS Message format: Bits 0-15 16-31 Name Identification Flags Description Used to match responses to requests. Tells if query or response. etc.The number of seconds the RR is saved by the client. The query class is normally 1 for internet address. Question format includes query name.Normally indicates internet data which is a 1. type of query. The query name is the name being looked up. If the type is "A" the data is a 4 byte IP address. Domain name Type . host identified by an alias domain name Host's domain name. Answers are variable numbers of resource records. Set by client and returned by server. 4. A. 32-47 Number of questions 48-63 Number of answer RRs 64-79 Number of authority RRs 80-95 Number of additional RRs Questions .variable ??-?? lengths Authority . CNAME. The data is dependent on its type such as CNAME. host identified by its IP address Host information Host's or domain's mail exchanger Request for zone transfer Request for all records .One of the RR codes listed below.variable ??-?? lengths Additional Information ??-?? variable lengths There can be variable numbers of questions sent. 2. The table below shows resource record types: Type A NS CNAME PTR HINFO MX AXFR ANY RR value 1 2 5 12 13 15 252 255 Description Host's IP address Host's or domain's name server(s) Host's canonical name. 3. if authoritative answer. and if recursion is available. authority and additional information are in resource record (RR) format which contains the following. Resource data length specifies the amount of data. NS or others as shown in the table below. if recursion desired.
it must transmit other queries to find the specified name. Reverse lookup entries for a network 192. A server can transmit either type of query. The root name server is the starting point to find any domain on the Internet.192. Any updates to the database are provided by the primary. Reverse . DNS Query Types There are two types of queries issued: 1.168. It is a non-authoritative server. called zone or database files. a server-to-server query is iterative and a client-resolver-to-server query is recursive.Usage and file formats If a domain name is not found when a query is made. common resource record types in the DNS database are: . Iterative queries allow the server to search for the information and pass back the best information it knows about. or return the address of a name server that the workstation can query to get more information.It gets all its answers to queries from other name servers and saves (caches) the answers. This is the type that is used between servers. We should also note that a server can be queried or it can be the person placing a query. DNS Transport protocol DNS resolvers first attempt to use UDP for transport. Therefore. Secondary masters can provide information to resolvers just like the primary masters.0 is "100. Generally (but not always). the server may search for the name elsewhere and return the information to the requesting workstation. then use TCP if UDP fails. 2. but they get their information from the primary. Therefore. The name server reads these files and builds a database for the zone it is authoritative for. Caching name server . 3. Clients used the recursive query.168. In other queries the name is provided.The client provides the IP address and asks for the name. Name Server Types There are three types of name servers: 1. If it is handed a recursive query from a remote source.100. They do not contain all information about every host on the Internet. These are known as root name servers. but they do provide direction as to where domains are located (the IP address of the name server for the uppermost domain a server is requesting). There are special servers on the Internet that provide guidance to all name servers. A DNS Server that can communicate outside of the private network to resolve a DNS name query is referred to as forwarder. The DNS Database A database is made up of records and the DNS is a database. 2.in-addr arpa". Recursive queries received by a server forces that server to find the information requested or post a message back to the querier that the information cannot be found. or send a message back to the originator of the query that the name could not be found. The primary master builds its database from files that were preconfigured on its hosts. and the IP address is returned to the client. 3. a server contains both the server and client functions. The caching only name server generates no zone transfer traffic.
Each computer must have this record for its IP address to be located. or name server. with the remaining parts of the FQDN. is called the primary master server. • MX . which stores recent requests like a proxy server. named files normally found in the /etc directory are found in /var/named/chroot/etc directory instead.com or . you must understand some basic DNS concepts. or just master server. Secondary servers retrieve information about the zone through a zone transfer from the master server or from another secondary server.• A .example.Indicates authority for the domain • TXT . It otherwise refers to other DNS servers.Service location record • RP . DNS information about a zone is never modified directly on the secondary server chroot features chroot feature is run named as user named. The entire hostname with its domain such as server.Host’s or domain’s name server(s). Therefore. the . These names are not assigned for clients that have dynamically assigned IP addresses.Host's IP address. but are a must for locating servers with static IP addresses. Before configuring BIND to create a DNS server. The authoritative server that contains the master zone file.Host’s or domain’s mail exchanger. These sub-domains are used to divide FQDNs into zones. being sub-domains. The additional name servers for the zone are called secondary servers or slave servers. • A caching-only DNS server.Host’s canonical name allows additional names or aliases to be used to locate a computer. which refers all requests to other DNS servers. The advantage of the chroot feature is that if a hacker enters your system via a BIND exploit. which relies on a master DNS server for data. When installed. is used to resolve an IP address to a hostname or vice versa. • PTR .Responsible person • HINFO . • NS . The right-most part of the FQDN such as . You can set up four different types of DNS servers: • A master DNS server for your domain(s). • SOA . which are separated by periods. • A slave DNS server. When a resolver requests information from the server. and it also limit the files named can see. with the DNS information for each zone being maintained by at least one authoritative name server. which can be modified to update DNS information about the zone. Address record allowing a computer name to be translated into an IP address. • A forwarding-only DNS server.com is called a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).Generic text record • SRV . named is fooled into thinking that the directory /var/named/chroot is actually the root or / directory. How to configure dns server in Linux A DNS server. host identified by its IP address • CNAME .net is called the top level domain. and those you would expect to find in /var/named are actually located in /var/named/chroot/var/named.Host information record with CPU type and operating system. which stores authoritative records for your domain. the DNS query message indicates one of the preceding types.Host’s domain name.
hacker's access to the rest of your system is isolated to the files under the chroot directory and nothing else.0. Instead of named.example. Further we will set the location of forward zone and reverse lookup zone files. Configure dns server In this example we will configure a dns server and will test from client side. We can also do editing in this file after changing its name to named. bind and caching-nameserver rpm is required to configure dns.com and ip address to 192. set hostname to server. For this example we are using three systems one linux server one linux clients and one window clients.conf a sample file /var/named/chroot/etc/named. In our example we are creating a new named.conf to configure master dns server or you can manually create a new named. This file is use to make a caching only name server.conf is created. check them for install if not found install them. Or do editing exactly as shown here in image . This type of security is also known as a chroot jail.caching-nameserver. By default this file is not created in /var/named/chroot/etc/ directory. Set directory location to /var/named.conf file.conf.conf file We are using bind's chroot features so all our necessary files will be located in chroot directory.168.254 main configuration file for dns server is named.
We will use two sample files for creating these files.arpa for reverse zone.com.save this file with :wq and exit Configure zone file We have defined two zone files example.168.zone for forward zone and 0.conf Now open forward zone file example. These files will be store in /var/named/chroot/var/named/ location.zone By default this file will look like this Change this file exactly as shown in image below .192. Change directory to /var/named/chroot/var/named and copy the sample files to name which we have set in named.in-addr.com.
html .comptechdoc. REFERENCES: • • http://www.192.Now open reverse lookup zone file 0.org/independent/networking/guide/netdns.arpa By default this file will look like this Change this file exactly as shown in image below Now changed the ownership of these zone files to named group Now start the named service If service restart without any error means you have successfully configured master name server .168.html http://computernetworkingnotes.com/linux-network-administrations/dns-server.in-addr.
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